International reply coupon
An international reply coupon (IRC) is a coupon that can be exchanged for one or more postage stamps representing the minimum postage for an unregistered priority airmail letter of up to twenty grams sent to another Universal Postal Union (UPU) member country. IRCs are accepted by all UPU member countries.
UPU member postal services are obliged to exchange an IRC for postage, but are not obliged to sell them.
The purpose of the IRC is to allow a person to send someone in another country a letter, along with the cost of postage for a reply. If the addressee is within the same country, there is no need for an IRC because a self-addressed stamped envelope (SASE) or return postcard will suffice; but if the addressee is in another country an IRC removes the necessity of acquiring foreign postage or sending appropriate currency.
The IRC was introduced in 1906 at a Universal Postal Union congress in Rome. At the time an IRC could be exchanged for a single-rate, ordinary postage stamp for surface delivery to a foreign country, as this was before the introduction of airmail services. An IRC is exchangeable in a UPU member country for the minimum postage of a priority or unregistered airmail letter to a foreign country.
The current IRC, available since 1 July 2009, is called the "Nairobi" model, and is available from post offices in 116 countries as at December 2012. IRCs are ordered from the UPU headquarters in Bern, Switzerland, by postal authorities. They are generally available at large post offices; in the U.S., they are requisitioned along with regular domestic stamps by any post office that has sufficient demand for them.
Prices for IRCs vary by country. In the United States in November 2012, the purchase price was $2.20USD. IRCs purchased in foreign countries may be used in the United States toward the purchase of postage stamps and embossed stamped envelopes at the current one-ounce First Class International rate ($1.05 USD as of April 2012) per coupon.
IRCs are often used by amateur radio operators sending QSL cards to each other; it has traditionally been considered good practice and common courtesy to include an IRC when writing to a foreign operator and expecting a reply by mail.
Previous editions of the IRC, the "Beijing" model and all subsequent versions, bear an expiration date. Consequently, a new IRC will be issued every three years. The current IRC will become obsolete on 31 December 2013. Current stockpiles in the hands of users should be expended by then, or exchanged for the new issue to be introduced at that time. The current issue IRC may be exchanged until 31 December 2013 (date printed on coupon). A new design, by the Czech artist Michal Sindelar, will go on sale from 1 July 2013 and will be valid until 31 December 2017.
The US Postal Service discontinued sales of IRCs on 27 January 2013 due to declining demand. Britain's Royal Mail ceased to sell IRCs from 18 February 2012, citing minimal sales and claiming that the average post office sold less than one IRC per year.
The Ponzi scheme
The profit that could be made by taking advantage of the differing postal rates in different countries to buy IRCs cheaply in one country and exchange them for stamps of a higher value in another country was the intended profit generator for a scheme operated by Charles Ponzi, which became the fraudulent Ponzi scheme. In practice, the overhead on buying and selling large numbers of the very low-value IRCs precluded any profitability.
The selling price and exchange value in stamps in each country have been adjusted to some extent to remove some of the potential for profit, but ongoing fluctuations in cost of living and exchange rates make it impossible to achieve this completely.
- "International reply coupon cost listed on USPS Extra Service Price List". United States Postal Service. Retrieved 06 November 2012.
- "International Reply Coupons". Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service - International Mail Manual (United States Postal Service) (35). 12 May 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2008.
- "International reply coupons". Amateur Radio Station N6HB. 28 July 2007. Retrieved 7 August 2007.
- "Czech out new coupon design". UPU. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- "IMM Revision: Changes to Pricing and Mailing Standards for International Mailing Services". United States Postal Service. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to International reply coupons.|
- UPU IRC info
- UPU list of countries selling IRCs
- IRC info
- Some IRC illustrations and exchange guidelines
- International Reply Coupons and Ham Radio