The Dark Crystal

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The Dark Crystal
The Dark Crystal Film Poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster by Richard Amsel
Directed by Jim Henson
Frank Oz
Produced by Jim Henson
Gary Kurtz
Screenplay by David Odell
Story by Jim Henson
Narrated by Joseph O'Conor
Starring Stephen Garlick
Lisa Maxwell
Billie Whitelaw
Music by Trevor Jones
Cinematography Oswald Morris
Editing by Ralph Kemplen
Studio ITC Entertainment
Henson Associates
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release dates
  • December 17, 1982 (1982-12-17)
Running time 93 minutes
Country United Kingdom
United States
Language English
Budget $15 million
Box office $40,577,001

The Dark Crystal is a 1982 American–British fantasy film directed by Jim Henson and Frank Oz. The plot revolves around Jen, an elflike 'Gelfling' on a quest to restore balance to his alien world by returning a lost shard to a powerful but broken gem. Although marketed as a family film, it was notably darker than the creators' previous material. The animatronics used in the film were considered groundbreaking. The primary concept artist was the fantasy illustrator Brian Froud, famous for his distinctive faerie and dwarf designs. Froud also collaborated with Henson and Oz for their next project, the 1986 film Labyrinth, which was notably more light-hearted than The Dark Crystal. The film stars the voices of Stephen Garlick, Lisa Maxwell and Billie Whitelaw.

The Dark Crystal was produced by Gary Kurtz, whose list of credits includes American Graffiti, Star Wars, The Empire Strikes Back, Return to Oz, and Slipstream. The screenplay was written by David Odell, who had previously worked with Henson as a staff writer on The Muppet Show. The film's score was composed by Trevor Jones. The film was produced by ITC Entertainment, the British production company responsible for producing The Muppet Show.

Plot[edit]

A thousand years ago on the planet Thra, a magical crystal cracked, and two new races appeared: the tyrannical, reptilian Skeksis, who use the power of the "Dark Crystal" to continually replenish themselves, and hunchbacked natural wizards called Mystics.

Jen, an elf-like Gelfling taken in by the Mystics after his clan was killed, is told by his Mystic master that he must find the crystal shard, and that it can be found in the home of Aughra. If he fails to do so before the three suns meet, the Skeksis will rule forever. The Skeksis' emperor and Jen's master die simultaneously. A duel ensues between the Skeksis Chamberlain and General, both of whom desire the throne. The General becomes emperor and the Chamberlain is exiled. Learning of Jen's existence, the Skeksis send large crab-like creatures called Garthim to track him.

Jen reaches Aughra and is taken to her home, which contains an enormous orrery she uses to predict the motions of the heavens. Jen discovers the crystal shard by playing music on his flute to which it resonates. Aughra tells Jen of the upcoming Great Conjunction when the three suns will align, but he learns little of its connection to the shard. The Garthim destroy Aughra's home and take her prisoner as Jen flees. Hearing the calls of the crystal, the Mystics leave their valley to travel to the Skeksis' castle. Jen meets Kira, another surviving Gelfling who can communicate with animals, and her pet Fizzgig. They discover that they have a telepathic connection, which Kira calls "dreamfasting". They stay for a night with the Podlings who raised Kira after the death of her parents. However, the Garthim attack the village and Kira, Jen, and Fizzgig flee when the Chamberlain prevents one of the Garthim from attacking them. Most of the Podlings are enslaved.

Jen and Kira discover a ruined Gelfling city. Finding a relief with prophetic writing, Jen discovers that the shard, a part of the Dark Crystal, must be reinserted to restore the Crystal's integrity. The Chamberlain tells Jen and Kira that he wishes to bring them to the Skeksis to make peace, but they distrust him and refuse. Riding on Landstriders, the Gelflings arrive at the Castle of the Crystal, where they see the Garthim that attacked Kira's village. Kira and Jen unsuccessfully attempt to free the captured Podlings. Kira, Jen and Fizzgig infiltrate the lower parts of the Castle. The Chamberlain confronts them again and tries to convince them to make peace; however, the Chamberlain wounds Jen and takes Kira to the Castle. The General restores the Chamberlain to his former position. On the suggestion of the Skeksis' resident scientist, the General decides to regain his youth by draining Kira's life essence, recalling that its potency allows a Skeksis emperor to maintain his youth for longer periods than that of the Podlings on whom they have been forced to rely since the Gelfling genocide. Aughra tells Kira to call out to the animals imprisoned in the laboratory. They break free from their cages and the Skeksis scientist falls to his death, upon which his Mystic counterpart simultaneously vanishes.

The three suns begin to align as the two Gelflings reconvene in the Crystal chamber. The Skeksis arrive to prepare for the immortality that they will gain from the Conjunction if the Crystal is not restored. Jen is discovered and drops the shard, but Kira throws it back to him and is stabbed to death by the Skeksis' high priest. Jen inserts the shard into the Crystal, unifying it as the Mystics enter the chamber. As Aughra, Jen and Fizzgig watch, the Mystics and Skeksis merge into tall glowing beings, one of whom says "we are again one", speaks to Jen of their history, and revives Kira. After leaving the Crystal for the two Gelflings to "make [their] world in its light," the beings depart, and the land is shown rejuvenated and the Castle transformed into a palace of crystal.

Cast[edit]

Kiran Shah as the body of Jen
Stephen Garlick as the voice of Jen
Kiran Shah as the body of Kira
Lisa Maxwell as the voice of Kira
Kiran Shah as the body of Aughra
Billie Whitelaw as the voice of Aughra
Percy Edwards as the voice of Fizzgig
Barry Dennen as the voice of SkekSil/The Chamberlain
Michael Kilgarriff as the voice of SkekUng/The Garthim Master
Jerry Nelson as the voice of SkekZok/The Ritual Master
Jerry Nelson as the voice of SkekSo/The Emperor
Thick Wilson as the voice of SkekAyuk/The Gourmand
John Baddeley as the voice of SkekOk/The Scroll Keeper
David Buck as the voice of SkekNa/The Slave Master
Charles Collingwood as the voice of SkekShod/The Treasurer
Sean Barrett as the voice of UrZah/The Ritual Guardian
  • Jean Pierre Amiel as UrUtt/The Weaver
  • Hugh Spight as UrAmaj/The Cook
  • Robbie Barnett as UrYod/The Numerologist
  • Swee Lim as UrNol/The Hunter
  • Simon Williamson as UrSol/The Chanter
  • Hus Levant as UrAc/The Scribe
  • Toby Philpott as UrTih/The Alchemist
  • Dave Greenaway and Richard Slaughter as UrIm/The Healer
  • Hugh Spight, Swee Lim, and Robbie Barnett as the Landstriders
  • Miki Iveria, Patrick Monckton, Sue Weatherby, and Barry Dennen as the voices of the Podlings

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

The spiritual kernel of The Dark Crystal is heavily influenced by Seth. I've always felt that the idea of perfect beings split into a good mystic part and an evil materialistic part which are reunited after a long separation is Jim's response to the teachings of that book. Jim admitted that he didn't understand the book himself, and that everyone would understand it -- or not understand it -- in their own way. But he thought it opened up a whole different way of looking at reality, which I think was one of his goals in the making of The Dark Crystal.

—Screenwriter David Odell[1]

Henson's inspiration for the visual aspects of the film came around 1975-76,[2] after he saw an illustration by Leonard B. Lubin in a 1975 edition of Lewis Carroll’s poetry showing crocodiles living in a palace and wearing elaborate robes and jewelry.[1][3][4] The film's conceptual roots lay in Henson's short-lived The Land of Gorch, which also took place in an alien world with no human characters.[3] According to co-director Frank Oz, Henson's intention was to "get back to the darkness of the original Grimms' Fairy Tales", as he believed that it was unhealthy for children to never be afraid.[5] Henson formulated his ideas into a 25-page story he entitled The Crystal, which he wrote whilst snowed in at an airport hotel.[1] Henson's original concept was set in a world called Mithra, a wooded land with talking mountains, walking boulders and animal-plant hybrids. The original plot involved a malevolent race called the Reptus group, which took power in a coup against the peaceful Eunaze, lead by Malcolm the Wise. The last survivor of the Eunaze was Malcolm's son Brian, who was adopted by the Bada, Mithra's mystical wizards.[6] This draft contained elements in the final product, including the three races, the two funerals, the quest, a female secondary character, the crystal, and the reunification of the two races during the Great Conjunction. "Mithra" was later abbreviated to "Thra", due to similarities the original name had with an ancient Persian deity.[1] The character Kira was also at that point called Dee.[4]

Most of the philosophical undertones of the film were inspired from Jane Roberts' "Seth Material". Henson kept multiple copies of the book Seth Speaks, and insisted that Froud and screenwriter David Odell read it prior to collaborating for the film. Odell later wrote that Aughra's line "He could be anywhere then," upon being told by Jen that his Master was dead, couldn't have been written without having first read Roberts' material.[1]

The Bada were renamed "Ooo-urrrs", which Henson would pronounce "very slowly and with a deep resonant voice". Odell simplified the spelling to urRu, though they were ultimately named Mystics in the theatrical cut. The word "Skeksis" was initially meant to be the plural, with "Skesis" being singular, though this was dropped early in the filming process. Originally, Henson wanted the Skeksis to speak their own constructed language, with the dialogue subtitled in English.[1] Accounts differ as to who constructed the language, and what it was based on. Gary Kurtz stated that the Skeksis language was conceived by author Alan Garner, who based it on Ancient Egyptian,[7] while Odell stated it was he who created it, and that it was formed from Indo-European roots. This idea was dropped after test screening audiences found the captions too distracting, but the original effect can be observed in selected scenes on the various DVD releases.[1] The language of the Podlings was based on Serbo-Croatian, with Kurtz noting that audience members fluent in Polish, Russian and other Slavic languages could understand individual words, but not whole sentences.[7]

The film was shot at Elstree Studios, and exterior scenes were shot in the Scottish Highlands; Gordale Scar, North Yorkshire, England; and Twycross, Leicestershire, England.

Once filming was completed, the film's release was delayed after Lew Grade sold ITC Entertainment to Robert Holmes à Court, who was skeptical of the film's potential, due to the bad reactions at the preview and the need to revoice the film's soundtrack. The film was afforded minimal advertisement and release, until Henson bought it off Holmes à Court, and funded its release with his own money.[1]

Design[edit]

One of the original Skeksis costumes, on display at the Puppetry Arts Center in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Brian Froud was chosen as concept artist after Henson saw one of his paintings in the book Once upon a time.[4] The characters in the film are elaborate puppets, and none are based on humans or any other specific Earth creature. Before its release, The Dark Crystal was billed as the first live-action film without any human beings on screen, and "a showcase for cutting-edge animatronics".[8] The hands and facial features of the groundbreaking animatronic puppets in the film were controlled with relatively primitive rods and cables, although radio control later took over many of the subtler movements.[9] Human performers inside the puppets supplied basic movement for the larger creatures, which in some cases was dangerous or exhausting; for example, the Garthim costumes were so heavy that the performers had to be hung up on a rack every few minutes to rest while still inside the costumes.[10] A mime from Switzerland was hired to help choreograph the movements of the puppeteers.[2]

When conceptualizing the Skeksis, Henson had in mind the Seven Deadly Sins, though because there were 10 Skeksis, some sins had to be invented or used twice.[11] Froud originally designed them to resemble deep sea fish,[12] but later designed them as "part reptile, part predatory bird, part dragon", with an emphasis on giving them a "penetrating stare."[11] Each Skeksis was conceived as having a different "job" or function, thus each puppet was draped in multicolored robes meant to reflect their personalities and thought processes.[12] Each Skeksis suit required a main performer, whose arm would be extended over his/her head in order to operate the creature's facial movements, while the other arm operated its left hand. Another performer would operate the Skeksis' right arm. The Skeksis performers compensated for their lack of vision by having a monitor tied to their chests.[13]

In designing the Mystics, Froud portrayed them as being more connected to the natural world than their Skeksis counterparts. Henson intended to convey the idea that they were purged of all materialistic urges, yet were incapable of acting in the real world. Froud also incorporated geometric symbolism throughout the film in order to hint at the implied unity of the two races.[12] The Mystics were the hardest creatures to perform, as the actors had to walk on their haunches with their right arm extended forward, with the full weight of the head on it. Henson himself could only hold a position in a Mystic costume for only 5–10 seconds.[11]

The Gelflings were difficult to perform, as they were meant to be the most human creatures in the film, and thus their movements, particularly their gait, had to be as realistic as possible. During scenes when the Gelflings' legs were off-camera, the performers walked on their knees in order to make the character's movements more lifelike.[13] According to Odell, the character Jen was Henson's way of projecting himself into the film.[12] Jen was originally meant to be blue, in homage to the Hindu deity Rama, but this idea was scrapped early on.[3]

Aughra was originally envisioned as a "busy, curious little creature" called Habeetabat, though the name was rejected by Froud, who found the name too similar to Habitat, a retailer he despised. The character was re-envisioned as a seer or prophetess, and renamed Aughra. In selecting a voice actor for Aughra, Henson was inspired by Zero Mostel's performance as a "kind of insane bird trying to overcome Tourettes syndrome" on Watership Down. Although originally voiced by Frank Oz, Henson wanted a female voice, and subsequently selected Billie Whitelaw.[1]

The character Fizzgig was invented by Frank Oz, who wanted a character who served the same function as the Muppet poodle Foo-Foo, feeling that, like Miss Piggy, the character Kira needed an outlet for her caring, nurturing side.[1] The character's design was meant to convey the idea of a "boyfriend-repellant", to contrast the popular idea that it is easier to form a bond with a member of the opposite sex with the assistance of a cute dog.[12]

The Podlings were envisioned as people in complete harmony with their natural surroundings, thus Froud based their design on that of potatoes.[11] Their village was modeled on the Henson family home.[12]

In designing the Garthim, Froud took inspiration from the discarded carapaces of his and Henson's lobster dinners.[4][12] The Garthim were first designed three years into the making of the film, and were made largely of fiberglass. Each costume weighed around 70 lbs, thus Garthim performers still in costume had to frequently be suspended on racks in order to recuperate.[11]

The Dark Crystal was the last film in which cinematographer Oswald Morris involved himself in before retiring. He shot all the footage with a 'light flex', a unit placed in front of the camera which gave a faint colour tint to each scene in order to give the film a more fairy tale atmosphere similar to Froud's original paintings.[11]

Music[edit]

The film's soundtrack was composed by Trevor Jones, who became involved before shooting had started. Jones initially wanted to compose a score which reflected the settings' oddness by using acoustical instruments, electronics and building structures. This was scrapped in favor of an orchestral score once Gary Kurtz became involved, as it was felt that an unusual score would alienate audiences. The main theme of the film is a composite of the Skeksis' and Mystic's themes.[14] Jones wrote the baby Landstrider theme in honour of his newly born daughter.[15]

Release[edit]

Box office[edit]

The Dark Crystal was released in 858 theaters in North America on December 17, 1982. In its initial weekends, it had a limited appeal with audiences for various reasons including parental concerns about its dark nature, creative connections with Henson's family-friendly Muppet franchise and because it was overshadowed by the film's competition over the Christmas of that year, including Tootsie and the already massively successful E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial.[16] By the end of its box office run, it made $40,577,001 managing to turn in a profit. The film became the 16th highest grossing film of 1982 within North America.[17]

Critical response[edit]

The film received a mixed response upon its original release, though has earned a better reception in later years, becoming a favorite with fans of Henson and fantasy.[18] It currently holds a 71% rating on Rotten Tomatoes.[19] Vincent Canby of The New York Times negatively reviewed the film, describing it as a "watered down J. R. R. Tolkien ... without charm as well as interest."[20] Kevin Thomas gave it a more positive assessment in the Los Angeles Times: "Unlike many screen fantasies, The Dark Crystal casts its spell from its very first frames and proceeds so briskly that it's over before you realize it. You're left with the feeling that you have just awakened from a dream."[21] In 2008, the film was one of the 50 movies nominated for AFI's Top 10 Fantasy Films list.[22]

The film was banned in Iran for its ceremonial imagery, which was deemed "blasphemous".[23]

Awards[edit]

Home media release[edit]

The Dark Crystal was first released by Sony Pictures Home Entertainment on DVD on October 5, 1999, and has had multiple re-releases since including a Collector's Edition on November 25, 2003, and a 25th Anniversary Edition on August 14, 2007. It was released on Blu-ray on September 29, 2009.

in other media[edit]

  • A book entitled The World of The Dark Crystal, written by J. J. Llewellyn and illustrated by Brian Froud, was released at the same time as the film. The book expands greatly on the world of "Thra", detailing its conditions and history, as well as providing some additional story background.
  • A tie-in novelization of the film was written by A.C.H. Smith. Henson took a keen interest in the novelization, as he considered it as a legitimate part of the film's world rather than just an advertisement. He originally asked Alan Garner to write it, but he declined on account of prior engagements. Henson and Smith met several times over meals to discuss the progress of the manuscript. According to Smith, the only major disagreement they had arose over his dislike of the Podlings, which he considered "boring". He included a scene in which a Garthim carrying a sackful of Podlings fell down a cliff and crushed them. Henson considered this scene to be an element of "gratuitous cruelty" which did not fit well into the scope of the story. In order to assist Smith in his visualising the world of The Dark Crystal, Henson invited him to visit Elstree Studios during the filming of the movie.[24]
  • An illustrated children's storybook version, The Tale of the Dark Crystal, written by Donna Bass and illustrated by Bruce McNally.
  • Vogue commissioned six of the film's costume designers to fashion clothes based on the characters of the film.[26]
  • Music duo The Crystal Method used samples from the film in the song "Trip Like I Do", released on their 1997 album Vegas.
  • Legends of the Dark Crystal, an original English-language manga written by Barbara Kesel with art by Heidi Arnhold, Jessica Feinberg, and Max Kim, was published by TokyoPop. Its story is set hundreds of years before the events of The Dark Crystal, after the Great Conjunction which saw the splitting of the UrSkeks into the Mystics and the Skeksis, but before the Great Extermination of the Gelflings. The first volume of the series came out November 2007, followed some time later by the second in August 2010. A third installment had been originally planned but was cancelled and subsequently merged into the second volume.[27]
  • Another comic book prequel, The Dark Crystal: Creation Myths, is currently being published by Archaia Entertainment as a series of three graphic novels.[28] The Henson Company and Archaia began collaborating on this project in late 2009.[29] A brief preview was made available on Free Comic Book Day in May 2011,[30] and the first installment was released January 2012, shortly thereafter spending two weeks on The New York Times Best Seller list of hardcover graphic books. In February of 2013, the second installment was officially released. The third and final part has yet to be released.
  • In February 2011, Sandstorm Productions – a firm that partnered with various design studios to facilitate the development and distribution of board games and collectible card games – revealed that it had acquired the license to produce games based on various Henson properties, including The Dark Crystal.[31] Before any definitive plans were made, however, Sandstorm went out of business in June 2012.
  • Archaia announced plans for a role-playing game based on The Dark Crystal at the August 2011 Gen Con gaming convention, intending to publish it later the following year. Like its Origins Award-winning Mouse Guard game, The Dark Crystal will be designed by Luke Crane and utilize mechanics similar to that of The Burning Wheel.[32][33] As of September 2012, it remains in active development, with more details forthcoming in 2013.
  • In August 2013, Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab - a company that produces body and household blends with a dark, romantic Gothic tone - debuted the first of their licensed The Dark Crystal perfumes. The debut included four Skeksis blends: Ung the Garthim-Master, SkekNa the Slave-Master, SkekTek the Scientist and SkekZok the Ritual-Master. [34]
  • In June 2014, Archaia Entertainment will release a hardcover version of the novelization for the Dark Crystal, which is said to be loaded with never before seen extras by Jim Henson.[35]
  • In the Jim Henson's Creature Shop Challenge episode "Return of the Skeksis," the competing creature designers had to work in teams of three to build a Skeksis that has been banished to different parts of Thra and come up with a name for them.

Sequel[edit]

During the development phase of The Dark Crystal, director Jim Henson and writer David Odell discussed ideas for a possible sequel. Almost 25 years later, Odell and his wife Annette Duffy pieced together what Odell could recall from these discussions to draft a script for The Power of the Dark Crystal.[36] Genndy Tartakovsky was initially hired in January 2006 to direct and produce the film through The Orphanage animation studios in California.[37] However, faced with considerable delays, the Jim Henson Company announced a number of significant changes in a May 2010 press release: It was going to partner with Australia-based Omnilab Media to produce the sequel, screenwriter Craig Pearce had reworked Odell and Duffy's script, and directing team Michael and Peter Spierig were replacing Tartakovsky. In addition, the film would be released in stereoscopic 3D.[38] During a panel held at the Museum of the Moving Image on September 18, 2011 to commemorate the legacy of Jim Henson, his daughter Cheryl revealed that the project was yet again on hiatus.[39] More recently, it was reported in February 2012 that Omnilab Media and the Spierig brothers had parted ways with the Henson Company due to budgetary concerns; production on the film has been suspended indefinitely.[40]

On July 1, 2013, an announcement was made by The Jim Henson Company, in association with Grosset and Dunlap (a publishing division of Penguin Group USA) are hosting a Dark Crystal Author Quest Contest to write a new Dark Crystal novel, as a prequel for the original film, set in the Dark Crystal world during a 'Gelfling Gathering.' The winning author will be awarded a publishing contract with Penguin worth $10,000 (US).

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j David Odell (2012), "Reflections on Making The Dark Crystal and Working with Jim Henson". In: Froud, B., Dysart, J., Sheikman, A. & John, L. The Dark Crystal: Creation Myths, Vol. II. Archaia. ISBN 978-1-936393-80-0
  2. ^ a b Fantastic Films #32 ,February, 1983
  3. ^ a b c McAra, Catriona (2013) A Natural History of "The Dark Crystal": The Conceptual Design of Brian Froud. In: The Wider Worlds of Jim Henson. McFarland, Jefferson, pp. 101-116.
  4. ^ a b c d Brian Froud (2003), "A Journey into The Dark Crystal". In: Froud, B. & Llewellyn, J. J., The World of the Dark Crystal. Pavilion Books. ISBN 1-86205-624-2
  5. ^ Peter Hartlaub, Q&A: Frank Oz on Henson, “Dark Crystal” and the Kwik Way, SFGate, (Jun 28, 2007)
  6. ^ Jim Henson, The Mithra Treatment [DVD special Feature]. The Dark Cyrstal: Collector's Edition, Dir. Jim Henson & Frank Oz. 1982. Colombia Tristar Home Entertainment, 2003. DVD.
  7. ^ a b Hutchinson, David. "Producing the world of The Dark Crystal: A new direction for the man behind ‘Star Wars" and "Empire" Gary Kurtz". Starlog: The Magazine of the Future. 66 (January 1983):19-20.
  8. ^ Wright 2005.
  9. ^ Rickitt 2000, p. 225.
  10. ^ Bacon 1997, p. 24.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Making-of. The World of the Dark Crystal. Dir. Jim Henson & Frank Oz. 1982. Colombia Tristar Home Video, 1999. DVD.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Making-of. Reflections of the Dark Crystal: Light on the Path of Creation. Dir. Michael Gillis. Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2007. DVD.
  13. ^ a b Making-of. Reflections of the Dark Crystal: Shard of Illusion. Dir. Michael Gillis. Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2007. DVD.
  14. ^ Cinemascore 2011.
  15. ^ "The Dark Crystal" at Oscars Outdoors, Oscars.org (September 4, 2012)
  16. ^ Scheib 2010.
  17. ^ The Dark Crystal Summary at Box Office Mojo.
  18. ^ Von Gunden 1989, p. 30–31.
  19. ^ Rotten Tomatoes (The Dark Crystal)
  20. ^ Canby 1982.
  21. ^ Thomas 1982.
  22. ^ AFI's 10 Top 10 Ballot
  23. ^ Tom Hawker, Top Ten Blasphemous Movies: In honour of the unholy Antichrist, we chart the other movies that are definitely going to hell..., IGN (July 23, 2009)
  24. ^ Sam Downie (Producer). (2011, October). LABYRINTH – The 25th Anniversary Podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.dsoundz.co.uk/2012/08/07/labyrinth-the-25th-anniversary-podcast/#.UhTs-D91jIU
  25. ^ Marvel Super Special #24 at the Grand Comics Database
  26. ^ Falk 2012, p. 141.
  27. ^ Arnhold 2010.
  28. ^ Archaia Entertainment 2011.
  29. ^ Warmoth 2010.
  30. ^ Diamond Comic Distributors 2010.
  31. ^ ICv2 February 1, 2011.
  32. ^ ICv2 August 24, 2011.
  33. ^ Richardson 2011.
  34. ^ http://www.facebook.com/darkcrystal
  35. ^ http://www.tfaw.com/Profile/Jim-Hensons-Dark-Crystal-HC-Novel___451278
  36. ^ Carroll 2006.
  37. ^ The Jim Henson Company 2006.
  38. ^ The Jim Henson Company 2010.
  39. ^ Hill 2011.
  40. ^ Swift 2012.

References[edit]

External links[edit]