The Potez 53 was a low-wing cantilever monoplane of conventional design with an enclosed cockpit for the pilot. The main units of the tailskid undercarriage retracted outwards into the undersides of the wings. It was powered by a supercharged nine-cylinder Potez 9B radial engine driving a two-bladed fixed pitch propeller. The engine was specially designed for the competition, which called for engines of less than 8 litres (488 cu in) displacement.
Two machines were entered for the 1933 Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe. The first (racing no.10) was flown by Georges Détré, who won first place, covering the 2,000 km (1,200 mi) closed-circuit course with an average speed of 323 km/h (201 mph). The other (racing no.12) was flown by Gustave Lemoine, who retired after completing the fourth lap.
Following this success, a new machine designated the Potez 533 (or 53-3) was built with various improvements for the 1934 race, including an uprated engine delivering 350 hp driving a Ratier variable-pitch propeller, slimmer and more streamlined fuselage and redesigned wings of increased area. One of the two aircraft entered the previous years was refurbished as the Potez 532 (or 53-2), to act as a backup in the competition. The engine was uprated, its fuselage was slightly lengthened for aerodynamic reasons, the wing was further enlarged and additional flaps were installed between the fuselage and ailerons.
The two aircraft were flown by the same pilots as the previous year, but neither completed the 1934 race. Gustave Lemoine, who was flying the Potez 533 (racing no.3), completed ten 100 km circuits with an average speed 368 km/h (229 mph) before being forced to withdraw due to a problem with the variable-pitch propeller. Georges Détré, who was flying the older machine (racing no.1), completed only eight circuits before a broken oil pipe forced him to abandon the race.