Prabowo Subianto

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Prabowo Subianto
Prabowo wapres.jpeg
Personal details
Born Prabowo Subianto Djojohadikusumo
(1951-10-17) 17 October 1951 (age 62)
Jakarta, Indonesia
Nationality Indonesian
Political party The Great Indonesia Movement Party (GERINDRA)
Children Didit Prabowo
Religion Islam
Website Personal Site
Twitter Stream
Facebook Page
Military service
Allegiance Indonesia
Service/branch Indonesian Army
Rank Lieutenant General
Commands Kostrad
Kopassus

Prabowo Subianto (born 17 October 1951) is an Indonesian businessman, politician and former Lieutenant General in the Indonesian National Armed Forces. In the Indonesian presidential election, 2009 he ran for the vice-presidency as part of Megawati Sukarnoputri's campaign for president.[1] In November 2011, Prabowo announced his intention to run for president in the next Indonesian presidential election, 2014.[2] Prabowo is the son of Sumitro Djojohadisumo and former husband of Siti Hediati "Titiek" Suharto, the late President Suharto's daughter.[3]

Family Background[edit]

Prabowo's grandfather, Margono Djojohadikusumo, was the founder of Bank Negara Indonesia, the first leader of Indonesia's Temporary Advisory Council (Dewan Pertimbangan Agung Sementara), and Group for the Preparation of Indonesian Independence (Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia).[4]

Prabowo's father, Sumitro Djojohadikusumo, was an economist who served as former President Suharto's minister for the economy and minister for research and technology.[5] Sumitro named Prabowo after his own younger brother, a martyr hero who died in a battle against the Dutch in Yogyakarta during the Indonesian National Revolution.[6] Prabowo has two older sisters, Bintianingsih and Mayrani Ekowati, and one younger brother, Hashim Djojohadikusumo. Hashim's pribumi conglomerate business interests stretch from Indonesia to Canada and Russia.[7] Sumitro encouraged his son to attend military academy. One of Prabowo's role models was Turkish military figure Ataturk, and according to peers and observers, Prabowo was talented with a passion for stratagems and had an appetite for political power.[6]

Prabowo married Suharto's daughter, Siti Hediati Hariyadi, in 1983. They have a son, Didiet Prabowo, who used to live in Boston before settling in Paris to pursue a career in design.[8]

Military career[edit]

One of Prabowo's achievements during his military career was the 1996 release of nine researchers taken hostage by the Free Papua Movement. In this photo, Prabowo greets one of the hostages rescued by Kopassus in the Mapenduma Operation.

Prabowo enrolled in Indonesia's Military Academy in Magelang in 1970.[9] He graduated in 1974 with others who would gain senior leadership positions such as Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.[9]

In 1976, Prabowo was assigned as commander of Group 1 Komando Pasukan Sandhi Yudha (Kopassandha), which is part of the Indonesian Army's Nanggala Operation in East Timor.[9] Prabowo, then 26 years old, was the youngest Nanggala commander.[9] Prabowo led the mission to capture the vice president of Fretilin, who was the first Prime Minister of East Timor, Nicolau dos Reis Lobato.[9] Guiding Prabowo was Antonio Lobato – Nicolau's younger brother. Prabowo's company found Nicolau as he was being escorted in Maubisse, fifty kilometers south of Dili. Nicolau died from a bullet wound to his stomach on 31 December 1978.[9] In 1985 he went to Fort Benning, in the United States for commando training.[10]

As commander of Kopassus Group 3 in the early 1990s, Major General Prabowo attempted to crush the East Timorese independence movement by using irregular troops (hooded "ninja" gangs dressed in black and operating at night) and, in main towns and villages, militias trained and directed by Kopassus commanders. Human rights abuses rose. The Army's 1997 campaign was called Operation Eradicate.[11]

In 1996, Prabowo led the Mapenduma Operation in the mountainous terrain of Papua, Indonesia. The goal of the operation was the release of 11 scientific researchers, who had been taken hostage by the Free Papua Movement. The researchers comprised five Indonesians, four Britons, one Dutchman and his pregnant German wife. Two of the Indonesian male hostages were killed shortly before the rescue operation. The mission involved covert support from British Military Attache and SAS veteran Colonel Ivor Helberg. The operation was criticized for using the Red Cross emblem on a white helicopter to deceive the Papuan rebels.[12]

On 20 March 1998, Prabowo was appointed head of the 27,000-strong Army Strategic Reserve Command (Kostrad), the key Jakarta garrison that Suharto had commanded in 1965.[13]

Role in 1998 riots and the Fall of Suharto[edit]

As the effect of the East Asian financial crisis began to worsen for Indonesians, social disorder and open resentment of Suharto's administration increased. Less than three months after his appointment as head of Kostrad, on the first day of the May 1998 riots, Prabowo urged the commander of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, Wiranto, to let him bring his Strategic Reserve units from outside Jakarta into the city to help restore order.[14] Hundreds of men trained by Kopassus (Prabowo's former command) were flown from Dili to Yogyakarta in chartered planes, and then on to Jakarta by train.[15] Prabowo publicly urged Indonesians to join him to fight "traitors to the nation".[16] On the morning of 14 May, Kopassus troops escorted young thugs from Lampung in southern Sumatra into the capital.[17] Thus Prabowo was accused of using his contacts in his former command to import and create trouble, while Wiranto had declined to give Prabowo's current command, Kostrad, permission to quell the existing trouble, in line with classic Javanese tactic to stir chaos to discredit a rival and/or seize power.[15]

Troops under Prabowo's command kidnapped and tortured at least nine democracy activists in the months before the May 1998 Riots. [18] In one testimony, a former detainee told of being tortured for days in an unidentified location, allegedly a military camp where most of their time was spent blindfolded, while being forced to answer repeated questions, mainly concerning their political activities. Abuse included being punched, terrorized physically and mentally, and given electric shocks.[19] Later, in 2009, two of the nine men were candidates for Gerinda, Prabowo's political party, and another served as a media adviser to Prabowo.[20]

Later investigations into the May riots revealed that violence in Jakarta was the result of an internal struggle within the military elite to become Suharto's successor.[21] Many believed Prabowo, as Strategic Reserve commander, sought to become his father-in-law's successor and coveted the Commander of the Armed Forces position held by General Wiranto, who was favored to succeed Suharto. He was also suspected of organizing the kidnappings of students and activists prior to the 1997 election (13 of whom remain "missing"). Together with Operations Commander for Greater Jakarta (Panglima Komando Operasi Jakarta Raya, Pangkoops Jaya) Major General Sjafrie Sjamsoeddin, Prabowo aimed to terrorize opponents of the government and to show that Wiranto was "an incompetent commander who could not control disorder".[22][23] During the months of August and September, the fact finding team interviewed Prabowo, Sjafrie, and other military commanders regarding their movements during the Jakarta riots. Prabowo asserted that he was unsure of the precise movements of military forces in the capital and deferred to Sjafrie.[24] In its final report, the fact finding team suspected that, on the night of 14 May, Prabowo met with several Armed Forces and prominent civilian figures at the Kostrad headquarters to discuss organization of the violence.[25] However, this was later refuted by several people who attended the meeting, including prominent human rights lawyer Adnan Buyung Nasution and Joint Fact Finding Team member Bambang Widjojanto.[26] Further testimonies by Prabowo[27] in the years following the investigation contradicted the team's report and led to skepticism of the team's allegations.[28]

On 21 May 1998, Suharto announced his resignation from the Presidency and Vice President BJ Habibie took over as President.

On the afternoon following Habibie's inauguration as President, Lt Gen Prabowo demanded of Habibie that he be put in charge of the army in place of Wiranto. However, Habibie and Wiranto demoted Prabowo from Kostrad commander instead, and the following day announced Wiranto's promotion to Minister of Defence and Security and to TNI commander. A furious Prabowo went to the Presidential Palace packing a side arm and with trucks of his Kostrad troops. On being blocked from entering the Habibie's office, he instead went to Suharto who rebuked him.[29][30] Prabowo was visited by Wiranto at his home over the weekend of 23-24 May and subsequently reassigned to a non-active role in at a staff college in Bandung.[31]


Following the TNI investigation,[32] Prabowo acknowledged responsibility for the kidnapping of the activists.[33] He was discharged from military service in August. He and Wiranto denied that the discharge was a result of disciplinary action.[34] In August 1998, the Dewan Kehormatan Perwira (Officers Council of Honor) tried, and found Prabowo guilty of "misinterpreting orders" in the kidnapping of anti-Suharto activists in 1998.[35] He was discharged from military services, and went into a voluntary exile in Jordan[34] where he knew that country's new young King Abdullah as a fellow commander of special forces.[33] In an interview for Asia Now in 2000, Prabowo said "I never threatened Habibie. I was not behind the riots. That is a great lie. I never betrayed Pak Harto. I never betrayed Habibie. I never betrayed my country...There was a certain group that wanted to make me a scapegoat, maybe to hide their involvement.""[32]

Business career[edit]

After leaving the military, Prabowo joined his brother Hashim Djojohadikusumo's business. He purchased Kiani Kertas, a paper pulp and plantation company based in Mangkajang, East Kalimantan.[36] Prior to Prabowo's purchase, Kiani was owned by Bob Hasan, a businessman close to former Presiden Suharto.[36]

Prabowo rebranded Kiani Kertas to Kertas Nusantara. Today, Prabowo's Nusantara Group controls 27 companies in Indonesia and abroad. Prabowo's companies includes Nusantara Energy (oil and natural gas, coal), Tidar Kerinci Agung (palm oil plantations) and Jaladri Nusantara (fishery industry).[37]

Prabowo was the wealthiest presidential candidate in the 2009 election, with ownership of Rp 1.5 trillion (about US$ 150 million) and US$ 7.5 million.[38]

NGOs[edit]

Prabowo opens the 2011 Pencak Silat SEA Games tournament held in Taman Mini, Jakarta. He is the Chairman of Indonesia's pencak silat organisation.
  • The Indonesian Farmers' Association was established in 1973 to advocate for the farmers' rights. Prabowo was elected President of HKTI in 2004,[39][40] and he was reappointed in 2010 for a second term.[41]
  • The Indonesian Traditional Market Traders Association (APPSI) is a non-profit organisation advocating for the welfare of traders in Indonesia's traditional markets. Prabowo was elected as president of APPSI in 2008.[42]
  • Pencak silat is one of Indonesia's traditional martial arts. The Indonesian Pencak Silat Association (IPSI) oversees the regulation of the sport in Indonesia, develops athletes, and organises tournaments. Prabowo was elected as president of IPSI in 2004 and was re-elected in 2012 for a third consecutive term.[43]

Politics[edit]

Using Prabowo's connections to President Suharto, he and his brother worked to silencing journalistic and political critics in the 1990s. Hasyim unsuccessfully pressured Goenawan Mohamad to sell his outspoken and banned Tempo magazine to him.[44] As lieutenant colonel, Prabowo invited Gus Dur to his battalion headquarters in 1992 and warned him to stick to religion and to stay out of politics, or face unspecific actions if continued to oppose the President.[45] He later warned the intellectual Nurcholish Madjid (Cak Nur) to resign from the KIPP, the election monitoring unit set up by Goenawan Mohamad, and which armed forces commander Feisal Tanjung had denounced as "obviously unconstitutional".[46]

In 2004, Prabowo was one of five contenders vying to become Golkar party's presidential candidate. He received the lowest number of votes, just 39, and was eliminated in the first round.[47] The second round of voting was won by Wiranto. In early 2008, Prabowo's inner circle, including Fadli Zon established the Great Indonesia Movement Party (Gerindra) which nominated Prabowo for presidency in the 2009 elections.[48] However, having won 26 out of 560 seats in the Indonesian parliament, the party did not have the required numbers and Prabowo ran as vice presidential candidate to Megawati Soekarnoputri, daughter of Indonesia's first president Sukarno. The pair, referred to colloquially by the Indonesian media as Mega–Pro, earned 27% of the vote and lost to incumbent President of Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and his running mate, economist Boediono.[49] In November 2011, Prabowo said he will run in the 2014 presidential elections.[50] He has a lead in some surveys including one published by the Center for Policy Studies and Strategic Development (Puskaptis)[51] and by the Indonesian Survey Institute published on 23 February 2012.[52] Observers and activists cast doubt on the results and criticized the pollsters.[53] In March 2012, the Great Indonesia Movement Party named Prabowo their 2014 presidential candidate.[54] As of then, the party's slogan was changed to Gerindra Menang Prabowo Presiden (Gerindra Wins, Prabowo Becomes President)[55]

Prabowo accepts the Great Indonesia Party's nomination for the 2014 presidential election in Lembah Hambalang, on 17 March 2012[54]
Poll source Date Highlights
Institute for Strategic and Public Policy Research (Inspire) 26 March – 3 April 2011 Anas Urbaningrum 38.7%, Hamengkubuwana X 35.7%, Prabowo Subianto 35.4%, Hidayat Nur Wahid 32.2%, Mahfud MD 25.9%, Surya Paloh 23.4%, Aburizal Bakrie 22.3%, Puan Maharani 16.7%, Kristiani Herawati 15.9%, Sri Mulyani Indrawati 14.7%
Soegeng Sarjadi Syndicate (SSS) 3–8 October 2011 Prabowo Subianto 28%, Mahfud MD 10.6%, Sri Mulyani Indrawati 7.4%, Aburizal Bakrie 6.8%, Said Akil Siradj[56] 6%, Din Syamsuddin 5,2%, Pramono Edhie Wibowo 4,2%, Jusuf Kalla 4,0%, Djoko Suyanto 3,2%, Hatta Rajasa 2,8%, Surya Paloh 2,5%.
Jaringan Suara Indonesia (JSI) 10–15 October 2011 Megawati Soekarnoputri 19,6%, Prabowo Subianto 10,8%, Aburizal Bakrie 8,9%, Wiranto 7,3%, Hamengkubuwana X 6,5%, Hidayat Nur Wahid 3,8%, Surya Paloh 2,3%, Sri Mulyani Indrawati 2,0%, Kristiani Herawati 1,6%, Hatta Rajasa 1,6%, Anas Urbaningrum 1,5%, Sutanto 0,2%, Djoko Suyanto 0,2%.
Reform Institute October 2011 Aburizal Bakrie 13.58%, Prabowo Subianto 8.46%, Jusuf Kalla 7.06%, Hidayat Nur Wahid 5.17%, Kristiani Herawati 4.13%.
Center for Policy Studies and Strategic Development (Puskaptis) 22 January – 2 February 2012 Prabowo Subianto 16.4%, Hatta Rajasa 14,6%, Aburizal Bakrie 13.5%, Megawati Soekarnoputri 13%, Akbar Tandjung 12,7%.
Indonesian Survey Institute (LSI) 1–12 February 2012 Megawati Soekarnoputri 22.2%, Prabowo Subianto 16.8%, Aburizal Bakrie 10.9%, Wiranto 10,6%, Hatta Rajasa 5,4%, other names 10.3%, undecided voters 23.8%.
Indonesia Network Elections Survey (INES) 18-30 March 2013 Prabowo Subianto 39.8% Megawati Soekarnoputri 17.2%, Hatta Rajasa 14.4%, Aburizal Bakrie 10.3%, Kristiani Herawati (also Ani Bambang Yudhoyono) 5.1%, Jusuf Kalla 4.2% Wiranto 3.3%, Pramono_Edhie_Wibowo 3.3%, Djoko Suyanto 1,0%, Sutiyoso 0,7%, Surya Paloh 0,7%.
Alvara Research Centre August 15–23, 2013 Joko Widodo 22.1%,Prabowo Subianto 17.0%, Jusuf Kalla 7.4%, Megawati Soekarnoputri 7.0%, Dahlan Iskan 6.9%, Aburizal Bakrie 6.2%, Wiranto 4.6%, Mahfud MD 4.0%, Surya Paloh 2.0%, Hatta Rajasa 1.0%, Hamengkubuwana X 0.9%, other names 1.0%, undecided 19.0%
Cyrus Network August 23–August 28, 2013 Joko Widodo 27.1%, Prabowo Subianto 14.4%, Aburizal Bakrie 12.0%, Wiranto 7.5%, Megawati Soekarnoputri 4.9%, Jusuf Kalla 3.2%
Roy Morgan Research October 2013 Joko Widodo 37%,Prabowo Subianto 15%, Aburizal Bakrie 14%, Megawati Soekarnoputri 6%, Dahlan Iskan 6%, Jusuf Kalla 5%, Mahfud MD 3%, Hatta Rajasa 2%, other names 12%
Indonesia Network Election Survey (INES)[57] 1 - 14 Februari 2014 Prabowo Subianto 40.8%, Megawati Soekarnoputri 19.5%, Aburizal Bakrie 11.3%, Dahlan Iskan 6.9%, Wiranto 6.3%, Joko Widodo 5.6%, Hatta Rajasa 2.4%, Jusuf Kalla 2.2%, Surya Paloh 1.7%, Pramono Edhie Wibowo 1.3%, Ani Yudhoyono 1.1%, Sutiyoso 0.9%

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2009/04/25/pdip-hails-prabowo-megawati039s-running-mate.html
  2. ^ "Prabowo Runs for President". 22 November 2011. 
  3. ^ Bellman, Eric (3 August 2012). "Indonesians Turn Gaze to Suharto-Era General". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 31 December 2012. 
  4. ^ Djojohadikusumo, Margono (2000). Kenang-Kenangan dari Tiga Zaman. Penerbit Indira.
  5. ^ Ready Susanto, Mari mengenal kabinet Indonesia [Let's know the cabinet of Indonesia], Lazuardi Buku Utama, Jakarta, 2011.
  6. ^ a b Friend (2003), p. 323
  7. ^ http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/coverstory/hashims-new-horizons/495099
  8. ^ http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/02/06/didit-meets-parisian-haute-couture’s-challenge.html
  9. ^ a b c d e f Conboy, Ken (2003). Kopassus: Inside Indonesia's Special Forces. Equinox Publishing
  10. ^ U.S.-Trained Unit Suspected of Torture, Washington Post, May 23, 1998, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/indonesia/stories/rights052398.htm
  11. ^ John G. Taylor, East Timor: The Price of Freedom (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999; 1st ed., 1991), p. xv. (in Friend (2003), p. 433.
  12. ^ Davis, Mark (12 July 1999). "Blood on the Cross". Four Corners, Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 
  13. ^ Friend (2003), p. 325
  14. ^ Friend (2005), p. 330
  15. ^ a b Friend (2003), p. 331
  16. ^ Friend (2003), p. 315
  17. ^ Berfield and Loveard, Ten Days, in The Last Days of President Suharto, Edward Aspinall, Herb Feith, and Gerry van Klinken, eds. (Clayton, Victoria: Monash Asia Institute, 1999), pp. 57–58.
  18. ^ "Korban yang Dikembalikan". Kontras. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  19. ^ Testimony of Andi Arif
  20. ^ Thompson, Geoff (31 March 2009). "The Farmer Wants a Country". ABC Foreign Correspondent. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  21. ^ Purdey, p. 106
  22. ^ Sijabat, Ridwan Max (13 May 2004). "Six years after, May 1998 tragedy still unresolved". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  23. ^ Purdey, p. 107
  24. ^ Purdey, pp. 150–151
  25. ^ Purdey, p. 148
  26. ^ Purdey 2006, p. 153
  27. ^ http://www.etan.org/et2009/03march/22/19prabw.htm
  28. ^ Purdey, p. 154
  29. ^ Adam Schwartz, A Nation in Waiting, pp. 367–369; Donald Emmerson, Indonesia Beyond Suharto, p. 309; Kees Van Dijk, A Country in Despair, pp. 209–210. All three from Friend (2003), p. 346
  30. ^ Jusuf Habibie, "Detik-detik yang Menentukan: Jalan Panjang Indonesia Menuju Demokrasi" (trans. "Decisive Moments: Indonesia's Long Road towards Democracy")
  31. ^ McBeth, John (4 June 1998). "Soldiering On: Military chief faces down one threat but others loom". Far Eastern Economic Review. Retrieved 25 February 1998. 
  32. ^ a b http://www-cgi.cnn.com/ASIANOW/asiaweek/magazine/2000/0303/cover1.html
  33. ^ a b Friend (2003), p. 347
  34. ^ a b Purdey 2006, p. 155
  35. ^ http://www-cgi.cnn.com/ASIANOW/asiaweek/magazine/2000/0303/cover1.html
  36. ^ a b http://www.watchindonesia.org/Kiani_eng.htm
  37. ^ http://www.asiaviews.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=775:headlinealias775
  38. ^ http://mediacenter.kpu.go.id/berita/635-kpu-umumkan-harta-kekayaan-dan-dana-awal-kampanye-caprescawapres.html
  39. ^ (Indonesian) Tempointeraktif (3 December 2004). "Prabowo Ikut Bursa Calon Ketua HKTI". Tempointeraktif. Retrieved 7 October 2008. 
  40. ^ (Indonesian) Himpunan Kerukunan Tani Indonesia. "Ketua Umum Prabowo Subianto". HKTI. Retrieved 7 October 2008. 
  41. ^ http://news.detik.com/read/2010/07/13/223516/1398674/10/prabowo-terpilih-secara-aklamasi-pimpin-hkti
  42. ^ http://finance.detik.com/read/2008/08/06/171555/984138/4/prabowo-subianto-jadi-ketua-asosiasi-pedagang-pasar
  43. ^ http://www.suaramerdeka.com/v1/index.php/read/cetak/2012/02/27/178498/Lagi-Prabowo-Pimpin-PB-IPSI
  44. ^ Friend (2003), p. 324
  45. ^ Friend (2003), pp. 203, 324
  46. ^ "Surat Dari Redaksi" (Letter from the Editor), Tempo, 6–12 Oct 98, p. 7; Schwarz, Nation in Waiting, pp. 161–162, 320, 490n35.
  47. ^ Ananta, Aris (November 2005). Emerging Democracy in Indonesia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 94. 
  48. ^ (Indonesian) M. Rizal Maslan (9 May 2008). "Datangi KPU, Partai Gerindra Usung Prabowo Sebagai Capres". Detik.com. Retrieved 7 October 2008. 
  49. ^ "Megawati-Prabowo team files lawsuit protesting presidential election result". The Jakarta Post. 28 July 2009. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  50. ^ "Prabowo Runs for President". Kompas.com. 22 November 2011. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  51. ^ "Prabowo Receives Presidential Nod In 2nd Public Poll". The Jakarta Globe. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 28 February 2012. 
  52. ^ "Mencari Calon Presiden 2014". Lembaga Survei Indonesia. 23 February 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  53. ^ Ronna Nirmala (24 February 2012). "President Prabowo? LSI Survey Says Yes". The Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  54. ^ a b http://www.republika.co.id/berita/nasional/politik/12/05/09/m3qzzg-prabowo-resmi-jadi-capres-partai-gerindra
  55. ^ http://www.jpnn.com/read/2012/05/09/126854/Muzani:-Gerindra-Menang,-Prabowo-Presiden-
  56. ^ http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/home/said-aqil-siradj-to-lead-nu/366219(Indonesian)
  57. ^ Ramadhan, Bilal. "INES Klaim Hasil Survei Inginkan Capres Dari Militer". Republika Online. Retrieved 7 March, 2014. 

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]