PowerGrid Corporation of India
|Traded as||NSE: POWERGRID
|Founded||23 October 1989|
|Key people||Shri RN Nayak (Chairman & MD)|
|Products||transmission and distribution; energy trading|
|Revenue||133.29 billion (US$2.1 billion)(2012–13)|
|Net income||42.34 billion (US$680 million)(2012–13)|
Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (POWERGRID), (NSE: POWERGRID, BSE: 532898) is an Indian state-owned electric utilities company headquartered in Gurgaon, India. Power Grid transmits about 50% of the total power generated in India on its transmission network. Power Grid has a pan-India presence with around 101,886 Circuit Kilometers of Transmission network and 170 EHVAC & HVDC sub-stations with a total transformation capacity of 168,063 MVA. The Inter-regional capacity is enhanced to 32,000 MW. Power Grid has also diversified into a Telecom business and established a telecom network of 29,279 Kilometers and points of presence in 210 locations across the country. Power Grid has consistently maintained the transmission system availability over 99.00% which is at par with the International Utilities.
In 1980, the Rajadhyaksha  Committee on Power Sector Reforms submitted its report to the Government of India suggesting extensive reforms in the Indian power sector. Based on the recommendations of the Rajadhyaksha Committee, in 1981 the Government of India made the policy decision to form a national power grid which would pave the way for the integrated operation of the central and regional transmission systems. Pursuant to this decision to form a national power grid, Power Grid was incorporated on 23 October 1989 under the Companies Act, 1956 as the National Power Transmission Corporation Limited, with the responsibility of planning, executing, owning, operating and maintaining the high voltage transmission systems in the country. The Company received a certificate for commencement of business on 8 November 1990. Subsequently, the name of the Company was changed to Power Grid Corporation of India Limited and took effect October 23, 1992. As of 30 September 2010, the total number of holders of Equity Shares of the Company was 792,096. The Company is presently listed on the BSE and the NSE. The Company is not operating under any injunction or restraining order. Transfer of transmission assets from generating units Initially, the Company was engaged in the management of the transmission assets owned by the central generating companies such as the NTPC, NHPC Limited ("NHPC") and North-Eastern Electric Power Corporation Limited. In January 1993, the National Thermal Power Corporation Limited, the National Hydro Electric Power Corporation Limited and the North-Eastern Electric Power Corporation Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Power Transmission Systems) Ordinance, 1993 ("Power Transmission Systems Ordinance") was enacted pursuant to which the right, title and interest of these three power generating companies in relation to the power transmission system, comprising the main transmission lines, including the extra high voltage alternative current transmission lines and the HVDC lines, and sub-stations, owned by them, were acquired by the GoI and transferred to the Company, with effect from 1 April 1992. Under the Power Transmission Systems Ordinance, the Company acquired all the rights, liabilities, assets, leaseholds, powers, authorities and privileges and all movable and immovable property relating to the power transmission systems owned by the three generating companies. The Power Transmission Systems Ordinance also provided that all employees of the three generating companies who were associated with power transmission systems would be deemed to be the employees of our Company. In April 1993, the Power Transmission System Ordinance became a statute after receiving the assent of the President of India.
India is geographically divided into five regions namely, Northern, Eastern, Western North Eastern and Southern grids. Since August 2006, the Indian electricity system is divided into two grids, the Integrated Northern, Eastern, Western, and North-Eastern regional grids (NEWNE) and the Southern Grid. All the states and union territories in India fall in either of these regions. The first four (NEWNE) out of five regional grids were operating in a synchronous mode till 31st Dec 2013, which implies that the power across these regions can flow seamlessly as per the relative load generation balance hence these four regional grids have been integrated together into NEWNE.On 31 Dec 2013, All five grids were synchronized making it a historic day. 
POWERGRID transmission network failure
The Northern Region Grid, which provides power to nine states in northern India including Delhi, experienced a widespread outage due to a grid disturbance that occurred at about 2.35 a.m on 30 July 2012.
Restoration work started immediately under the direction of CEO, POSOCO and POWERGRID’s chairman & managing director. A team of engineers tried to find out a way for restoring the normal supply of power immediately so that railways, metros, airports and other power users deemed essential could get immediate restoration of electricity. With the coordinated efforts of the whole team of engineers and constituent state utilities, power supply to the essential services and other essential loads in northern India was restored by about 8.00 a.m. and about 60% of load of the Northern Region was restored by 11:00 a.m. This was possible by gearing up the power supply from hydroelectric sources and also extending power from the Eastern and Western regions for start-up supply for thermal generating units of the Northern Region. Thus the associated problems for want of power supply could be partially overcome by this time. Later, power supply was restored progressively and by 12:30 p.m. power was extended to most of the cities and towns through POWERGRID substations. The Northern Grid was brought back to normalcy to meet the demand of about 30 GW at 7:00 p.m.
On 31 July 2012, the northern grid collapsed for a second time, hours after the power supply was restored in the entire northern region following a disruption the previous day. The eastern transmission lines also failed, disrupting power supply in Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, West Bengal, Assam and Punjab, among other states.
- Independent audit of Grids
Utility factor of transmission lines
Many of the transmission lines are taken out of operation due to high voltage at receiving end. It is the cause for more than 90% transmission line outages. It indicates faulty transmission lines planning and poor utilisation.
Evolution of National Grid
Grid management on regional basis started in sixties. Initially, State grids were inter-connected to form regional grid and India was demarcated into 5 regions namely Northern, Eastern, Western, North Eastern and Southern region. In October 1991 North Eastern and Eastern grids were connected.In March 2003 WR and ER-NER were interconnected . August 2006 North and East grids were interconnected thereby 4 regional grids Northern, Eastern, Western and North Eastern grids are synchronously connected forming central grid operating at one frequency. On 31 December 2013, Southern Region was connected to Central Grid in Synchronous mode with the commissioning of 765kV Raichur-Solapur Transmission line thereby achieving 'ONE NATION'-'ONE GRID'-'ONE FREQUENCY'.
- India Sri Lanka HVDC Interconnection
- Talcher–Kolar HVDC system
- Chandrapur back to back HVDC converter station
- Vizag back to back HVDC converter station
- The Electricity Act, 2003
- "Powerless again: Northern, eastern grids fail". 31 July 2012.
- "'Independent audit of grids in 3 months'". 7 August 2012.
- "Transmission Elements Outage Report, NRLDC. Also refer other RLDC daily and weekly reports". 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- ONE NATION-ONE GRID-ONE FREQUENCY
- Power Grid Corporate Web-Site
- National Load Despatch Centre Web-Site
- Northern Regional Load Despatch Centre Web-Site
- Western Regional Load Despatch Centre Web-Site
- Eastern Regional Load Despatch Centre Web-Site
- Southern Regional Load Despatch Centre Web-Site
- North-Eastern Regional Load Despatch Centre Web-Site