Power chord

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Not to be confused with Power cord.
power chord
Component intervals from root
perfect fifth
root
Tuning
2:3:4
E5 power chord in eighth notes About this sound play 

In guitar music, a power chord About this sound Play  (also fifth chord) is a chord that consists of the root note and the fifth interval. Power chords are commonly played on amplified guitars, especially on electric guitar with distortion. Power chords are a key element of many styles of rock music.[1]

Analysis[edit]

When two or more notes are played through a distortion process which non-linearly transforms the audio signal, additional partials are generated at the sums and differences of the frequencies of the harmonics of those notes (intermodulation distortion).[2]

When a typical chord (for example, a major or minor chord) consisting of three or more different degrees of the scale is played through distortion, the number of different frequencies generated, and the complex ratios between them, can cause the resulting sound to be messy and indistinct (furthered by equal temperament and inharmonicity).[3]

However, in a power chord, the ratio between the frequencies of the root and fifth is very close to the just interval 3:2. When played through distortion, the intermodulation leads to the production of partials closely related in frequency to the harmonics of the original two notes, producing a more coherent sound. The intermodulation causes the spectrum of the sound to be expanded in both directions, and with enough distortion, a new fundamental frequency component appears at an octave lower than the root note of the chord played without distortion, giving a richer, more bassy and more subjectively 'powerful' sound than the undistorted signal.[4]

Even when played without distortion, the simple ratios between the harmonics in the notes of a power chord can give a stark and powerful sound, due to the resultant tone effect.

Power chords also have the added advantage of being relatively easy to play (see "Fingering" below), allowing fast chord changes and easy incorporation into melodies and riffs.

Terminology[edit]

In a triadic context chords with omitted thirds may be considered "indeterminate" triads.[5] About this sound Play 

Theorists are divided on whether a power chord can be considered a chord in the traditional sense, with some requiring a 'chord' to contain a minimum of three degrees of the scale. When the same interval is found in traditional and classical music, it would not usually be called a "chord", and may be considered to be a dyad (separated by an interval). However, the term is accepted as a pop and rock music term, most strongly associated with the overdriven electric guitar styles of hard rock, heavy metal, punk rock, and similar genres. The use of the term "power chord" has, to some extent, spilled over into the vocabulary of other instrumentalists, such as keyboard and synthesizer players.

Power chords are most commonly notated 5 or (no 3). For example, "C5" or "C(no 3)" refer to playing the root (C) and fifth (G). These can be inverted, so that the G is played below the C (making an interval of a fourth). They can also be played with octave doublings of the root or fifth note, which will make a sound that is subjectively higher pitched with less power in the low frequencies, but still retains the character of a power chord.

Another notation is ind, designating the chord as 'indeterminate'.[5] This refers to the fact that a power chord is neither major nor minor, as there is no third present. This gives the power chord a chameleon-like property; if played where a major chord might be expected, it can sound like a major chord, but when played where a minor chord might be expected, it will sound minor.

History[edit]

Power chords can be traced back to commercial recordings in the 1950s. Robert Palmer pointed to electric blues guitarists Willie Johnson and Pat Hare, both of whom played for Sun Records in the early 1950s, as the true originators of the power chord, citing as evidence Johnson's playing on Howlin' Wolf's "How Many More Years" (recorded 1951) and Hare's playing on James Cotton's "Cotton Crop Blues" (recorded 1954).[6] Link Wray is often cited as the first mainstream musician to have introduced power chords.[7][8][9][10]

The Who's Peter Townshend "windmill" strum

A later hit song built around power chords was "You Really Got Me" by the Kinks, released in 1964.[11] This song's riffs exhibit fast power-chord changes.

The Who's guitarist, Pete Townshend, performed power chords with a theatrical windmill-strum,[12][13] for example in "My Generation".[14] An example of the use of power chords is Deep Purple's "Smoke On The Water".[15] On King Crimson's Red album, Robert Fripp thrashed with power chords.[16] In the 1980s song "You Might Think" by The Cars, a power chord was performed "by muting the strings and plucking the chord repeatedly."[15]

Techniques[edit]

Power chords are often performed within a single octave, as this results in the closest matching of overtones. Octave doubling is sometimes done in power chords. Power chords are often pitched in a middle register.

F5chords.png

Shown are four examples of an F5 chord. A common voicing is the 1-5 perfect fifth (A), to which the octave can be added, 1-5-1 (B). A perfect fourth 5-1 (C) is also a power chord, as it implies the "missing" lower 1 pitch. Either or both of the pitches may be doubled an octave above or below (D is 5-1-5-1), which leads to another common variation, 5-1-5 (not shown).

Spider chords[edit]

Spider chord on D and B About this sound Play . The "web" of lines in the tab between each successive fret shows the fingering order (5-6-7-8 fingered 1-2-3-4 on strings 5-6-4-5).

The spider chord is a guitar technique popularized during the 80s thrash metal scene. Regarded as being popularized (and the term "spider chord" coined) by Dave Mustaine of Megadeth, it is used to reduce string noise when playing (mostly chromatic) riffs which require chords across several strings.

The chord or technique is used in the songs "Wake Up Dead", "Holy Wars... The Punishment Due" and "Ride the Lightning".[17]

   D5 Bb5
e|-------|
B|-------|
G|-------|
D|-7-----|
A|-5--8--|
E|----6--|
   3      <
   1  4   <--Spider chord fingering
      2   <

As seen in the above tab, the two power chords may be played in succession without shifting, making it easier and quicker,[17] and thus avoiding string noise. The normal fingering would be _1^3 for both chords, requiring a simultaneous shift and string change. Note that the two power chords are a major third apart: if the first chord is the tonic the second is the minor submediant. The spider chord fingering also allows access to a major seventh chord without the third:[17]

    AM7
e|------|
B|------|
G|------|
D|--6---|
A|--7---|
E|--5---|
    3
    4
    2

The spider chord requires the player to use all four fingers of the fretting hand, thus its name. This technique then allows one to run down the neck playing either of the two chords.[17]

Fingering[edit]

Perhaps the most common implementation is 1-5-1', that is, the root note, a note a fifth above the root, and a note an octave above the root. When the strings are a fourth apart, especially the lower four strings in standard tuning, the lowest note is played with some fret on some string and the higher two notes are two frets higher on the next two strings. Using standard tuning, notes on the first or second string need to be played one fret higher than this. (A bare fifth without octave doubling is the same, except that the highest of the three strings, in parentheses below, is not played. A bare fifth with the bass note on the second string has the same fingering as one on the fifth or sixth string.)

        G5     A5     D5     E5     G5     A5     D5     A5
E||----------------------------------------------(10)---(5)----|
B||--------------------------------(8)----(10)----10-----5-----|
G||------------------(7)----(9)-----7------9------7------2-----|
D||----(5)----(7)-----7------9------5------7-------------------|
A||-----5------7------5------7---------------------------------|
E||-----3------5-----------------------------------------------|

An inverted bare fifth, i.e. a bare fourth, can be played with one finger, as in the example below, from the riff in Smoke on the Water by Deep Purple:

     G5/D Bb5/F C5/G   G5/D Bb5/F Db5/Ab C5/G
E||------------------------|----------------------|
B||------------------------|----------------------|
G||*------3---5------------|-------3---6---5------|
D||*--5---3---5------------|---5---3---6---5------|
A||---5--------------------|---5------------------|
E||------------------------|----------------------|
|-----------------------|---------------------||
|-----------------------|---------------------||
|------3---5---3---0----|--------------------*||
|---5--3---5---3---0----|--------------------*||
|---5-------------------|---------------------||
|-----------------------|---------------------||

Another implementation used is 5-1'-5', that is, a note a fourth below the root, the root note, and a note a fifth above the root. (This is sometimes called a "fourth chord", but usually the second note is taken as the root, although it's not the lowest one.) When the strings are a fourth apart, the lower two notes are played with some fret on some two strings and the highest note is two frets higher on the next string. Of course, using standard tuning, notes on the first or second string need to be played one fret higher.

        D5     E5     G5     A5     D5     A5     D5     G5
E||-----------------------------------------------5------10----|
B||---------------------------------10-----5------3------8-----|
G||-------------------7------9------7------2-----(2)----(7)----|
D||-----7------9------5------7-----(7)----(2)------------------|
A||-----5------7-----(5)----(7)--------------------------------|
E||----(5)----(7)----------------------------------------------|

With the drop D tuning—or any other dropped tuning for that matter—power chords with the bass on the sixth string can be played with one finger, and D power chords can be played on three open strings.

In order to maintain the alternating dominant and recessive notes, they almost never consist of more than 3 strings.

     D5      E5
E||----------------
B||----------------
G||----------------
D||--0-------2-----
A||--0-------2-----
D||--0-------2-----

Occasionally, open, "stacked" power chords with more than three notes are used in drop D.

E||--------------------------5---
B||--3-------5-------7-------3---
G||--2-------4-------6-------2---
D||--0-------2-------4-------0---
A||--0-------2-------4-------0---
D||--0-------2-------4-------0---

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Glossary of Guitar Terms", Mel Bay Publications, Inc. "A chord consisting of the first (root), fifth and eighth degree (octave) of the scale. Power chords are typically used in playing rock music."
  2. ^ Doug Coulter (2000). Digital Audio Processing, p.293. ISBN 0-87930-566-5. "Any non-linearity produces harmonics as well as sum and difference frequencies between the original components."
  3. ^ "Distortion – The Physics of Heavy Metal", BBC.
  4. ^ Robert Walser (1993). Running with the Devil, p.43. ISBN 0-8195-6260-2.
  5. ^ a b Benjamin, et al. (2008). Techniques and Materials of Music, p.191. ISBN 0-495-50054-2.
  6. ^ Robert Palmer (1992). "Church of the Sonic Guitar". In DeCurtis, Anthony. Present Tense: Rock & Roll and Culture. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. pp. 13–38. ISBN 0-8223-1265-4. 
  7. ^ The Mojo Collection. Canongate. 2007. p. 242. ISBN 978-1-84767-643-6. 
  8. ^ Bogdanov, Vladimir; Woodstra, Chris; Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (2002). All music guide to rock: the definitive guide to rock, pop, and soul. Hal Leonard. p. 1243. ISBN 978-0-87930-653-3. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  9. ^ McLellan, Dennis (22 November 2005). "The Mojo Collection". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  10. ^ "Link Wray: Father of the Power Chord". NPR. 21 November 2005. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  11. ^ Walser, Robert (1993). Running with the Devil: Power, Gender, and Madness in Heavy Metal Music. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-8195-6260-2. 
  12. ^ Denyer (1992, "The advanced guitarist; Power chords and fret tapping: Power chords", p. 156)
  13. ^ Denyer (1992, "The Guitar Innovators: Pete Townshend", pp. 22-23)
  14. ^ http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x37j9_the-who-my-generation_music
  15. ^ a b Stephenson, Ken (2002). What to Listen for in Rock: A Stylistic Analysis, p.88. ISBN 978-0-300-09239-4.
  16. ^ Tamm (2002, Chapter Twelve: Chapter Twelve: Objective Art; Fripp's musical legacy: Melody): Tamm, Eric (2003) [1990], Robert Fripp: From crimson king to crafty master (Progressive Ears ed.), Faber and Faber (1990), ISBN 0-571-16289-4, Zipped Microsoft Word Document, retrieved 25 March 2012 
  17. ^ a b c d "Video Question: Spider Chords", JamPlay.com.

References[edit]

  • Denyer, Ralph (1992). "Playing the guitar, pp. 65-160, and The chord dictionary, pp. 225-249". The guitar handbook. Foreword: Robert Fripp (Fully revised and updated ed.). London and Sydney: Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-32750-X. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]