September 17, 1885
Panvel, Bombay Presidency, British India
|Died||November 20, 1973
Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
|Residence||Shivaji Park, Mumbai, India|
|Alma mater||Calcutta University|
|Occupation||Writer, Politician, Social activist|
|Political movement||Samyukta Maharashtra Movement|
|Relatives||Bal Thackeray, Raj Thackeray, Uddhav Thackeray|
Keshav Sitaram Thackeray, commonly known by his pen name Prabodhankar Thackeray, was an Indian politician, social activist and author. He was one of the key leaders of the Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti which successfully campaigned for the linguistic state of Maharashtra. He was the father of Bal Thackeray, who founded Shiv Sena, a Marathi Hindu regionalist party. He is also the grandfather of Shiv Sena leader Uddhav Thackeray and Maharashtra Navnirman Sena chief Raj Thackeray.
Early life 
Keshav Thackeray was born on 17 September 1885 in Panvel. In his autobiography, Keshav Thackeray writes that one of his ancestors was a kiladar of the Dhodap fort during the Maratha rule. His great-grandfather Krishnaji Madhav ("Appasaheb") resided in Pali, Raigad, while his grandfather Ramchandra "Bhikoba" Dhodapkar settled in Panvel. Keshav's father Sitaram adopted the lastname "Panvelkar" as per the tradition, but decided to give his son the surname "Thakre", which was apparently their traditional family name before their ancestors moved to Dhodap. An admirer of the India-born British writer William Makepeace Thackeray, Keshav later anglicized the spelling of his surname to "Thackeray".
When Keshav was still a teenager, his father died in a plague epidemic, in 1902. Keshav was educated at Panvel, Kalyan, Baramati and Bombay (now Mumbai). Outside the Bombay Presidency, he studied at the Victoria High School in Dewas (Central Provinces), and later, at the Calcutta University. He finally settled in Bombay.
Literary career 
Keshav Thackeray wrote in the Marathi language. He started a fortnightly magazine named Prabodhan ("Enlighten"), which is the origin of his pen name Prabodhankar. His other Marathi language works include the following:
- Mazhi Jeevangatha ("My autobiography")
- Historical research
- Pratapsingh Chhatrapati and Rango Bapuji
- Gramanyachya Sadhyant Itihas Arthat Nokarashiche Banda (A Comprehensive History of Rebellion or the Revolt of the Bureaucrats), published by Yashwant Shivram Raje in 1919, at Mumbai
- Bhikshushahiche Band
- Kodandacha Tanatkar
- Devalacha dharma aani dharmaachi devale
- Hindu janancha rhaas aani adhapaat
- Shetkaryanche Swarajya (The self-rule of the farmers)
- Khara Brahman
- Sangeet Vidhinishedh
- Taklele Por'
- Sangeet Kaalacha Kaal
- Sangeet Seetashuddhi
- Shri Sant Gadgebaba
- Pandit Ramabai Saraswati
- Collected Articles
- Uth Marathya Uth (Arise Marathi People Arise; This is a collection of his 12 articles which appeared in the weekly 'Marmik', following the establishment of Shiv Sena, first published in 1973, it will be published again in 2013 by 'Navta Book World')
Social activism 
Keshav Thackeray is often described as a social activist or social reformer for his rejection of caste system. He campaigned against the dominance of the upper-caste Brahmin community in the society, calling it bhikshukshahi ("the rule of the bhikshus").
Keshav Thackeray was born in the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu (CKP) caste, traditionally a community of scribes (kayasthas). When the prominent Marathi historian VK Rajwade contested the upper-caste Kshatriya status claimed by the CKPs in a 1916 essay, Thackeray became one of his fiercest critics, and denounced his research as casteist. He wrote a text outlining the identity of the CKP caste, and its contributions to the Maratha empire. In this text, Gramanyachya Sadhyant Itihas, Thackeray talked about the discrimination suffered by other communities at the hands of the Brahmins during the Maratha rule. He was not much concerned about the ritual caste status, but sought to prove that many non-Brahmin communities (specifically the CKPs) had played a major role in the history of the Maratha empire. He wrote that the CKPs "provided the cement" for Shivaji's swaraj (self-rule) "with their blood", and supported him even before the Kshatriyas of Rajput origin joined him.
Political activism 
Keshav Thackeray played an important role in the Samyukta Maharashtra movement aimed at establishing the inguistic state of Maharashtra. He joined the movement in 1951, demanding the inclusion of the Dang district in Maharashtra instead of neighbouring Gujarat state. He was one of the founding members of the Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti, which campaigned for the formation of Maharashtra and the inclusion of Belgaum and Mumbai in it.
Personal life 
Keshav Thackeray's wife was Rama Bai Keshav Thackeray. He had two sons, Bal Thackeray and Shrikant Thackeray (father of Raj Thackeray) and a daughter Sanjeevani. He also had two brothers named Vinayakrao Thackeray and Yeshwant Thackeray.
- Jñāneśa Mahārāva (2001). Thackeray, life & style. Pushpa Prakashan. p. 24. ISBN 978-81-7448-092-7. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- Keshav Thackeray. माझी जीवनगाथा (Mazhi Jeevangatha) (in Marathi). Retrieved 2012-09-07.
- Johannes Quack (22 November 2011). Disenchanting India:Organized Rationalism and Criticism of Religion in India: Organized Rationalism and Criticism of Religion in India. Oxford University Press. pp. 263–. ISBN 978-0-19-981260-8. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- Prachi Deshpande (2007). Creative Pasts: Historical Memory And Identity in Western India, 1700-1960. Columbia University Press. pp. 181–. ISBN 978-0-231-12486-7. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- Anupama Rao (13 October 2009). The Caste Question: Dalits and the Politics of Modern India. University of California Press. pp. 304–. ISBN 978-0-520-25761-0. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- Gyan Prakash (21 September 2010). Mumbai Fables. Princeton University Press. pp. 228–. ISBN 978-0-691-14284-5. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- Works of Prabodhankar Thackeray (in Marathi)