Potosí

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Potosí
View of Rich Hill (Cerro Rico) and National Mint
View of Rich Hill (Cerro Rico) and National Mint
Flag of Potosí
Flag
Coat of arms of Potosí
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Empire Ville (Villa Imperial in Spanish)
Potosí is located in Bolivia
Potosí
Potosí
Location in Bolivia
Coordinates: 19°35′S 65°45′W / 19.583°S 65.750°W / -19.583; -65.750Coordinates: 19°35′S 65°45′W / 19.583°S 65.750°W / -19.583; -65.750
Country Bolivia
Department Potosí
Province Tomás Frías
Municipality Potosí Municipality
Founded April 1, 1545
Government
 • Mayor René Joaquino Cabrera
Area
 • Total 118.218 km2 (45.6 sq mi)
Elevation 4,067 m (13,343 ft)
Population (2012)[1]
 • Total 240,966
 • Density 2,000/km2 (5,300/sq mi)
Time zone UTC-4
Website Official website
Official name: City of Potosí
Type: Cultural
Criteria: ii, iv, vi
Designated: 1987 (11th session)
Reference No. 420
State Party: Bolivia
Region: Latin America and the Caribbean

Potosí is a city and the capital of the department of Potosí in Bolivia. It is one of the highest cities in the world by elevation at a nominal 4,090 metres (13,420 ft)[2] and it was the location of the Spanish colonial mint.

Potosí lies at the foot of the Cerro de Potosí[3]—sometimes referred to as the Cerro Rico ("rich mountain")—a mountain popularly conceived of as being "made of" silver ore, which has always dominated the city. The Cerro Rico is the reason for Potosí's historical importance, since it was the major supply of silver for Spain during the period of the New World Spanish Empire.

The silver was taken by llama and mule train to the Pacific coast, shipped north to Panama City, carried by mule train across the isthmus of Panama to Nombre de Dios or Portobelo whence it was taken to Spain on the Spanish treasure fleets. Cerro de Potosí's peak is 4,824 metres (15,827 ft) above sea level.

History and silver extraction[edit]

Manuel Rivera-Ortiz: widow of the Mines, Potosí, Bolivia 2004
Miners at work
Potosí, aerial photo

Colonial silver exploitation[edit]

See also: Real Situado

Founded in 1545 as a mining town, it soon produced fabulous wealth, becoming one of the largest cities in the Americas and the world, with a population exceeding 200,000 people.

In Spanish there is still a saying, vale un Potosí, "to be worth a Potosí" (that is, "to be of a great value"). For Europeans, Peru—Bolivia was part of the Viceroyalty of Peru and was known as Alto Perú before becoming independent as part of Bolivia. Potosi was a mythical land of riches, it is mentioned in Miguel de Cervantes' famous novel, Don Quixote (second part, chap. LXXI) as a land of "extraordinary richness". One theory holds that the mint mark of Potosí (the letters "PTSI" superimposed on one another) is the origin of the dollar sign.

It is from Potosí, that most of the silver shipped through the Spanish Main came. According to official records,[citation needed] 45,000 short tons (41,000 metric tons) of pure silver were mined from Cerro Rico from 1556 to 1783. Of this total, 9,000 short tons (8,200 metric tons) went to the Spanish monarchy. Due to such extensive mining, the mountain itself has diminished in height; before the mining started it was a few hundred meters higher than it is today[citation needed].

Native laborers were used to work on its mines through the traditional Incan mita system of contributed labor. Many of them died due to the harsh conditions of the mine life.

According to Noble David Cook, "A key factor in understanding the impact of the Potosi mita on the Indians is that mita labor was only one form of work at the mines. A 1603 report stated that of 58,800 Indians working at Potosi, 5100 were mitayos, or less than one in ten. In addition to the mitayos there were 10,500 mingas (contractual workers) and 43,200 free wage earners. Yet mitayos were required to do the work others refused: predominantly the transport of the ore up the shafts to the mouth of the mine."[4]

To compensate for the diminishing indigenous labor force, the colonists made a request in 1608 to the Crown in Madrid to begin allowing the importation of 1,500 to 2,000 African slaves per year.[citation needed] An estimated total of 30,000 African slaves were taken to Potosí during the colonial era. African slaves were also forced to work in the Casa de la Moneda (mint) as acémilas humanas (human mules). Since mules would die after a couple of months pushing the mills, the colonists replaced the four mules with twenty African slaves.[5]

In 1672, a mint was established to coin silver and water reservoirs were built to fulfill the growing population's needs. At that time more than eighty-six churches were built and the city's population increased to nearly 200,000, making it one of the largest and wealthiest cities in the world.[citation needed]

After 1800, the silver mines were depleted, making tin the main product. This eventually led to a slow economic decline. Nevertheless, the mountain continues to be mined for silver to this day. Due to poor worker conditions (lack of protective equipment from the constant inhalation of dust), the miners still have a short life expectancy with most of them contracting silicosis and dying around 40 years of age.[citation needed]

Independence era[edit]

During the Bolivian War of Independence (1809–1825), Potosí frequently passed between the control of Royalist and Patriot forces. Major leadership mistakes came when the First Auxiliary Army arrived from Buenos Aires (under the command of Juan José Castelli), this led to an increased sense that Potosi required its own independent government.

When the second auxiliary army arrived, it was received well and the commander, Manuel Belgrano, did much to heal the past wounds inflicted by the tyrannical Castelli. When that army was forced to retreat, Belgrano took the calculated decision to blow up the Casa de la Moneda. Since the locals refused to evacuate, the explosion would have resulted in many casualties. The fuse was lit, but disaster was averted by locals who put the fuse out. Two more expeditions from Buenos Aires would seize Potosí.

Origin of the name[edit]

A Spanish colonial two-reales piece ("two bits") from the Potosí Mint

There is no authoritative etymology for the word "Potosí." According to legend, in about 1462, Huayna Capac, the eleventh Sapa Inca of what by then was known as the Inca Empire "set out for Ccolque Porco and Andaccaua, the location of his mines from which were taken innumerable arrobas of silver" (an arroba is a Spanish unit of weight equivalent to approximately 25 pounds (11 kg)). Before leaving there, he saw Potosí, and admiring its beauty and grandeur, he said (speaking to those of his Court):

'This doubtless must have much silver in its heart'; whereby he subsequently ordered his vassals to go to Ccolque Porco ... and work the mines and remove from them all the rich metal. They did so, and having brought their tools of flint and reinforced wood, they climbed the hill; and after having probed for its veins, they were about to open those veins when they heard a frightening thunderous noise which shook the whole hill, and after this, they heard a voice which said: 'Do not take the silver from this hill, because it is destined for other masters.' Amazed at hearing this reasoning, the Incan vassals desisted in their purpose and returned to Porco and told the king what had happened; relating the occurrence in their own language, on coming to the word noise, they said 'Potocsí' which means there was a great thunderous noise, and from that later was derived (corrupting a letter) the name of potosí."[citation needed]

It is believed[who?] that "Potosí" is a Quechua word.[citation needed] However, in Quechua the phoneme p'otoj does not refer to a thunderous noise, whereas it does in Aymara. Thus, if Potosí encompasses the idea of a thunderous noise, the locution would have an Aymaran root rather than a Quechuan.[citation needed]

The actual sharp structure of the term is contrary to the nature of both Aymara and Quechua. Another explanation, given by several Quechua speakers,[specify] is that potoq is an onomatopoeic word that reproduces the sound of the hammer against the ore, and oral tradition has it that the town derived its name from this word.

Potosí with Cerro Rico in the background.


Climate[edit]

Potosí features a rare climate for a city of its size, due to its extreme elevation at over 4000m. Semiarid and with average temperatures in its warmest month sitting right on the 10°C threshold, the cities climate straddles that of the subtropical highland climate (Cwc, according to the Köppen climate classification), with subpolar oceanic characteristics and an alpine climate (E). Summers are cool and wet with daily highs rarely rising above 20°C, while winters feature cooler days with much colder nights averaging -4°C. These low temperatures are a result of the extreme precipitation deficit during the winter months with the resulting aridity leading to an increased diurnal temperature variation.

Climate data for Potosi, Bolivia (2000−2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 15
(59)
15
(59)
16
(61)
17
(63)
15
(59)
14
(57)
14
(57)
15
(59)
16
(61)
18
(64)
18
(64)
17
(63)
15.8
(60.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9
(48)
9
(48)
9
(48)
8.5
(47.3)
6.5
(43.7)
5.5
(41.9)
5
(41)
6
(43)
6.5
(43.7)
9.5
(49.1)
10
(50)
10
(50)
7.9
(46.2)
Average low °C (°F) 3
(37)
3
(37)
2
(36)
0
(32)
−2
(28)
−3
(27)
−4
(25)
−3
(27)
−1
(30)
1
(34)
2
(36)
3
(37)
0.1
(32.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 92
(3.62)
86
(3.39)
55
(2.17)
13
(0.51)
3
(0.12)
1
(0.04)
1
(0.04)
3
(0.12)
10
(0.39)
20
(0.79)
38
(1.5)
75
(2.95)
397
(15.63)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 17 16 12 5 1 0 0 1 2 5 7 14 80
Source: WeatherWorld[6]

Neighborhoods[edit]

  • Old Town
  • San Gerardo
  • La Chacra
  • Cervecería
  • Alto Potosí
  • Nuevo Potosí
  • San Martín
  • Pampa Ingenio
  • Nacional Potosí
  • San Juan
  • Concepción
  • San Cristóbal
  • Pailaviri
  • Cachi Rancho
  • El Calvario
  • San Pedro
  • San Roque
  • Mercado Uyuni
  • San Benito
  • Villa España
  • Huachacalla
  • Cantumarca
  • San Clemente
  • Ciudad Satélite
  • Plan 40
  • Las Delicias
  • Los Pinos-Cordepo
  • Las Lecherías
  • Villa Mecànicos
  • Villa Copacabana
  • Villa Venezuela
  • Villa Nazaret

Sports[edit]

Potosí is home to football team Club Bamin Real Potosí, who play their matches at the 32,000-capacity multi-purpose stadium Estadio Víctor Agustín Ugarte, one of the highest stadia in the world.

Legacy[edit]

The city of San Luis Potosí in Mexico was named after Potosí in Bolivia. In the United States, the name Potosi was optimistically given to lead-mining towns of Potosi, Wisconsin,[7] and Potosi, Missouri, and also to the silver-mining town of Potosi, Nevada.

Sister cities[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Specific
  1. ^ "World Gazetteer". Archived from the original on 2013-01-11. 
  2. ^ Bolivia & Main Cities / Potosí from boliviaweb.com. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
  3. ^ Not to be mistaken with Cerro Potosí, Mexico
  4. ^ Cook, Noble David (1981). Demographic collapse, Indian Perú, 1520-1620. Cambridge University Press. p. 237. ISBN 0-521-23995-8. 
  5. ^ Angola Maconde, 1999
  6. ^ "Climate Data and Activities". WeatherWorldOnline. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  7. ^ "Potosi [origin of place name]". Wisconsinhistory.org. 1941-10-10. Retrieved 2010-04-13. 
General
  • Angola Maconde, Juan. "Raíces de un pueblo: cultura afroboliviana." La Paz: Producciones CIMA, 1999.
  • Arzáns de Orsúa y Vela, Bartolomé. Historia de la Villa Imperial de Potosí. Edición de Lewis Hanke y Gunnar Mendoza. Providence, R.I.: Brown University Press, 1965.
  • Cobb, Gwendolin Ballantine. "Potosí, a South American Mining Frontier." Greater America: Essays in Honor of Herbert Eugene Bolton. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1968, © 1945, pp. 39–58.
  • Hanke, Lewis (writer) and Jean-Claude Wicky (photographer). The Imperial City of Potosí. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1956.
  • Ross, John F. Mountains of Pain Smithsonian Magazine, November 2000.

External links[edit]