|Regions with significant populations|
|Portuguese, a small minority having some mastery of Kimbundu, Umbundu, Kikongo, and other Bantu languages|
|Christianity (predominantly Roman Catholic)|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Portuguese people, Portuguese Brazilian, Brazilians, Portuguese Africans|
In 1482, Portuguese caravels commanded by Diogo Cão arrived in the Congo. Other expeditions followed, and close relations were soon established between the two states. The Portuguese brought firearms and many other technological advances, as well as a new religion (Christianity); in return, the King of the Congo offered plenty of slaves, ivory, and minerals.
The Portuguese colony of Angola was founded in 1575 with the arrival of Paulo Dias de Novais with a hundred families of colonists and four hundred soldiers. Luanda was granted the status of city in 1605.. Some Portuguese settlers married native Africans resulting in a mixed-race (mulato, later generally called mestiço) population. Angola was declared a formal Portuguese province in the 19th century, but only in the early 20th century did the mainland government allow large-scale white emigration and settlement to Angola and its other provinces.
In the 1960s, Angola had up to 300,000 Portuguese settlers, who significantly contributed to its economy. As the Angolan war of independence began in 1961, triggering off a late colonial development of Angola, there was an influx of Portuguese military personnel, as well as civil servants and other people. As a consequence, the number of Portuguese living in Angola went up to about 350,000. This number would have been higher, had a significant part of the settlers not left for other countries, especially Namibia, Brazil, South Africa and the United States. While most whites then living in Angola sided with Portugal's efforts to suppress the anti-colonial revolt, a minority sympathized with the nationalist movements, and a few even joined them in their fight. When the Salazar regime in Portugal was abolished by a military coup in Portugal, in 1974, and independence was granted to the colonies by the new government, whites overwhelmingly left Angola after independence in 1975. Most of them went to Portugal, where they were called retornados and were not always welcomed, while others moved to neighboring Namibia (then a South African territory), South Africa or Brazil, or United States.
Among the departed Portuguese civilians, many were allowed to take with them only a single suitcase and 150 escudos, with all household goods left in their respective houses, while most of them were able to dispatch their household goods and even cars by ship. They boarded planes at Luanda's Craveiro Lopes Airport at the rate of 500 a day, but there were not enough flights to cover demand. The new government gave all remaining Portuguese settlers a few months period to choose Angolan citizenship or to leave the country. A significant minority of them opted for Angola, and some of them took actively part in the decolonisation conflict and in the [Angolan Civil War], generally on the side of the MPLA.
After Angola abandoned in 1991 the socialist regime adopted at independence in 1975, many Portuguese Angolans returned to Angola. Due to Angola's economic boom, which started in the 1990s, an increasing number of Portuguese without previous attachment to Angola have migrated to Angola for economic reasons, most importantly the recent national economic boom. As of 2008, Angola was the preferred destination for Portuguese migrants in Africa. Portuguese nationals numbered an estimated 120,000 in 2011, reaching about 200,000 in 2013.
Notable Angolan people of Portuguese descent include:
- Artur Pestana called Pepetela, writer
- Paulo Figueiredo, footballer
- Ricardo Teixeira, racing driver
- José Eduardo Agualusa, writer
- Luandino Vieira, writer
- Ana Paula Ribeiro Tavares writer, historian
- Francisco Santos, artist
Language and Religion
Their native language is of course Portuguese, which today is the official language and lingua franca of Angola. Their communities existing in Luanda, Benguela and Moçâmedes (today Namibe) spoke until the early 20th-century European (in Benguela: Brazilian) Portuguese mixed with numerous elements from African languages, especially Kimbundu and Umbundu. In the course of the 20th century, due to the waves of new settlers arriving from Portugal, their language became practically identical with European Portuguese. Some Portuguese Angolans have a lesser or greater mastery of one of the Bantu languages – notably Kimbundu, Umbundu, and Kikongo – but their number has diminished dramatically after independence, and hardly anybody now uses an African langua as second languages. Many educated Portuguese Angolans learnt French and, less intensely, English during the colonial period; since independence, white as well as black educated people generally learn English, while French has faded into the background. The vast majority of Portuguese Angolans are Christians, mostly Roman Catholics, although many of them do not practice their religion. A very small number of them are Jews, whose ancestors escaped the Inquisition.
- "José Eduardo dos Santos diz que trabalhadores portugueses são bem-vindos em Angola". Observatório da Emigração. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
…presença de cerca de 200 mil trabalhadores portugueses no país…
- Contrary to the settlers which often had lived in Angola for two or even three generations, the Portuguese arriving during the last phase of colonial occupation did not become identified with Angola.
- Gerald J.Bender & P. Stanley Yoder, "Whites in Angola on the Eve of Independence", Africa Today', 21 (4) 1974, pp. 23 - 37
- For an outstanding example see Pepetela
- Portuguese Immigration (History)
- MOZAMBIQUE: Dismantling the Portuguese Empire
- , Radio Televisão Portuguesa, September 13, 2008
- Flight from Angola, The Economist, August 16, 1975