Plagiocephaly

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Plagiocephaly
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 Q67.3
ICD-9 754.0
DiseasesDB 29858

Plagiocephaly, also known as flat head syndrome,[1][2] is a condition characterized by an asymmetrical distortion (flattening of one side) of the skull. It is characterized by a flat spot on the back or one side of the head caused by remaining in a supine position for too long.[3]

Plagiocephaly is the word that is used to describe a diagonal asymmetry across the head shape. This word particularly describes a flattening which is to one side at the back of the head and there is often some facial asymmetry. Brachycephaly describes a very wide head shape with a flattening across the whole back of the head.

Causes[edit]

Slight Plagiocephaly is routinely diagnosed at birth and may be the result of a restrictive intrauterine environment giving a "diamond" shaped head when seen from above. If there is premature union of skull bones, this is more properly called craniosynostosis.[citation needed]

The incidence of plagiocephaly has increased dramatically since the advent of anti-Sudden Infant Death Syndrome recommendations for parents to keep their babies on their backs.[4] Treatments range from a simple repositioning of babies below the age of 5 months to more involved treatment with a helmet for children under the age of 18 months.[3]

Prognosis[edit]

Preliminary research indicates that babies with plagiocephaly tend to have learning difficulties later on in school.[5] Other studies suggest that there is no evidence to suggest that plagiocephaly is harmful to brain development, vision, or hearing.[4]

Prevention[edit]

Following tools and therapy could serve as an effective and safe treatment modality on managing this development disorder such as:

  1. Tummy time.
  2. Specialist baby mattress
  3. Special Designed weight distribution baby pillow.[6][7]
  4. Specially designed infant headwear with a support roll which ensures the head is positioned correctly and can be adjusted every few hours. This eliminates any potential flat spots and prevents them in the critical early growth stages of the child's life.[8]

Treatment[edit]

The condition will sometimes improve as the baby grows, but in many cases, treatment can significantly improve the shape of a baby’s head. Initially, treatment usually takes the form of reducing the pressure on the affected area through repositioning of the baby onto his or her abdomen for extended periods of time throughout the day.[citation needed]

Other treatments include repositioning the child's head throughout the day so that the rounded side of the head is placed dependent against the mattress, repositioning cribs and other areas that infants spend time in so that they will have to look in a different direction to see their parents, or others in the room, repositioning mobiles and other toys for similar reasons, and avoiding extended time sleeping in car-seats (when not in a vehicle), bouncy seats, or other supine seating which is thought to exacerbate the problem. If the child appears to have discomfort or cries when they are repositioned, they may have a problem with the neck.[9]

If this is unsuccessful, treatment using a cranial remolding orthosis (baby helmet) can help to correct abnormal head shapes. These helmets are used to treat deformational plagiocephaly, brachycephaly, scaphocephaly and other head shape deformities in infants 3–18 months of age. For years, infants have been successfully treated with cranial remolding orthoses.[10]

Studies by scientists in the Netherlands have found there was no significant difference over time between infants treated with helmets and infants left untreated. All parents of infants treated with helmets confirmed negative side effects including skin irritation and sweating.[11][12] This study focused only on patients with mild to moderate cases, the participation rate was only 21%, and there was a 73% reporting of fitting issues,[13] calling into question the validity of the study. Incorrectly fit devices cannot be expected to yield results. Additionally, independent published research that examined the effectiveness of helmet therapy conclude that as many as 95% of patients demonstrate an improvement in head shape symmetry following helmet therapy, and the American Orthotics and Prosthetics Association (AOPA) has serious concerns about the relevance and validity of this study.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kadom, Nadja; Sze, Raymond W. (2010). "Radiological Reasoning: A Child with Posterior Plagiocephaly". American Journal of Roentgenology 194 (3 Suppl): WS5–9. doi:10.2214/AJR.07.7121. PMID 20173180. 
  2. ^ "Doctor Finds Success In Treating Infants With Flat-Head Syndrome". CBS Los Angeles. April 30, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Laughlin, J.; Luerssen, T. G.; Dias, M. S.; Committee On Practice Ambulatory Medicine (2011). "Prevention and Management of Positional Skull Deformities in Infants". Pediatrics 128 (6): 1236–41. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-2220. PMID 22123884. 
  4. ^ a b "Plagiocephaly and related cranial deformities". Pediatric Views. Children's Hospital Boston. April 2010. Archived from the original on June 22, 2011. Retrieved November 11, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Flat-headed babies may face learning problems". CBC News. December 3, 2010. 
  6. ^ Ohman, Anna (2013). "A specially designed pillow may be used as treatment for young infants with developmental plagiocephaly". Health 05 (12): 2064–7. doi:10.4236/health.2013.512280. 
  7. ^ Ohman, Anna (2014). "A specially designed pillow Can Decrease Developmental Plagiocephaly in Young Infants". Health (6): 1092–1098. doi:10.4236/health.2014.611135. 
  8. ^ "Early Interventions". Tortle Head Repositioning Systems. Tortle Midliner. 
  9. ^ Persing, J.; James, H.; Swanson, J.; Kattwinkel, J.; American Academy Of Pediatrics Committee On Practice Ambulatory Medicine (2003). "Prevention and Management of Positional Skull Deformities in Infants". Pediatrics 112 (1 Pt 1): 199–202. doi:10.1542/peds.112.1.199. PMID 12837890. 
  10. ^ Robinson, S; Proctor, M (April 2009). "Diagnosis and management of deformational plagiocephaly". J Neurosurg Pediatr 3 (4): 284–95. doi:10.3171/2009.1.PEDS08330. PMID 19338406. 
  11. ^ Briggs, Helen (2 May 2014). "Baby helmets 'have no added value', study finds". BBC News. 
  12. ^ Wijk, Renske M van; Vlimmeren, Leo A van; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G M; Van der Ploeg, Catharina P B; IJzerman, Maarten J; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M (2014). "Helmet therapy in infants with positional skull deformation: randomised controlled trial". BM 348: g2741. doi:10.1136/bmj.g2741. 
  13. ^ "[1]", British Medical Journal". Retrieved 2nd May, 2014.
  14. ^ [2] AOPA Response to British Medical Journal Study