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|Classification and external resources|
The intensity of PAS may be graded using the scale described by Crossley and Mahajan:
- 0 = no shivering;
- 1 = no visible muscle activity but piloerection, peripheral vasoconstriction, or both are present (other causes excluded);
- 2 = muscular activity in only one muscle group;
- 3 = moderate muscular activity in more than one muscle group but no generalized shaking;
- 4 = violent muscular activity that involves the whole body.
- English W (2002). "Post-operative shivering, causes, prevention and treatment (letter)". Update in Anaesthesia 1 (3). Retrieved 8 September 2010.
- Crossley AW, Mahajan RP (March 1994). "The intensity of postoperative shivering is unrelated to axillary temperature". Anaesthesia 49 (3): 205–7. PMID 8147511.
- Buggy DJ, Crossley AW (May 2000). "Thermoregulation, mild perioperative hypothermia and postanaesthetic shivering". Br J Anaesth 84 (5): 615–28. PMID 10844839.
- Alfonsi P (May 2003). "Postanaesthetic shivering. Epidemiology, pathophysiology and approaches to prevention and management". Minerva Anestesiol 69 (5): 438–42. PMID 12768180.
- Kranke P, Eberhart LH, Roewer N, Tramèr MR (February 2002). "Pharmacological treatment of postoperative shivering: a quantitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials". Anesth. Analg. 94 (2): 453–60. PMID 11812718.
- Kranke P, Eberhart LH, Roewer N, Tramèr MR (September 2004). "Single-dose parenteral pharmacological interventions for the prevention of postoperative shivering: a quantitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials". Anesth. Analg. 99 (3): 718–27. doi:10.1213/01.ANE.0000130589.00098.CD. PMID 15333401.
- Eberhart LH, Döderlein F, Eisenhardt G, et al. (December 2005). "Independent risk factors for postoperative shivering". Anesth. Analg. 101 (6): 1849–57. doi:10.1213/01.ANE.0000184128.41795.FE. PMID 16301273.
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