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The idea of time-bound positive commandments (Hebrew מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא, mitzvot asei she'hazman grama) are those positive commandments that may be fulfilled only within certain periods of time. This concept exists within Judaism.
While the Torah generally applies equally to all Jews, there are certain limitations to the application of the religious commandments, known in Hebrew as mitzvot. Among the 613 enumerated biblical commandments, there are both positive as well as negative commandments. All Jews are duty bound to adhere to the restrictions as legislated by the negative commandments. Among positive commandments, however, there is a group of commandments known as positive time-bound commandments for which men are obligated but from which women are generally exempt, although there are certain exceptions. Both men and women are completely obligated for the positive non-time bound commandments (Mishnah Kiddushin 1:7).
There are seven commandments from which female Jews are exempt:
- Listening to the shofar on Rosh Hashanah
- Sitting in the sukkah on Sukkot
- Taking of the four species on Sukkot
- Wearing tzitzit, specially knotted ritual fringes worn by observant Jews
- Wearing tefillin, phylacteries.
- Saying Shema in the morning and the evening
- Counting of the Omer