Post-disco

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Post-disco
Stylistic origins Urban (namely funk, soul), experimental, disco, electronic, dub
Cultural origins Late 1970s – early 1980s; New York City, Miami, Montréal, London
Typical instruments Synthesizers, drum machines, sequencers, vocals, keyboards, samplers
Derivative forms Dance-pop, Italo-disco, dance-rock, dance-punk, freestyle
Subgenres
Boogie
Other topics
Artists, rare groove, electro, garage house, Chicago house, post-punk, Disco Demolition Night

Post-disco (sometimes called club music or dance)[1] refers to a disco music movement characterized by the heavy use of keyboard instruments, and more specifically, to a historically significant period in popular music history beginning with the backlash against disco music in the United States in the late 1970s and ending with the mainstream appearance of house music in late 1980s.[2][3]

The stripped-down musical trends followed from the DJ- and producer-driven, increasingly electronic and experimental side of disco,[4][5] and were typified by the styles of dance-pop,[1][6] boogie,[5] Italo disco and the early alternative dance.[5]

Techno and house music are both rooted in post-disco.[1][7][8][9][10][11]

Characteristics[edit]

Synthesizers played a crucial part in the development of post-disco.

Unlike disco music, post-disco usually lacked the typical string orchestration and featured more drum machines, synthesizers, sequencers and 4/4 time signature commonly found in rock and pop music. Soulful female vocals, however, remained an essence of post-disco. The main force in post-disco were mainly one-hit wonders and short-lived collaborations, while record producers played a significant role in post-disco in general. The music that mostly catered to dance and urban audiences later managed to influence more popular and mainstream acts like Madonna, New Order or Pet Shop Boys.[3]

Term usage[edit]

The term "post-disco" was used as early as 1984 by Cadence Magazine when defining post-disco soul as "disco without the loud bass-drum thump."[12] New York Magazine used the word in an article appearing in the December 1985 issue; it was Gregory Hines's introduction of post-disco and electronic funk to Russian-American dance choreographer Mikhail Baryshnikov "who has never heard this kind of music."[13] "Post-disco" is also an Allmusic editorial contributor's attempt to isolate a music genre in the era between the indistinct "end" of disco music and the equally indistinct emergence of house music.[5]

History[edit]

Background events[edit]

Disco music backlash had started around 1977.

America[edit]

Midwesterners didn't want that intimidating [disco] style shoved down their throats[14]Steve Dahl

Shortly after the "Disco Sucks" movement of disco bashing throughout the United States, American radio stations began to pay attention to other popular formats of music such as reggae, punk rock and/or New Wave while top mainstream labels and record companies like Casablanca, TK Records or RSO went bankrupt. Since disco music had been on the way of [its] electronic progression, it split itself into subscenes and styles like Hi-NRG, freestyle, italo-disco and boogie.[3][14] The last one is closely associated with post-disco more than any other offshoots of post-disco.[15][16]

A watershed album of post-disco was Michael Jackson's Off The Wall, produced by Quincy Jones, which helped establish a direction of R&B/dance music and influenced many young producers who were interested in this kind of new music.[17] Other examples of early American R&B-influenced post-disco artists are Rick James, Change and Teena Marie.[18]

Parliament-Funkadelic, a funk band, also set the tone for many post-disco and post-punk bands of the 1980s and 1990s.[19]

United Kingdom[edit]

Unlike in the United States, where anti-disco backlash generated prominent effect on general perception of disco music, in Britain, musicians continued to produce both "old-fashioned" disco music and the new music coming from America, thus creating a characteristic scene.[18] According to Billboard, American post-disco was merely a crossover of different genres, while focusing on the electronic and R&B overtones, whereas jazz-funk was a crucial element of the British post-disco scene that generated musicians like Chaz Jankel, Central Line or Imagination.

1980s: Golden age[edit]

This section summary shows commercially successful records (mostly R&B/pop-oriented) from the post-disco movement.

Compare "Open Sesame" (1976) with "Celebration" (1980) by Kool & The Gang, "Boogie Wonderland" (1979) with "Let's Groove" (1981) by Earth, Wind & Fire, "Shame" (1978) with "Love Come Down" (1981) by Evelyn "Champagne" King and "(Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake Your Booty" (1976) with "Give It Up" (1982) by KC & the Sunshine Band, Billy Ocean with Caribbean Queen.

Year Song Label Artist U.S. Dance [20] U.S. R&B [20] U.S. Pop [20] U.S. M.R. [20] U.K. Pop[21]
1979 "I Wanna Be Your Lover"[22] Warner Bros. Prince #2 #1 #11 #41
1980 "Celebration"[23] De-Lite Kool & the Gang #1 #1 #1 ('81) #7
1981 "Let's Groove"[24] Columbia Earth, Wind & Fire #3 #1 #3 #3
1982 "Last Night a DJ Saved My Life"[25] Sound of New York Indeep #2 #10 #101 #13
"Love Come Down"[26][27] RCA Evelyn King #1 #1 #17 #7
1983 "Give It Up"[28] Meca KC #18 '#1
"Billie Jean"[29] Epic Michael Jackson #1 #1 #1 #1
1984 "Let's Dance"[29] EMI David Bowie #1 #14 #1 #6 #1
"Cool It Now"[30] MCA New Edition #1 #4 #43
"Dr. Beat"[31] Epic Miami Sound Machine #17 #6
1985 "Object of My Desire" Elekra Starpoint #12 #8 #25 #96
1986 "Rumors"[30] Jay Timex Social Club #1 #1 #8 #13
1987 "Rhythm Is Gonna Get You"[31] Epic Miami Sound Machine #27 #5

2000s: Post-disco revival[edit]

During the late 1990s and throughout the 2000s, electronic and, especially, house musicians were influenced by post-disco. Some of these musicians are: Daft Punk, a French house music group, adopted elements of post-disco, disco and synthpop into Discovery.[32] Another artist, Les Rythmes Digitales, released a post-disco/electro-influenced album, Darkdancer.[33] Canadian music group Chromeo debuted in 2004 with the album She's in Control.[34] Similar Los Angeles-based musician Dâm-Funk recorded Toeachizown, a boogie- and electro-influenced album released in 2009.[35] Another band called Escort, who hails from New York City, surfaced on the post-disco and post-punk revival scenes around 2006. The story about Escort appeared on New York Times in November 2011.[36]

Contemporary compilation albums featuring post-disco and electro artists (e.g. Imagination, Level 42, Afrika Bambaataa) include The Perfect Beats series (volume 1–4).[37] Another compilation series are Nighttime Lovers (volume 1-10) and the mixed-up album titled The Boogie Back: Post Disco Club Jams.

Pioneers and followers[edit]

"Thanks To You" and "Don't Make Me Wait" came out and started the whole dub thing in disco.[38]Shep Pettibone

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, DJ Larry Levan was one of the first artists who implemented dub techniques in his productions and mixes for various post-disco artists, including his own group The Peech Boys.

Sinnamon's "Thanks to You", D-Train's "You're the One for Me", The Peech Boys' "Don't Make Me Wait" — all these songs and its attributes and trends of post-disco later influenced a new "never-before-heard" music style. The House music.[39][40]

The new post-disco and especially boogie sound was flourishing along many mainstream independent record companies, including West End Records, Prelude Records, Tommy Boy Records, SAM Records, and others.[40][41]

Timeline[edit]

Short sample of "Let's Groove", originally released in 1981 by Earth, Wind & Fire.[nb 1]

Problems playing this file? See media help.
Short sample of "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'", a song that appeared on Michael Jackson's album Thriller.[nb 2]

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Although there is no exact point when post-disco started, many synthpop and electronic musicians of that time continued to enhance the raw minimalist sound, while focusing on synthesizers, and keyboard instruments. As noted by Darryl Payne, a 1980s post-disco music producer, percussion instruments also played an important part in the urban-oriented music in general.[18]

# Event[40][42][43][44][45][42][42][19][46][47][47][48]
1977-
1979

While disco music was in its heyday, the horn and string sections were a main component of disco and pop songs. This sound is also called disco orchestration. However, some of the musicians and producers dropped the lavish sound of orchestra completely, which attributed a new direction of dance music.

1980-
1981

After the success of Quincy Jones-produced album Off the Wall and other semi-mainstream urban-oriented music groups like Lakeside, other disco music groups either dissolved or adapted the new sounds (e.g. The Whispers, The SOS Band, Inner Life, Earth, Wind & Fire, and Shalamar in the U.S.; Nick Straker Band, and Freeez in UK). Other musicians influenced by post-disco include Stacy Lattisaw, Kurtis Blow, and George Duke.

1982

Golden age post-disco era, where post-disco sound entered mainstream. However most of the musicians were mostly successful on the other charts, beside Billboard Hot 100.

This era also spanned experimental No Wave-oriented post-disco acts like Material, Liquid Liquid, Dinosaur L and Was (Not Was).

The most significant post-disco album is Michael Jackson's Thriller, which also became the most best-selling album of all time.[49] Larry Levan and the NYC Peech Boys recorded proto-house number "Don't Make Me Wait". New bands and musicians of the era appeared, including Imagination, D. Train, Skyy, Aurra, Komiko, Vicky D, Rockers Revenge, Dayton, and Unlimited Touch.

1983-
1984

During this era, post-disco was at its highest peak. Meanwhile Madonna's commercially successful debut album was released, which was produced by Reggie Lucas of Mtume and Jellybean, another producers of this movement.

It also began to interfere with garage house and freestyle music, thus successfully shaping post-disco into electro. This change could be also heard in breakdancing- and hip-hop -themed movies like Beat Street and Breakin'.

1985-
1987

During this era, post-disco had been dissolved in various music fields and scenes, including

As the post-disco reached its climax, overdubbing techniques as recorded by Peech Boys and other early-1980s artists were almost omitted by then and replaced by synthpop variants instead. The movement survived as a post-disco–freestyle crossover music that spanned Raww, Hanson & Davis, Timex Social Club, Starpoint and Miami Sound Machine.

Legacy[edit]

Michael Jackson 1988
Madonna 1990
Michael Jackson and Madonna: the most successful artists of post-disco.

The 1980s post-disco sounds also inspired many Norwegian dance music producers.[50] Some rappers such as Ice Cube or EPMD built their careers on funk-oriented post-disco music (they were inspired for example by dance-floor favorites like Zapp and Cameo).[51] Also Sean "Puffy" Combs has been influenced by R&B-oriented post-disco music in an indirect way.[52]

In popular culture[edit]

Related genres[edit]

Boogie[edit]

Boogie (or electro-funk)[40][55] is a post-disco subgenre with way more funk influences that had a minor exposure in the early to mid-1980s. Sean P. described it as "largely been ignored, or regarded as disco's poor cousin — too slow, too electronic, too R&B... too black, even."[56]

Dance-rock[edit]

Another post-disco movement is merely connected with post-punk/no wave genres with fewer R&B/funk influences. An example of this "post-disco" is Gina X's "No G.D.M."[57] and artists like Liquid Liquid, Polyrock,[58] Dinosaur L, and Disco Not Disco [2000] compilation album.[59][60] This movement also connects with dance-oriented rock; Michael Campbell, in his book Popular Music in America defines that genre as "post-punk/post-disco fusion."[61] Campbell also cited Robert Christgau, who described dance-oriented rock (or DOR) as umbrella term used by various DJs in 1980s.[62]

Dance-pop[edit]

Dance-pop is a dance-oriented pop music that appeared slightly after the demise of disco and the first appearance of "stripped-down" post-disco. One of the first dance-pop songs were "Last Night a D.J. Saved My Life" by Indeep and "Love Come Down" by Evelyn "Champagne" King, whereas the latter crossed over to Billboard charts including Adult Contemporary, while peaking at number 17 on the pop chart in 1982.[63] Another crossover post-disco song was "Juicy Fruit" by Mtume, peaking at number 45 on the Hot 100 in 1983.[64] Same year also saw the release of Madonna's eponymous album that incorporated post-disco, urban and club sounds. British variation of dance-pop, pioneered by Stock Aitken Waterman, was more influenced by house and hi-NRG and sometimes was labeled as "eurobeat".[65]

Italo-disco[edit]

Italo-disco is a disco subgenre, mainly influenced by post-disco, hi-NRG and synthpop. Originally music mostly played by Italian musicians, but it soon made its way to Canada and United States. One of the earliest post–disco-oriented groups were Klein + M.B.O. and Kano, while New York-based Bobby Orlando was located abroad.[5]

Non-exhaustive list of artists[edit]

Prominent record labels[edit]

Compilations[edit]

Released Album Label Info
2000 VA – Disco Not Disco Strut compilation
2002 VA – Disco Not Disco 2 Strut compilation
2002–2008 VA – Opération Funk Vol. 1–5
(mixed by Kheops)
mix album, compilation
2004 VA – Choice: A Collection of Classics
(mixed by Danny Tenaglia)
Azuli mix album, compilation
2004–2009 VA – Nighttime Lovers Vol. 1–10 PTG compilation
2008 VA – Disco Not Disco 3 Strut compilation
2009 VA – Night Dubbin'
(mixed by Dimitri from Paris)
BBE mix album, compilation
2009 VA – The Boogie Back: Post Disco Club Jams
(compiled by DJ Spinna)
BBE mix album, compilation
2010 VA – Boogie's Gonna Getcha: '80s New York Boogie BreakBeats compilation

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Compare to the 1979 "traditionally"-sounding disco song "Boogie Wonderland" with string and horn sections arranged by Benjamin Wright.
  2. ^ Demonstrates using horn section and drum machine rhythm at the same time.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Slant Magazine | Music | 100 Greatest Dance Songs. Retrieved on 2-2-2009
  2. ^ "Though it makes sense to classify any form of dance music made since disco as post-disco, each successive movement has had its own characteristics to make it significantly different from the initial post-disco era, whether it's dance-pop or techno or trance." — Allmusic
  3. ^ a b c Reynolds, Simon (2009) Grunge's Long Shadow - In praise of "in-between" periods in pop history (Slate, MUSIC BOX). Retrieved on 2-2-2009"
  4. ^ "Walsh, Fintan (June, 2012): Eumir Deodato and the exploration of Post-Disco". The 405 magazine (UK). Retrieved 2012-06-30. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Explore music…Genre: Post-disco/Dance rock". Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-04-11. 
  6. ^ Smay, David & Cooper, Kim (2001). Bubblegum Music Is the Naked Truth: The Dark History of Prepubescent Pop, from the Banana Splits to Britney Spears: "... think about Stock-Aitken-Waterman and Kylie Minogue. Dance pop, that's what they call it now — Post-Disco, post-new wave and incorporating elements of both." Feral House: Publisher, p. 327. ISBN 0-922915-69-5.
  7. ^ Haggerty, George E. (2000). Gay Histories and Cultures: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 256. ISBN 0-8153-1880-4. "House music is a form of post-disco dance music made popular in the mid-1980s in Chicago clubs…"" 
  8. ^ Demers, Joanna (2006). "Dancing Machines: 'Dance Dance Revolution', Cybernetic Dance, and Musical Taste". Popular Music (Cambridge Univ Press) 25 (3): 25, 401–414. doi:10.1017/S0261143006001012. ""In terms of its song repertoire, DDR is rooted in disco and post-disco forms such as techno and house. But DDR can be read as the ultimate postmodern dance experience because the game displays various forms of dance imagery without stylistic or historical continuity (Harvey 1990, p. 62,…)" 
  9. ^ Campbell, Michael (2008). Popular Music in America. Cengage Learning. p. 352. ISBN 0-495-50530-7. "Glossary: techno – post-disco dance music in which most or all of the sounds are electronically generated" 
  10. ^ AllMusic - explore music... House: "House music grew out of the post-disco dance club culture of the early '80s." Retrieved on 12-27-2009
  11. ^ St. John, Graham (2004), Rave Culture and Religion, p. 50, ISBN 0-415-31449-6, "[sic] house music. As a post-disco party music, house features a repetitive 4/4 beat and a speed of 120 or more beats per minute..."
  12. ^ Cadence Magazine 10: 56. 1984. 
  13. ^ New York Magazine (New York Media, LLC) 18: 121. 2 Dec 1985. ISSN 0028-7369. 
  14. ^ a b Why 'Disco sucks!' sucked. Guardian. Retrieved 2012-02-21
  15. ^ Serwer, Jesse (2009) XLR8R: Jesse Serwer in an interview with Dam-Funk. Retrieved on 2-2-2010.
  16. ^ Webber, Stephen (2007). DJ Skills: The Essential Guide to Mixing and Scratching. Focal Press, 2007. p. 25. ISBN 0-240-52069-6. 
  17. ^ http://www.danceclassics.net/producers.htm
  18. ^ a b c Billboard (magazine) (Nielsen Business Media, Inc) (94). 19 Jun 1982. ISSN 0006-2510. "The Music Steps Beyond Disco: Where The Beat Meets The Street/Danceable Rock Generates First Bevy of Crossover Stars" 
  19. ^ a b Parliament/Funkadelic. (2009). In Student's Encyclopædia: "Combining funk rhythms, psychedelic guitar, and group harmonies with jazzed-up horns, Clinton and his ever-evolving bands set the tone for many post-disco and post-punk groups of the 1980s and 1990s.". Retrieved August 15, 2009, from Britannica Student Encyclopædia.
  20. ^ a b c d Kool & the Gang: Billboard SinglesDavid Bowie: Billboard SinglesSOS Band: Billboard SinglesIndeep: Billboard SinglesEarth, Wind & Fire: Billboard SinglesMichael Jackson: Billboard Singles by Allmusic. Retrieved on August 11, 2009.
  21. ^ Search song on EveryHit.com database
  22. ^ Allmusic: List of Post-Disco songs. Rovi Corporation. Accessed 06-02-20129
  23. ^ [1]. Songfacts.com about Kool & The Gang trivia informations. Retrieved on 5. 5. 2009
  24. ^ Soul > LP > Earth Wind & Fire: Raise!: Earth Wind & Fire hits the 80s -- and never misses a beat! Turns out that the group's older style of jazzy funk was a perfect fit for the boogie-styled rhythms of the post-disco era". Dusty Groove America.com. Retrieved on August 12, 2009.
  25. ^ Grow, Kory (May 2008). Revolver Magazine article: Why The Most Dangerous Band Of The Decade, True Norwegian, Black Metallers, Gorgoroth, Turned On Itself - "When the post-disco classic "Last Night a DJ Saved My Life" by early-'80s New York crew Indeep comes on, King asks what the singer means by the bizarre titular statement.". No. 68. ISSN 1527-408X.
  26. ^ [2]. 70disco.com web. Re-retrieved on August 1, 2009
  27. ^ ShowArtist: Evelyn "Champagne" King. Disco-funk.co.uk. Retrieved on August 10, 2009.
  28. ^ Hoffmann, W. Frank & Ferstler, Howard (2005). Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound (Publication no. 2): "He [Harry Casey] briefly returned to the public eye billed as KC with the release of KC Ten (Meca 8301; 1984: #93), featuring the post-disco single 'Give It Up' (Meca 1001; 1984; #18), before fading back into obscurity". p. 566. ISBN 0-415-93835-X
  29. ^ a b The Eighties Club: The Politics and Pop Culture of the 1980s: "On the dance floor, David Bowie's "Let's Dance" and Michael Jackson's "Billie Jean" defined the post-disco beat." Retrieved on August 11, 2009.
  30. ^ a b One Hit Wonder Center - One-Hit Wonder Music of the 50's~90's: "There are also tracks to represent the rise of post-disco club/dance trend, such as Laid Back's "White Horse", New Edition's "Cool It Now", and Timex Social Club's " Rumors" ". Retrieved on August 12, 2009.
  31. ^ a b Morales, Ed (2002). Living in Spanglish: the search for Latino identity in America: ""With their group, Miami Sound Machine, ... "Doctor Beat," manages to fuse elements of Latin percussion with the electric hass heats of the post-disco era". p. 244. ISBN 0-312-26232-9.
  32. ^ (2001) CMJ New Music Monthly - Best New Music - Daft Punk (Discovery): "Although it's only fair to credit Chicago with the post-disco dance style's paternal rights, the French [Daft Punk] have (at the very least) earned covered weekend privilegies." Publisher: CMJ Network, Inc. No. 93. p. 71. ISSN 1074-6978
  33. ^ Paoletta, Michael (1999). Billboard Magazine: Reviews & Previews: Spotlight (Les Rythmes Digitales - Darkdancer): "[about funky and British synth-pop] two musical styles steeped in the post-disco/electro scene of New York in the early '80s". p. 30. ISSN 0006-2510
  34. ^ Juzwiak, Rich (2004). "Reviews >>> Chromeo - She's In Control". CMJ New Music Monthly 64 (120): 50. ISSN 1074-6978. 
  35. ^ MacPherson, Alex (2009-11-26). "Dam Funk - Toeachizown (review)". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2011-08-30. 
  36. ^ New York Times (November 2011) Jessica Reedy's Album, 'From the Heart' / Escort. "Escort has been hovering around New York City's postpunk and post-disco revival scenes for years, and always felt a bit out of place." Retrieved on 2012-16-01.
  37. ^ [Post-disco at AllMusic The Perfect Beats, Vol. 1] by Allmusic. Retrieved on 1-28-2010
  38. ^ Tech Noir - Disco > Shep Pettibone: Shep Pettibone in an interview with Steven Harvey. Retrieved on 12 26 2009
  39. ^ Cheeseman, Phil (1989). The History of House music. fantazia.org.uk | Artandpopculture. Retrieved on 2-19-2010
  40. ^ a b c d Reynolds, Simon (Jul 16, 1999). Generation ecstasy: into the world of techno and rave culture. Taylor & Francis. p. 35. ISBN 0-415-92373-5. ""The band's -Peech Boys- ambient-tinged post-disco epics like "Don't Make Me Wait" and "Life is Something Special" are notable for their cavernous reverberance and dub-deep bass. Peech Boys were on the cutting edge of the early-eighties New York electro-funk sound like D-Train, Vicky D, Rocker's Revenge, Frances [sic] Joli, and Sharon Redd, labels like West End and Prelude, and producers like Arthur Baker, Francois Kevorkian, and John "Jellybean" Benitez." 
  41. ^ "Electro Funk Roots: The Building Blocks of Boogie (history)". electrofunkroots.co.uk. Retrieved August 11, 2009. 
  42. ^ a b c [Post-disco at AllMusic "Explore music…Top Artists (under Post-disco)"]. Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-04-11. 
  43. ^ Pitchfork Album Reviews: VA -Trax Records: 20th Anniversary Collection. Retrieved on 1-4-2010
  44. ^ Broughton, Frank & Brewster, Bill (2000). Larry Levan's Paradise Garage | DJhistory.com - Disco's revenge: "[sic] But by the turn of the eighties, he was experimenting with drum machines and synthesizers and, like François Kevorkian around the same time, forging a new electronic, post-disco sound". Retrieved on 1-4-2010.
  45. ^ [Post-disco at AllMusic allmusic] > ((( Bobby Orlando - Overview ))): "Genre: Electronic, Styles: Hi-NRG, Club/Dance, R&B, Post-disco". Retrieved on 12-27-2009.
  46. ^ Toop, David (1984). The Rap Attack: African Jive to New York Hip-Hop. Pluto Press. p. 93. "Kurtis Blow may not have been 100 per cent proof Bronx hip hop, but his early records helped set the style in post-disco dance music." 
  47. ^ a b Bogdanov, Vladimir (2003). All Music Guide to Soul: The Definitive Guide to R&B and Soul. p. 709. ISBN 978-0-87930-744-8. "[Unlimited Touch] weren't disco, and they weren't exactly straight-up R&B; like their Prelude labelmates D Train, Unlimited Touch combined the two forms into what is often referred to as post-disco." 
  48. ^ Heyliger, M., Music - Help - Web - Review - A State-of-the-Art Pop Album (Thriller by Michael Jackson): "Not many artists could pull off such a variety of styles (funk, post-disco, rock, easy listening, ballads) back then...". Retrieved on August 12, 2009
  49. ^ Anderson, Kyle (July 20, 2009). "Michael Jackson's Thriller Set To Become Top-Selling Album Of All Time". MTV (MTV Network). Retrieved December 29, 2009. 
  50. ^ Ham, Anthony & Roddis, Miles and Lundgren, Kari (2008). Norway: Discover Norway - (The Culture) Interview with Bernt Erik Pedersen, music editor, Dagsavisen: "A lot of current dance music producers are influenced by the post-disco sound of the early 80s". Publisher: Lonely Planet Publications. p. 53. ISBN 1-74104-579-7.
  51. ^ Light, Alan (November 1993). V I B E - Funk Masters article: "It's no wonder that rappers such as EPMD and Ice Cube, striving for that perfect mind-body fusion, have built careers out of fragments from these fathers of funk (as well as the post-disco wave they inspired - dance-floor favourites like Zapp and Cameo)". p. 51?, ISSN 1070-4701
  52. ^ Schoonmaker, Trevor (2003). Fela: from West Africa to West Broadway: "Puffy's consistent pilfering of pop coffers from a certain time period shows undoubtedly that he is influenced by the post-disco R&B bounce of the late 1970s and early 1980s". Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 4. ISBN 1-4039-6210-3.
  53. ^

    * Julian: "Now we're going American. What's the name they've given this new thing we're doing?

    • Joe: "Post-punk-post-new-wave-post-disco. . ."
    • Roli: "post-country -post-rapping - post-post- post-Beatles."
    • Lucho: "Post-Elvis-post-Simon-and-Garfunkel-post-Billy-Idol-post-British-Invasion-post-Cyndi-Lauper-post-Blues-post-Soul-post-Michael-Jackson-post-Hustle-post-Donna-Summer-post-Gloria-Gaynor-post-Prince-post-Madonna."
  54. ^ Spy (Sussex Publishers, LLC): 33. May 1992. ISSN 0890-1759. "That's the Way (Uh-huh, Uh-huh) I Like It - introducing SPY'S ROCK-CRITIC-o-MATIC (by David Bourgeois): "In their first album since their eponymous effort of last year, Donald and the Vulgarians, without a doubt one of the best post-punk groups of the 1980s, return with their latest release, I Who Have Nothing and Other Songs for the Nineties. Filled with self-absorbed Trinidadian soca, the album screams post-punk/post-disco art-school pop with its use of guitar riff sawing"." 
  55. ^ "DJ Spinna: The Boogie Back: Post Disco Club Jams (by Andrew Martin)". Popmatters. Retrieved 2011-12-18. 
  56. ^ "VA - Destination: Boogie (2006) review". AMG. Retrieved 2011-08-10. 
  57. ^ The Fader (University of Michigan): 38. 2002 http://www.google.com/books?id=Y2-fAAAAMAAJ&q=No+GDM+gina+X++post-disco+++The+Fader&dq=No+GDM+gina+X++post-disco+++The+Fader |url= missing title (help). "[the] classic post-disco track "No GDM" by Gina X" 
  58. ^ Fink, Robert (2005). Repeating Ourselves: American Minimal Music As Cultural Practice. University of California Press. p. 26. ISBN 0-520-24550-4. 
  59. ^ Albums "Disco Not Disco [2000]". Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-08-10. 
  60. ^ Battaglia, Andy (2008). "Album Reviews: VA - Disco Not Disco (Post-Punk, Electro & Leftfield Disco Classics)". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 2009-08-13. 
  61. ^ Campbell, Michael (2008). Popular Music in America: And the Beat Goes On. Cengage Learning. p. 359. ISBN 0-495-50530-7. 
  62. ^ "Explore music… Genre: Dance-Rock". Allmusic. Retrieved 2009-08-12. 
  63. ^ Evelyn Champagne King - Chart History at Billboard. Nielsen Co. Retrieved 2012-09-01.
  64. ^ ""Sugar Free" review by Ed Hogan". Allmusic. Retrieved 2011-08-31. 
  65. ^ Classic Tracks: Rick Astley ‘Never Gonna Give You Up’ – Sound On Sound. Retrieved on 2 July 2010.