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Order (Russian: прика́з, prikaz; IPA: [prʲɪˈkas] ( )) was an administrative (palace, civil, military, or church), judicial, territorial, and executive offices earlier in Muscovy and Russia of 15th-18th centuries. The term is usually implies "ministry", "office" or "department". In modern Russian "prikaz" literally means an order.
Most of orders were subordinated to the Boyar Duma. Some of them (Palace Orders (дворцовые приказы)) were subordinated to the Tayny Prikaz, or Privy order that answered directly to Tsar. Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia had his own orders.
There was a large number (up to 60) of specialized orders. Their set varied over time.
Approximate list of Russian orders
- Foreign affairs
- Ambassadorial Order (Posolsky Prikaz) was in charge of international affairs, a kind of a Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
- Captive Order, (Polonyanichy Prikaz from archaic Russian: полон, плен 'polon', 'plen' means captive) redemption of Russian captives, prisoners of war
- Order of Pan (Panskiy Prikaz) - office of Poland affairs
- Order of the Seal (Pechatny Prikaz) was an office that placed the Tsar's seal on various documents that granted various things to private persons, and collected the corresponding duties.
- Stone Order (Kamennyi Prikaz)
- Courier Order (Yamskoy Prikaz)
- Book prinitng Order
- Order of hospices constructing
- Pharmaceutical Order (Aptekarskiy prikaz)
- Monk Order (Monasheskiy Prikaz)
- Judicial Orders
- Military Orders
- Order of Riflemen (Streletsky Prikaz)
- Artillery Order, (Pushkarsky Prikaz)
- Order of Admiral, (Admiralteysky Prikaz)
- Order of Cossacks (Cossak Prikaz)
- Armored Order (Bronniy Prikaz)
- Conscription Order (Prikaz sbora ratnykh i datochnykh lydei (Russian: сбора ратных и даточных людей)
- Orderof foreign lands (Inozemsky Prikaz)
- Arsenal Orders (Oruzheiniy Prikaz)
- Order of German feeds: probably, paid a salary to foreigners ('Germans') at Russian military or state service
- Ritter order
- Financial Orders
- Domestic Order (Pomestny Prikaz)
- Accounting Order
- Order of Grand treasury
- Order of Grand income
- Order of reception ceremonies (Chelobitny Prikaz) considered complaints at the name of Tzar; word chelobitnaya Russian: челобитная translated as beating by a forehead, that means to bow low. Standard form of such complaint included words "Slave of God ... (or : 'Your kholop (slave)') is beating by a forehead", or "Slaves and orphans are beating by a foreheads".
- Privy Order (Prikaz tainyh del)
- Robbery order (Razboiniy Prikas ) criminal police
- Order of Investigations (Sysknoy prikaz)
- Regional Orders
- Little Russia, Ministry of the Ukrainian (Malorossiya) Affairs
- Kazan (Казанский приказ, Приказ Казанского дворца, Kazan Palace Order), Volga Region (Поволжье) Affairs (South-West of Russia, territories of Kazan Khanate)
- Great Russia
- Grand Duchy of Lithuania
- Smolensk (was disbanded due to Poland's conquest of Smolensk. With returning to Russia this order was restored)
- Livonia Affairs
- Novgorod quarter
- Vladimir quarter
- Ustug quarter
- Kostroma quarter
- Galich quarter
- Smolensk quarter
- Palace Orders
- Orders of Stables Konyushenny Prikaz
- Palace Order (Dvortsovyi Prikaz)
- Order of Stone palace (Prikaz kamennogo dvortsa)
- Order of gold and silver affairs
- Order of requiem (Panihydniy prikaz) requiems at members of tzar family
- Patriarchal Orders
- Patriarch order-in-charge
- Patriarch Treasury Prder
- Patriarch Palace Order
- Order-in-charge (Razryadny Prikaz) was in charge of military and civil administration higher personnel.
- Order of enslaved (Kholopskiy Prikaz) - considered affairs of slaves (kholops)
Orders appeared from some private orders (Russian: приказ, prikaz) to do something, given by tzar to some persons. At some cases new orders have a name of this person (Order of clerk (dyak) Vakhromeyev, where 'Vakhromeyev' is a last name).
From 1512 word 'order' is starting to be used as a name of some constant office.
Differences from modern ministry system
- In Muscovy weren't aware of separation of powers, so some orders were judicial. In fact, this system was a mix of all three branches of the state;
- Some orders were regional, performing tasks of local authorities. Territorial administrative division of Muscovy at this epoch was developed weakly. In fact, large territory was divided at only 4 quarters (Russian: чети), later 5 1/5 parts (Russian: пятины), their territories were mixed, and part of one of such divisions could be enclave at another one;
- Later Russian historians are describing separation of responsibilities between different orders as chaotic; some problem can be at responsibility of several different orders at one time. Quantity of orders was very big; their total number during all time of their existence is unknown;
- Making of decisions was concentrated at the head of each order;
- Some orders was established to perform some order ("prikaz") of tzar and, when this order was done, they were disbanded. So, some orders were rather short-living;
- One order can be subordinated to another one.
Classification of order system is very difficult task. In fact, each major historian try to build his own classification. Major variants can be: orders of some territory, of some class of population, of some kind of affairs. Other way of classification - to rank orders by subordination.
The orders were abolished by Peter the Great and replaced, beginning in 1717, with administrative organs known as collegiate. This process took a rather long time; Siberian Order, for example, was restored at 1730 and existed till 1755. At the beginning of 18th century Peter the Great even established some new orders. This system was eliminated finally only at Catherine the Great at 1755. Later Russian historians are describing this, as replacing complicated and chaotic system of several dozens orders to clear and simple system of 12 collegiate.