List of governors of Roman Egypt

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During the Classical Roman Empire, the governor of Roman Egypt (praefectus Aegypti) was a prefect who administered the Roman province of Egypt with the delegated authority (imperium) of the emperor.

Egypt was established as a Roman province in consequence of the Battle of Actium, where Cleopatra as the last independent ruler of Egypt and her Roman ally Mark Antony were defeated by Octavian, the adopted heir of the assassinated Roman dictator Julius Caesar. Octavian then rose to supreme power with the title Augustus, ending the era of the Roman Republic and installing himself as princeps, the so-called "leading citizen" of Rome who in fact acted as an autocratic ruler. Although senators continued to serve as governors of most other provinces (the senatorial provinces), especially those annexed under the Republic, the role of Egypt during the civil war with Antony and its strategic and economic importance prompted Augustus to ensure that no rival could secure Aegyptus as an asset. He thus established Egypt as an imperial province, to be governed by a prefect he appointed from men of the equestrian order.

A prefect of Egypt usually held the office for three or four years.[1] An equestrian appointed to the office received no specialized training, and seems to have been chosen for his military experience and knowledge of Roman law and administration.[2] Any knowledge he might have of Egypt and its arcane traditions of politics and bureaucracy—which Philo of Alexandria described as "intricate and diversified, hardly grasped even by those who have made a business of studying them from their earliest years"—was incidental to his record of Roman service and the emperor's favor.[3]

Classical Roman Empire[edit]

Prefects of the province of Egypt
Date Prefect
30 BC – 26 BC Gaius Cornelius Gallus
26 BC – 24 BC Aelius Gallus
24 BC – 21 BC Gaius Petronius or Publius Petronius
 ?? – 12 BC Publius Rubrius Barbarus
7 BC – 4 BC Gaius Turranius
2 – 3 Publius Octavius
3 – 10 Quintus Ostorius Scapula
10 – 11 Gaius Iulius Aquila
11 – 12 Lucius Antonius Pedo
12 – 14 Quintus Magnus Maximus
14 – 15 Lucius Seius Strabo
15 – 15 Aemilius Rectus
16 – 31 Gaius Valerius
31 – 32 Gaius Vitrasius Pollio
32 Iulius Iber (Severus)
32 – 38 Aulus Avilius Flaccus
? – 41 Caius Vitrasius Pollio
41 – 42 Lucius Aemilius Rectus
42 – 45 Marcus Aevius
45 – 48 Gaius Julius Postumus
48 – 52 Gnaeus Vergilius Capito
54 Lucius Lusius Geta
55 – 59 Tiberius Claudius Balbillus Modestus
59 – 62 Lucius Julius Vestinus
63 – 65 Gaius Caecina Tuscus
66 – 69 Tiberius Julius Alexander
70 Lucius Peducius Colo
71 – 73 Tiberius Julius Lupus
73 – 74 Valerius Paulinus
78 – 79 Gaius Aeterius Fronto
80 – 82 Gaius Tettius Priscus
83 Lucius Laberius Maximus
83 – 84 Lucius Julius Ursus
85 – 88 Gaius Septimius Vegetus
89 – 92 Marcus Mettius Rufus
92 – 93 Titus Petronius Secundus
94 – 98 Marcus Junius Rufus
98 – 100 Gaius Pompeius Planta
100 – 103 Gaius Minucius Italus
103 – 107 Gaius Vibius Maximus
107 – 112 Servius Sulpicius Similis
113 – 117 Marcus Rutilius Lupus
117 – 119 Quintus Rammius Martialis
120 – 124 Titus Haterius Nepos
126 Petronius Quadratus
126 – 133 Titus Flavius Titianus
133 – 137 Marcus Petronius Mamertinus
137 – 142 Gaius Avidius Heliodorus
142 – 143 Gaius Valerius Eudemon
144 – 147 Lucius Valerius Proculus
147 – 148 Marcus Petronius Honoratus
149 – 154 Lucius Munacius Felix
154 – 159 Marcus Sempronius Liberalis
159 – 161 Titus Furius Victorinus
161 Lucius Volusius Maecianus
161 – 164 Marcus Annaeus Siriacus
164 – 167 Titus Flavius Titianus
167 – 168 Quintus Baienus Blasianus
168 – 169 Marcus Bassius Rufus
170 – 174 Gaius Calvisius Statianus
174 Claudius Julianus
174 – 175 Gaius Calvisius Statianus
175 – 176 Gaius Caecilius Salvianus
176 – 177 Titus Pactumius Magnus
178 – 180 Titus Taius Sanctus
181 Titus Flavius Piso
181 – 183 Decimus Veturius Macrinus
185 Titus Longaeus Rufus
185 – 187 Pomponius Faustinianus
188 Marcus Aurelius Verrianus
189 – 190 Tinius Demetrius
190 Claudius Lucilianus
192 Larcius Memor
192 – 194 Lucius Mantennius Sabinus
195 – 196 Marcus Ulpius Primianus
197 – 200 Quintus Aemilius Saturninus
200 Alfenus Appolinarius
200 – 203 Quintus Maecius Laetus
203 – 206 Claudius Julianus
206 – 211 Tiberius Claudius Aquila
212 – 215 Lucius Baebius Aurelius Juncinus
215 Marcus Aurelius Heraclitus
215 – 216 Aurelius Antinous
216 – 217 Lucius Valerius Datus
218 Julius Basilianus
218 – 219 Callistianus
219 – 221 Geminius Chrestus
222 Lucius Domitius Honoratus
222 – 223 Marcus Aedinius Julianus
224 Marcus Aurelius Epagatus
229 – 231 Claudius Masculinus
231 Marcus Aurelius Zeno Januarius
232 – 236 Maebius Honoratianus
236 – 240 Lucius Lucretius Annianus
241 – 242 Gnaeus Domitius Priscus
242 – 245 Aurelius Basileus
245 – 248 Gaius Valerius Firmus
249 – 250 Aurelius Appius Sabinus
251 – 252 Feltonius Restitutianus
252 – 253 Lissenius Proculus
253 Lucius Titinius Clodianus
253 – 256 Titus Magnus Crescinianus
258 – 261 Lucius Aemilianus
283 – 284 Pomponius Januarianus
335 – 337 Flavius Philagrius
338 – 340 Flavius Philagrius

Later Roman Diocese (323 – 640)[edit]

# Governor Start End Title as governor Termination
1 Julius Julianus 328 ؟؟؟ -
2 ??? 329 ؟؟؟ -
3 Magntianus 330 ؟؟؟ -
4 Florintius 331 ؟؟؟ -
5 Heginus 332 333 -
6 Patirius 333 334 -
7 Flavius Filagrius 334 337
8 Flavius Anthonius Tudurus 337 ؟؟؟ -
9 Flavius Felagrius 338 340 -
10 Longinus 341 343 -
11 Paladius 344 345 -
12 Nesturius 345 ؟؟؟ -
13 Sebastianus 352 354 -
14 Maximus 355 356 -
15 Catafronius 356 357 -
16 Hermoginus Parnasius 357 359 -
17  ??? 359 359 -
18 Faustinus 359 361 -
19 Gerontius 361 362 -
20 Icdicius Olympus 362 363 -
21 Herius 364 364 -
22 Maximus 364 364 -
23 Flavianus 364 366 -
24 Procolitianus 366 367 -
25 Flavius Itulimius 367 370 -
26 Olympus Paladius 370 371 -
27 Elius Paladius 371 374 -
28 Hadrianus 379 380 -
29 Julius Julianus 380 382 -
30 Paladius 382 383 -
31 Hebatius 383 383 -
32 Anthonius 383 384 -
33 Optatus 384 384 -
34 Florintius 384 386 -
35 Euzipius 386 386 -
36 Paulinus 386 387 -
37 Flavius Olpius Artherius ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
38 Tudurus ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
39 Flurus ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
40 Alexander ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
41 Poethus ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
42 Anthimius ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
43 Theoctisius ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
44 Theognostus ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
45 Pergamius ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
46 Apollonius ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
47 Arsinius ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
48 Eustathius ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
49 Neodusius ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
50 Deoscurus ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
51 Rudun ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
52 Liberius c.538 542 -
53 Alexander ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
54 Evagrius ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
55 Hebatius ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
56 Potamius ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
57 Evagrius ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
58 Genadius ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
59 Remegius ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
60 Archilaus ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
61 Pentadius ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
62 Pothalius ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
63 Aurestus ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
64 Calistus ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
65 Cleopatar ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
66 Carmosinus ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
67 John Laxarion ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
68 Hefastus ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
69 Germanus Gestinius ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
70 John ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -
71 Paulus ؟؟؟ ؟؟؟ -

Sassanian Occupation[edit]

# Governor Start End Termination
1 Shahrbaraz 618 628 Agreement with Heraclius on withdrawal of Persian troops

Second Byzantine period[edit]

# King Start End Title as governor Termination
72 John 628 -
73 Costantinus -
74 Menas -
75 Petrus Gestinius -
76 John -
77 Nectias -
78 Cyrus of Alexandria 630s 630s Patriarch and Pope recalled by the emperor
78 Theodore 630s 630s -
79 Cyrus of Alexandria 630s 640 Patriarch and Pope surrendered to Caliphate

References[edit]

  1. ^ Alan K. Bowman, Egypt After the Pharaohs 332 BC-AD 642: From Alexander to the Arab Conquest (University of California Press, 1986, 1996), p. 66.
  2. ^ Bowman, Egypt After the Pharaohs, p. 66.
  3. ^ Bowman, Egypt After the Pharaohs, p. 66.