pragma once

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The correct title of this article is #pragma once. The substitution or omission of the # is because of technical restrictions.

In the C and C++ programming languages, #pragma once is a non-standard but widely supported preprocessor directive designed to cause the current source file to be included only once in a single compilation. Thus, #pragma once serves the same purpose as #include guards, but with several advantages, including: less code, avoidance of name clashes, and sometimes improved compile speed.[1]

Example[edit]

File "grandparent.h"
#pragma once
 
struct foo 
{
    int member;
};
File "parent.h"
#include "grandparent.h"
File "child.c"
#include "grandparent.h"
#include "parent.h"

Advantages[edit]

The most common alternative to #pragma once is to use #define to set an include guard macro, the name of which is picked by the programmer to be unique to that file. For example,

#ifndef _GRANDPARENT_H
#define _GRANDPARENT_H
... contents of grandparent.h
#endif /* !_GRANDPARENT_H */

This is more complicated, possibly less efficient, and prone to error as there are no mechanisms to prevent a programmer accidentally using the same macro name in more than one file, which would result in only one of the files being included. This problem renders #pragma once to be advantageous. Since the compiler itself is responsible for handling #pragma once, the programmer cannot make errors which cause name clashes.

Using #pragma once instead of include guards will, for some compilers, improve compilation speed since it is a higher-level mechanism; the compiler itself can compare filenames or inodes without having to invoke the C preprocessor to scan the header for #ifndef and #endif. It is important to note that some compilers such as GCC, Clang, and EDG-based compilers include specific optimizations to recognize and optimize the handling of include guards, and thus little or no speedup benefit is obtained from the use of #pragma once.[2][3][4]

Caveats[edit]

Identifying the same file on a file system is not a trivial task.[5] Symbolic links and hard links may cause the same file to be found under different names. Compilers may use a heuristic that compares file size, modification time and content.[6] This backfires when the same file is intentionally copied into several parts of a project. With include guard based on file path these copies would be treated differently while #pragma once will arbitrarily treat them as the same file in a compiler-dependent way.

Portability[edit]

Compiler #pragma once
Clang Supported[7]
Comeau C/C++ Supported[8]
C++Builder XE3 Supported[9]
Digital Mars C++ Supported[10]
GCC Supported[11] (since 3.4[5])
Intel C++ Compiler Supported[12]
Microsoft Visual C++ Supported[13]
Pelles C Supported[14]
ARM DS-5 Supported[15]
IAR C/C++ Supported[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Games from Within: Even More Experiments with Includes". Web.archive.org. 2005-01-25. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  2. ^ "The C Preprocessor: 1. The C Preprocessor". Gcc.gnu.org. 1996-02-01. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  3. ^ ""Clang" CFE Internals Manual — Clang 3.4 documentation". Clang.llvm.org. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  4. ^ "clang: File manipulation routines". Clang.llvm.org. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  5. ^ a b "GCC 3.4 Release Series — Changes, New Features, and Fixes". Gcc.gnu.org. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  6. ^ "should_stack_file() function in GCC source code". 
  7. ^ "clang: clang: Pragma.cpp Source File". Clang.llvm.org. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  8. ^ "Comeau C++ Pre-Release User Documentation: Pragmas". Comeaucomputing.com. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  9. ^ "#pragma once - RAD Studio XE3". Docwiki.embarcadero.com. 2010-12-02. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  10. ^ "Pragmas". Digital Mars. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  11. ^ "Alternatives to Wrapper #ifndef". Gcc.gnu.org. Retrieved 2013-08-20. 
  12. ^ "Diagnostic 1782: #pragma once is obsolete. Use #ifndef guard instead.". Intel Developer Zones. Retrieved 4 December 2013. 
  13. ^ "once (C/C++)". Msdn.microsoft.com. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  14. ^ IDE help/documentation
  15. ^ "ARM Information Center". ARM. Retrieved 2013-12-17. 
  16. ^ "IAR C/C++ Development Guide". IAR Systems. Retrieved 4 December 2013.