P. N. Bhagwati
|P. N. Bhagwati|
|Chief Justice of India|
12 July 1985 – 20 December 1986
|Nominated by||none (per convention as he was the senior most judge)|
|Preceded by||Y. V. Chandrachud|
|Succeeded by||R. S. Pathak|
|Born||December 21, 1921|
Prafullachandra Natwarlal Bhagwati (born December 21, 1921) was the 17th Chief Justice of India, serving from 12 July 1985 until his retirement on 20 December 1986. he introduced the concepts of Public Interest Litigation and Absolute liability in India, and for this reason is held, along with Justice V. R. Krishna Iyer (a former minister in the E.M.S. Namboodiripad ministry in Kerala), to be a pioneer of judicial activism in the country.
Early and personal life
P. N. Bhagwati was born in Gujarat. His father was Justice Natwarlal H. Bhagwati, a Supreme Court judge. He is the brother of the economist Jagdish Bhagwati and the neurosurgeon S.N. Bhagwati. He is married to Prabhavati (nee Shethji) and the couple have three daughters, Parul, Pallavi and Sonali. Pallavi is a senior partner at a leading Indian law firm (Amarchand, Mangaldas & Shroff).
Bhagwati received his education in Mumbai. He studied at Elphinstone College, taking a Mathematics (Hons.) degree from Bombay University in 1941. In 1942, he courted arrest during the Indian Independence Movement and went underground for four months. He later received a law degree from Bombay University after studying at Government Law College, Bombay.
Bhagwati began his career practicing at the Bombay High Court. In July 1960, he was appointed a judge of the Gujarat High Court. In September 1967, he was appointed the Chief Justice of that court. On two occasions, he acted (briefly) as Governor of Gujarat (7 December 1967 to 25 December 1967 and 17 March 1973 to 3 April 1973 In July 1973, he was appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court of India. In August 1985, he became Chief Justice of India.
As a supreme court judge, Bhagwati introduced the concepts of public interest litigation and absolute liability to the Indian judicial system. He is therefore held, along with Justice V. R. Krishna Iyer (a member of the Communist Party of India), to have pioneered judicial activism in the country.
Habeas corpus case
A controversial judgment of Bhagwati was in the ADM Jabalpur v. Shivkant Shukla case (popularly referred to as the ADM Jabalpur case or the habeas corpus case) where he decreed that during Emergency, a person's right to not be unlawfully detained (Habeas Corpus) can be suspended. This judgment received a lot of criticism since it reduced the importance attached to Fundamental Rights under the Indian Constitution. Bhagwati later agreed with the popular opinion that this judgement was short-sighted and "apologised" for the same.
Bhagwati was appointed Chancellor of Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning on May 6, 2011. The same year, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2001.
- Judges Biography: P. N. Bhagwati Supreme Court of India.
- "Information about the tenure of the Governors of Gujarat". Raj Bhavan (Gujarat) (Govt. of Gujarat). Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "P.N. Bhagwati on the role of judicial activism". Mar 6, 1996. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- "Starting the PIL revolution". Jan 26, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
- "Padma Awards Directory (1954-2007)". Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
- "Interview with Justice Bhagwati (2011)". Video on www.myLaw.net.
- "Press statement released by Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthi Nilayam". Retrieved May 8, 2010.
- "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
Yeshwant Vishnu Chandrachud
|Chief Justice of India
July 12, 1985– December 20, 1986
Raghunandan Swarup Pathak