Powell and Pressburger
|Industry||Film production company|
|Key people||Michael Powell
49th Parallel (1941)
One of Our Aircraft Is Missing (1942)
The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp (1943)
A Canterbury Tale (1944)
I Know Where I'm Going! (1945)
A Matter of Life and Death (1946)
Black Narcissus (1947)
The Red Shoes (1948)
The Small Back Room (1949)
The Elusive Pimpernel (1950)
Gone to Earth (1950)
The Tales of Hoffmann (1951)
Oh... Rosalinda!! (1955)
The Battle of the River Plate (1956)
Ill Met by Moonlight (1957)
The British film-making partnership of Michael Powell (1905-1990) and Emeric Pressburger (1902-1988) — together often known as The Archers, the name of their production company — made a series of influential films in the 1940s and '50s. Their collaborations — 24 films between 1939 and 1972 — were mainly derived from original stories by Pressburger with the script written by both Pressburger & Powell. Powell did the majority of the directing while Pressburger did most of the work of the producer and also assisted with the editing, especially the way the music was used. Unusually, the pair shared a writer-director-producer credit for most of their films. Among their most notable successes are The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp (1943), A Matter of Life and Death (1946), Black Narcissus (1947) and The Red Shoes (1948).
In 1981 Powell and Pressburger were recognised for their contributions to British cinema with the BAFTA Academy Fellowship Award, the most prestigious award given by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts.
Michael Powell was already an experienced director, having worked his way up from making silent films to the First World War drama The Spy in Black (1939), his first film for Hungarian émigré producer Alexander Korda. Emeric Pressburger, who had come from Hungary in 1935, already worked for Korda, and was asked to do some rewrites for the film. This collaboration would be the first of nineteen, most over the next 18 years.
After Powell had made two further films for Korda, he was reunited with Pressburger in 1940 for Contraband, the first in a run of Powell and Pressburger films set during the Second World War. The second was 49th Parallel (1941), which won Pressburger an Academy Award for Best Story. Both are Hitchcock-like thrillers made as anti-Nazi propaganda.
Birth of The Archers
The pair adopted a joint writer-producer-director credit for their next film, One of Our Aircraft Is Missing (1942) and made reference to "The Archers" in the credits. In 1943 they incorporated their own production company, Archers Film Productions and adopted a distinctive archery target logo which began each film. The joint credit "Written, Produced and Directed by Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger" indicates their total joint responsibility for their own work and that they weren't beholden to any studio or other producers.
- We owe allegiance to nobody except the financial interests which provide our money; and, to them, the sole responsibility of ensuring them a profit, not a loss.
- Every single foot in our films is our own responsibility and nobody else's. We refuse to be guided or coerced by any influence but our own judgement.
- When we start work on a new idea we must be a year ahead, not only of our competitors, but also of the times. A real film, from idea to universal release, takes a year. Or more.
- No artist believes in escapism. And we secretly believe that no audience does. We have proved, at any rate, that they will pay to see the truth, for other reasons than her nakedness.
- At any time, and particularly at the present, the self-respect of all collaborators, from star to prop-man, is sustained, or diminished, by the theme and purpose of the film they are working on.
They began to form a group of regular cast and crew members who were to work with them on many films over the next twelve years. Hardly any of these people were ever under contract to The Archers. They were hired film by film. But Powell and Pressburger soon learnt who they could work well with and these people enjoyed working with them. When Raymond Massey was offered the part of the Prosecuting Attorney in A Matter of Life and Death his cabled reply was "For The Archers anytime, this world or the next."[page needed]
|“||He knows what I am going to say even before I say it — maybe even before I have thought it – and that is very rare. You are lucky if you meet someone like that once in your life.||”|
—Pressburger on Powell, 
|“||He'd stood the story on its head, he'd turned a man into a woman and a woman into a man, he'd altered the suspense, he'd rewritten the end... I was rejoicing that I was going to be working with someone like this.||”|
—Powell on first meeting Pressburger, 
Powell and Pressburger also co-produced a few films by other directors under the banner of The Archers: The Silver Fleet (1943), written and directed by Vernon Sewell and Gordon Wellesley, based on a story by Emeric Pressburger, and The End of the River (1947) directed by Derek N. Twist to which both Powell and Pressburger contributed un-credited writing. Both Sewell and Twist had worked with Powell & Pressburger previously on other films and were being given their first chance as directors.
The remainder of the war saw them release a series of acclaimed films:
- The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp (1943)
- The Volunteer (1943) a short propaganda film
- A Canterbury Tale (1944)
- I Know Where I'm Going! (1945)
- A Matter of Life and Death (1946)
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (December 2010)|
Generally, Pressburger would create the original story (for all their films from 1940–1946 plus The Red Shoes) and write the first draft of the script. They would then pass the script back and forth a few times – they could never work on it together in the same room. For the actual dialogue, Pressburger would know what he wanted the characters to say but Powell would often supply some of the actual words.
They would both act as producers, perhaps Pressburger slightly more so than Powell, since he could soothe the feathers ruffled by Powell's forthright manner. They became their own producers mainly to stop anyone else poking their noses in, since they had a considerable degree of freedom, especially under Rank, to make just about any film they wanted.
The direction was nearly all done by Powell, but even so The Archers generally worked as a team, with the cast and crew often making suggestions. Pressburger was always on hand, usually on the studio floor, to make sure that these late changes fitted seamlessly into the story.
Once the filming was finished, Powell would usually go off for a walk in the hills of Scotland to clear his head, but Pressburger was often closely involved in the editing, especially of the way the music was used. Pressburger was a musician himself and played the violin in an orchestra in Hungary.
When the film was finally ready and Powell was back from the Highlands, it would usually be Powell that would be the front man in any promotional work, such as interviews for the trade papers or fan magazines.
Because collaborative efforts such as Powell's and Pressburger's were, and continue to be, unusual in the film industry, and because of the influence of the auteur theory, which elevates the director as a film's primary creator, Pressburger has sometimes been dismissed as "Michael Powell's scriptwriter", but Powell himself was the first to say, in many interviews, that he couldn't have done most of what he did without Pressburger.
Post-war success and decline
- Black Narcissus (1947)
- The Red Shoes (1948).
- The Small Back Room (1949)
- The Elusive Pimpernel (1950)
- Gone to Earth (1950). A substantially re-edited version was released in the US as The Wild Heart (1952) by co-producer David O. Selznick, after a court battle with Powell and Pressburger. The film was fully restored by the British Film Archive in 1985.
- The Tales of Hoffmann (1951)
End of the partnership
In the early 1950s Powell and Pressburger began to produce fewer films, with notably less success. The Archers' productions officially came to an end in 1957, and the pair separated to pursue their individual careers. The separation was quite amicable and they remained devoted friends for the rest of their lives.
The pair would reunite for a couple of films:
Awards, nominations and honours
|1937||The Edge of the World||Presented at the Venice Film Festival|
|1943||49th Parallel||Oscar nominated for Best Picture|
|1943||49th Parallel||Oscar winner for Best Writing, Original Story|
|1943||49th Parallel||Oscar nominated for Best Writing, Screenplay||Rodney Acklandwith|
|1943||One of Our Aircraft Is Missing||Oscar nominated for Best Writing, Original Screenplay|
|1943||One of Our Aircraft Is Missing||Oscar nominated for Best Effects, Special Effects||Ronald Neame
C.C. Stevens (sound)
|1946||A Matter of Life and Death||First ever Royal Film Performance|
|1948||A Matter of Life and Death||Winner Danish Bodil Award for Best European Film|
|1948||Black Narcissus||Oscar winner for Best Art Direction-Set Decoration, Color||Alfred Junge|
|1948||Black Narcissus||Oscar winner for Best Cinematography, Color||Jack Cardiff|
|1948||The Red Shoes||Nominated for Venice Film Festival Golden Lion|
|1949||The Red Shoes||Oscar winner for Best Art Direction-Set Decoration, Color||Hein Heckroth and
|1949||The Red Shoes||Oscar winner for Best Music, Scoring of a Dramatic or Comedy Picture||Brian Easdale|
|1949||The Red Shoes||Oscar nominated for Best Picture|
|1949||The Red Shoes||Oscar nominated for Best Writing, Original Story|
|1949||The Red Shoes||Oscar nominated for Best Film Editing||Reginald Mills|
|1950||The Small Back Room||BAFTA Award nominated for Best British Film|
|1951||The Tales of Hoffmann||Oscar nominated for Best Art Direction-Set Decoration, Color||Hein Heckroth|
|1951||The Tales of Hoffmann||Oscar nominated for Best Costume Design, Color||Hein Heckroth|
|1951||The Tales of Hoffmann||Cannes Film Festival nominated for Grand Prize of the Festival|
|1951||The Tales of Hoffmann||Winner Silver Berlin Bear from Berlin International Film Festival as Best Musical|
|1956||The Battle of the River Plate||Selected for the Royal Film Performance|
|1957||The Battle of the River Plate||BAFTA Award nominated for Best British Film|
|1957||The Battle of the River Plate||BAFTA Award nominated for Best British Screenplay|
|1957||The Battle of the River Plate||BAFTA Award nominated for Best Film from any Source|
|1959||Luna de Miel||Cannes Film Festival nominated for Golden Palm|
|1970||Partial retrospective of their films at the National Film Theatre|
|1972||The Boy Who Turned Yellow||Children's Film Foundation winner of the 'Chiffy' award for the best film|
|1978||Made Hon DLitt, University of East Anglia|
|1978||Made Hon DLitt, University of Kent|
|1978||Retrospective of their extant works at the National Film Theatre|
|1980||Dartmouth Film Award|
|1981||BAFTA Academy Fellowship Award|
|1982||Awarded Career Gold Lion from the Venice Film Festival|
|1983||Made Fellows of the British Film Institute (BFI)|
|1987||Awarded Hon Doctorate, Royal College of Art|
|1987||Akira Kurosawa Award from San Francisco International Film Festival|
||This article may contain improper references to self-published sources. (December 2010)|
|“||Michael Powell's gift was that he saw things with terrible clarity. Perhaps his films have been waiting for DVD all along.||”|
|“||There is not a British director, working in Britain, with as many worthwhile films to his credit as Michael Powell.||”|
—A Biographical Dictionary of the Cinema
British film critics gave the films of Powell and Pressburger a mixed reaction at the time, acknowledging their creativity but sometimes questioning their motivations and taste. For better or worse, The Archers were always out of step with mainstream British cinema.
From the 1970s onwards, British critical opinion began to revise this lukewarm assessment, with their first BFI retrospective in 1970 and another in 1978. They are now seen as playing a key part in the history of British film, and have become influential and iconic for many film-makers of later generations, such as Martin Scorsese, Francis Ford Coppola and George A. Romero, among others.
Regular cast & crew
Powell and Pressburger reused actors and crew members in a number of films. Actors who were part of The Archers' "stock company" include:
Notable crew members include:
- Cinematographers: Erwin Hillier, Jack Cardiff and Christopher Challis.
- Production and costume designers Alfred Junge, Hein Heckroth and Ivor Beddoes.
- Composers and musicians Brian Easdale, Allan Gray, Sir Thomas Beecham and Miklós Rózsa.
- Editors David Lean and Reginald Mills. Lean edited two early films, and went on to become a well-known and influential director himself. Mills edited twelve films from 1946-1956, nearly to the end of the partnership.
- Powell 1986, pp 302-303
- Powell 1986, pp 386-387
- Macdonald, 1994. pp 189-190
- Powell, 1986. p. 579. David Farrar was the only person ever given a multi-film contract by The Archers
- Powell, 1986
- BBC Arena documentary, A Pretty British Affair (1981)
- The Silver Fleet at the Internet Movie Database
- The End of the River at the Internet Movie Database
- Powell, 1992. p. 81
- "Pilgrims in Print". British Film Institute. BFI.org. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- "Powell and Pressburger: Books". Amazon. Amazon.com. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- Thiéry, Natacha (2003). Photogénie du désir: les films de Michael Powell et Emeric Pressburger, 1945-1950 (PhD thesis) (in French). Paris: Université de la Sorbonne nouvelle. "URL may only take you to an index page, from which the thesis can be searched for"
- Entertainment Weekly
- A Biographical Dictionary of the Cinema
- Contemporary reviews of The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp (1943)
- Contemporary reviews of A Canterbury Tale (1944)
- Contemporary reviews of I Know Where I'm Going! (1945)
- Contemporary reviews of A Matter of Life and Death (1946)
- Mirasol, M. (5 March 2010). ""Black Narcissus," which electrified Scorsese". Chicago Sun-Times. suntimes.com. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
- Christie, Ian. Arrows of Desire: The Films of Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger. London: Waterstone, 1985. ISBN 0-947752-13-7, later edition, 1994. ISBN 0-571-16271-1 (pbk).
- Christie, Ian. Powell, Pressburger and Others. London: British Film Institute, 1978. ISBN 0-85170-086-1.
- Christie, Ian and Andrew Moor, eds. The Cinema of Michael Powell: International Perspectives on an English Filmmaker. London: BFI, 2005. ISBN 1-84457-093-2.
- Darakhvelidze, George. Landscapes of Dreams: The Cinema of Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger (Part 1) (in Russian). Vinnitsa, Ukraine: Globe Press, 2009. ISBN 966-8300-34-3.
- Esteve, Llorenç. Michael Powell y Emeric Pressburger (in Spanish). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Catedra, 2002. ISBN 978-84-376-1950-7.
- Howard, James. Michael Powell. London: BT Batsford Ltd, 1996. ISBN 0-7134-7482-3.
- Lazar, David, ed. Michael Powell: Interviews. Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2003. ISBN 1-57806-498-8.
- Macdonald, Kevin. Emeric Pressburger: The Life and Death of a Screenwriter. London: Faber & Faber, 1994. ISBN 0-571-16853-1
- Moor, Andrew. Powell and Pressburger: A Cinema of Magic Spaces. London: I.B. Tauris, 2005. ISBN 1-85043-947-8.
- Powell, Michael. A Life in Movies (autobiography). London: Heinemann, 1986. ISBN 0-434-59945-X, later edition, 1993. ISBN 0-571-20431-7 (pbk).
- Powell, Michael. Million Dollar Movie (The second volume of his autobiography). London: Heinemann, 1992. ISBN 0-434-59947-6, later edition, 2000. ISBN 0-7493-0463-4 (pbk).
- Thiéry, Natacha. Photogénie du désir: Michael Powell et Emeric Pressburger 1945-1950 (in French). Rennes, France: Presse Universitaires de Rennes, 2009. ISBN 2-7535-0964-6.
- The Archers at the British Film Institute
- The Archers at BFI's screenonline.org.uk
- The Archers productions from the Internet Movie Database
- Michael Powell at the Internet Movie Database
- Emeric Pressburger at the Internet Movie Database
- Michael Powell at TCM Movie Database
- Emeric Pressburger at TCM Movie Database
- Powell and Pressburger at Senses of Cinema
- The Powell and Pressburger Pages
- The Action/Suspense Movies of Powell & Pressburger