Poznań Voivodeship (1921–39)

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Poznań Voivodeship
Województwo Poznańskie
Voivodeship of the Second Polish Republic

1919–1939

Coat of arms of Poznań

Coat of arms

Location of Poznań
Location of Poznań Voivodeship (red)
within the Second Republic of Poland (1938).
Capital Poznań
52°24′N 16°55′E / 52.400°N 16.917°E / 52.400; 16.917Coordinates: 52°24′N 16°55′E / 52.400°N 16.917°E / 52.400; 16.917
Voivode
 -  Aug–October 1919 (first) Wojciech Trąmpczyński
 -  September 1939 (last) Cyryl Ratajski
History
 -  Established 1 August 1919
 -  Territorial changes April 1, 1938
 -  Annexed 12 September 1939
Area
 -  1921 26,528 km2 (10,243 sq mi)
 -  1938 28,089 km2 (10,845 sq mi)
 -  1939 27,379 km2 (10,571 sq mi)
Population
 -  1921 1,967,865 
Density 74.2 /km2  (192.1 /sq mi)
 -  1931 2,339,600 
Density 88.2 /km2  (228.4 /sq mi)

Poznań Voivodeship (Polish: Województwo Poznańskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in the years 1921–1939, created after World War I from the Prussian-German province of Poznań (Province of Posen). The borders were changed in 1939: the city of Bydgoszcz passed to the Pomeranian Voivodeship, but some Eastern areas were included (see Territorial changes of Polish Voivodeships on April 1, 1938).

During World War II, it was occupied by Nazi Germany and annexed as Reichsgau Wartheland "(Reich province of the Land of the Warta River)". Poles and Jews were classified by German authorities as untermenschen and subjected to imprisonment, slavery and extermination.

Area and counties[edit]

Between April 1, 1938 and September 1, 1939, the Voivodeship's area was 28 089 km², and its population - 2 339 600 (according to the 1931 Polish census). It consisted of 29 powiats (the highest number in Poland, however, most of them were very small, both in area and population), 100 towns (the highest number in Poland) and 237 villages. Railroad density was high, with 10.1 km. per 100 km² (total length of railroads within the Voivodeship's area was 2 684 km., the highest in the whole country). Forests covered 19.8% of the Voivodeship, which was lower than the national average (in 1937 the average was 22.2%).

Poznańskie Voivodeship was one of the richest and best developed in interwar Poland. With numerous cities and well-developed rail, it also was a breadbasket of the country, its highly efficient agriculture was well-mechanized. The city of Poznań was a big industrial center, as well as a key railroad junction. Only 7.6% of population was illiterate, which was much lower than the national average of 23.1% (as of 1931). Poles made up the majority of the population (90.5%), with 7.4% Germans and 1.9% Jews.

After World War I the number of Germans was 224,254 in 1926 and 203,135 in 1934.[1]

This is the list of the Poznań Voivodeship counties as for August 31, 1939:

  • Chodzież county (area 893 km², pop. 44 500),
  • Czarnków county (area 919 km², pop. 43 300),
  • city of Gniezno county (area 18 km², pop. 30 700),
  • Gniezno county (area 1 126 km², pop. 57 300),
  • Gostyń county (area 701 km², pop. 55 900),
  • Jarocin county (area 1 124 km², pop. 87 500),
  • Kalisz county (area 1 478 km², pop. 196 700),
  • Kępno county (area 1 179 km², pop. 86 900),
  • Koło county (area 1 097 km², pop. 109 800),
  • Konin county (area 2 152 km², pop. 168 000),
  • Kościan county (area 1 057 km², pop. 78 900),
  • Krotoszyn county (area 915 km², pop. 75 500),
  • Leszno county (area 827 km², pop. 61 200),
  • Międzychód county (area 755 km², pop. 31 000),
  • Mogilno county (area 1 059 km², pop. 70 300),
  • Nowy Tomyśl county (area 1 276 km², pop. 87 300),
  • Oborniki county (area 966 km², pop. 50 400),
  • Ostrów Wielkopolski county (area 1 194 km², pop. 104 100),
  • city of Poznań county (area 77 km², pop. 246 500),
  • Poznań county (area 1 227 km², pop. 91 200),
  • Rawicz county (area 523 km², pop. 49 900),
  • Szamotuły county (area 1 076 km², pop. 67 700),
  • Środa Wielkopolska county (area 800 km², pop. 49 900),
  • Śrem county (area 921 km², pop. 57 300),
  • Turek county (area 1 591 km², pop. 130 500),
  • Wągrowiec county (area 1 037 km², pop. 54 300),
  • Wolsztyn county (area 754 km², pop. 47 900),
  • Września county (area 608 km², pop. 43 700),
  • Żnin county (area 739 km², pop. 41 500).

Main cities[edit]

The biggest cities of the Voivodeship were (data according to the 1931 census):

  • Poznań (pop. 246 500),
  • Kalisz (pop. 68 300),
  • Gniezno (pop. 30 700),
  • Ostrów Wielkopolski (pop. 24 400),
  • Leszno (pop. 19 400),
  • Koło (pop. 13 800)
  • Krotoszyn (pop. 13 000),
  • Konin (pop. 10 300).

German minority[edit]

According to Polish census in 1921 there were 16.7% Germans in Polish areas(327.846 overall) and 9.2% in 1931(193.044 overall)[2]

County
(German name in brackets)[3]
ethnic German population (1926) ethnic German population (1934)
Odolanów (Adelnau) 10,038 9,442
Międzychód (Birnbaum) 4,655 4,377
Bydgoszcz (Bromberg, town) 11,016 10,021
Bydgoszcz (Bromberg, district) 13,281 12,211
Czarnków (Czarnikau) 5,511 4,773
Gniezno (Gnesen) 8,616 7,876
Gostyń (Gostyn) 2,395 2,162
Grodzisk Wielkopolski (Grätz) / Nowy Tomyśl (Neutomischel) 16,576 16,555
Inowrocław (Hohensalza) 8,455 8,096
Jarocin (Jarotschin) / Pleszew (Pleschen) 4,667 4,019
Kępno (Kempen) / Ostrzeszów (Schildberg) 16,631 10,889
Chodzież (Kolmar) 14,246 12,348
Koźmin (Koschmin) / Krotoszyn (Krotoschin) 6,542 5,807
Leszno (Lissa) 9,917 8,371
Mogilno (Mogilno) / Strzelno (Strelno) 8,727 7,770
Oborniki (Obornik) 9,417 8,410
Poznań (Posen, town) 5,980 4,387
Poznań (Posen, district) 4,687 4,252
Rawicz (Rawitsch) 6,184 5,038
Szamotuły (Samter) 5,029 4,841
Śmigiel (Schmiegel) / Kościan (Kosten) 3,636 3,488
Śrem (Schrimm) 2,802 3,574
Środa Wielkopolska (Schroda) 2,269 2,029
Szubin (Schubin) 10,193 8,879
Wyrzysk (Wirsitz) 13,495 12,410
Wolsztyn (Wollstein) 10,369 9,313
Wągrowiec (Wongrowitz) 8,401 7,143
Września (Wreschen) 2,436 2,115
Żnin (Znin) 5,404 4,539
Poznań Voivodship (total) 224,254 203,135

Voivodes[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kotowski, Albert S. (1998). Polens Politik gegenüber seiner deutschen Minderheit 1919-1939 (in German). Forschungsstelle Ostmitteleuropa, University of Dortmund. p. 56. ISBN 3-447-03997-3. 
  2. ^ 11pic2.jpg
  3. ^ Kotowski, Albert S. (1998). Polens Politik gegenüber seiner deutschen Minderheit 1919-1939 (in German). Forschungsstelle Ostmitteleuropa, University of Dortmund. p. 56. ISBN 3-447-03997-3. 

References[edit]

  • Maly rocznik statystyczny 1939, Nakladem Glownego Urzedu Statystycznego, Warszawa 1939 (Concise Statistical Year-Book of Poland, Warsaw 1939).