Prairie warbler

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Prairie warbler
Dendroica discolor.jpg
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Parulidae
Genus: Setophaga
Species: S. discolor
Binomial name
Setophaga discolor
(Vieillot, 1809)
Synonyms

Dendroica discolor

The prairie warbler (Setophaga discolor) is a small songbird of the New World warbler family.

These birds have yellow underparts with dark streaks on the flanks, and olive upperparts with rusty streaks on the back; they have a yellow line above the eye, a dark line through it, and a yellow spot below it. These birds have black legs, long tails, pale wing bars, and thin pointed bills. Coloring is duller in female and immatures.

Their breeding habitats are brushy areas and forest edges in eastern North America. The prairie warbler's nests are open cups, which are usually placed in a low area of a tree or shrub.

These birds are permanent residents in the southern parts of their range. Other birds migrate to northeastern Mexico and islands in the Caribbean.

Prairie warblers forage actively on tree branches, and sometimes fly around with the purpose of catching insects, which are the main food source of these birds.

Prairie warblers have two categories of songs, referred to as Type A and Type B. Type A songs are typically a series of ascending buzzy notes. The B songs are an ascending series of whistled notes that often contain some buzzy notes. Compared to A songs, the B songs are lower in pitch, have fewer, longer notes. The total song length is longer as well in Type B songs. The use of these two song categories is associated with certain contexts. A songs are sung throughout the day when males first arrive on their breeding grounds. Once males are paired they begin to sing B songs during the dawn chorus and then will intersperse A songs in their singing during the rest of the day. During this later period of singing A songs are typically used near females, near the nest, and in the center of their territories. In contrast B songs are used when interacting or fighting with other males and near the borders of their territories.

Part of their call note repertoire is a tsip call. During dawn, chorus B songs are interspersed with rapid loud "check" calls.

These birds wag their tail feathers frequently. The numbers of these birds are declining due to habitat loss; this species also suffers from nest parasitism by the Brown-headed Cowbird.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

Houlihan, Peter W. (2000). The Singing Behavior of Prairie Warblers (Dendroica discolor)(Ph.D.). University of Massachusetts Amherst. (http://scholarworks.umass.edu/dissertations/AAI9960759/)

External links[edit]


Further reading[edit]

Books[edit]

  • Nolan, V., Jr., E. D. Ketterson, and C. A. Buerkle. 1999. Prairie Warbler (Dendroica discolor). In The Birds of North America, No. 455 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Thesis[edit]

  • Baltz ME. Ph.D. (2000). The nonbreeding season ecology of neotropical migratory birds in the dry zone of Puerto Rico. University of Missouri - Columbia, United States – Missouri.
  • Brito-Aguilar R. M.S. (2005). Effects of even-aged forest management on early successional bird species in Missouri Ozark forest. University of Missouri - Columbia, United States – Missouri.
  • Brooks RA. M.S. (1987). Avifaunal populations of regenerating clearcut areas in eastern Texas, with emphasis on the Bachman's Sparrow and Prairie Warbler. Stephen F. Austin State University, United States – Texas.
  • Buerkle CA. Ph.D. (1997). Evolutionary history of migratory and nonmigratory populations of prairie warblers (Dendroica discolor). Indiana University, United States – Indiana.
  • Eliason BC. Ph.D. (1986). MATING SYSTEM, PARENTAL CARE, AND REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS IN THE BLACKPOLL WARBLER (DENDROICA STRIATA) (POLYGYNY, KENT ISLAND, NEW BRUNSWICK, CANADA, BREEDING BIOLOGY). University of Minnesota, United States – Minnesota.
  • Fink ADD. Ph.D. (2003). Habitat use, demography, and population viability of disturbance-dependent shrubland birds in the Missouri Ozarks. University of Missouri - Columbia, United States – Missouri.
  • Lanham JD. Ph.D. (1997). Attributes of avian communities in early-successional, clearcut habitats in the mountains and upper piedmont of South Carolina. Clemson University, United States – South Carolina.
  • Latta SC. Ph.D. (2000). Ecology and population regulation of neotropical migratory birds in the Sierra de Bahoruco, Dominican Republic. University of Missouri - Columbia, United States – Missouri.
  • Morimoto DC. Ph.D. (1989). Avian community structure and habitat relationships in the southeastern Massachusetts pine barrens. Boston University, United States – Massachusetts.

Articles[edit]

  • Alterman LE, Bednarz JC & Thill RE. (2005). Use of group-selection and seed-tree cuts by three early-successional migratory species in Arkansas. Wilson Bulletin. vol 117, no 4. p. 353-363.
  • Annand EM & Thompson FR, III. (1997). Forest bird response to regeneration practices in central hardwood forests. Journal of Wildlife Management. vol 61, no 1. p. 159-171.
  • Buerkle CA. (1999). The historical pattern of gene flow among migratory and nonmigratory populations of prairie warblers (Aves: Parulinae). Evolution. vol 53, no 6. p. 1915.
  • Buerkle CA. (2000). Morphological variation among migratory and non-migratory populations of Prairie Warblers. Wilson Bulletin. vol 112, no 1. p. 99-107.
  • Conner RN & Dickson JG. (1997). Relationships between bird communities and forest age, structure, species composition and fragmentation in the West Gulf Coastal Plain. Texas Journal of Science. vol 49, no 3 SUPPL. p. 123-138.
  • Conner RN, Dickson JG, Williamson JH & Ortego BN. (2004). Width of forest streamside zones and breeding bird abundance in eastern Texas. Southeastern Naturalist. vol 3, no 4. p. 669-682.
  • Crawford HS, Hooper RG & Titterington RW. (1981). Song Bird Population Response to Silvicultural Practices in Central Appalachian USA Hardwoods. Journal of Wildlife Management. vol 45, no 3. p. 680-692.
  • Dinsmore JJ. (1998). Iowa's avifauna: Recent changes and prospects for the future. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science. vol 105, no 3. p. 115-122.
  • Douglass JF. (1977). Prairie Warbler Feeds from Spider Web. Wilson Bulletin. vol 89, no 1. p. 158-159.
  • Fink AD, Thompson FR, III & Tudor AA. (2006). Songbird use of regenerating forest, glade, and edge habitat types. Journal of Wildlife Management. vol 70, no 1. p. 180-188.
  • Gram WK, Porneluzi PA, Clawson RL, Faaborg J & Richter SC. (2003). Effects of experimental forest management on density and nesting success of bird species in Missouri Ozark Forests. Conservation Biology. vol 17, no 5. p. 1324-1337.
  • Greenberg CH & Lanham JD. (2001). Breeding bird assemblages of hurricane-created gaps and adjacent closed canopy forest in the southern Appalachians. For Ecol Manage. vol 154, no 1-2. p. 251-260.
  • Grzybowski JA & Pease CM. (2005). Renesting determines seasonal fecundity in songbirds: What do we know? What should we assume?. Auk. vol 122, no 1. p. 280-292.
  • Hines M. (1999). Managing red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) affects breeding-bird communities of pine-oak forests in southeastern Kentucky. Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science. vol 60, no 2. p. 78-86.
  • Howard WI. (1968). The Prairie Warbler in Chemung County New-York USA Dendroica Discolor Record. Kingbird. vol 18, no 4. p. 197-198.
  • Jackson WM, Rohwer S & Nolan VJ. (1989). Within-Season Breeding Dispersal in Prairie Warblers and Other Passerines. Condor. vol 91, no 2. p. 233-241.
  • Johnson MD, Ruthrauff DR, Jones JG, Tietz JR & Robinson JK. (2002). Short-term effects of tartar emetic on re-sighting rates of migratory songbirds in the non-breeding season. Journal of Field Ornithology. vol 73, no 2. p. 191-196.
  • Kerlinger P & Doremus C. (1981). Habitat Disturbance and the Decline of Dominant Avian Species in Pine Barrens of the Northeastern USA. American Birds. vol 35, no 1. p. 16-20.
  • Kilgo JC & Moorman CE. (2003). Patterns of cowbird parasitism in the southern Atlantic coastal plain and piedmont. Wilson Bulletin. vol 115, no 3. p. 277-284.
  • Kroodsma RL. (1982). Bird Community Ecology on Power Line Corridors in East Tennessee USA. Biological Conservation. vol 23, no 2. p. 79-94.
  • Kroodsma RL. (1984). Ecological Factors Associated with Degree of Edge Effect in Breeding Birds. Journal of Wildlife Management. vol 48, no 2. p. 418-425.
  • Latta SC. (2003). Effects of scaley-leg mite infestations on body condition and site fidelity of migratory Warblers in the Dominican Republic. Auk. vol 120, no 3. p. 730-743.
  • Latta SC & Faaborg J. (2001). Winter site fidelity of Prairie Warblers in the Dominican Republic. Condor. vol 103, no 3. p. 455-468.
  • Latta SC & O'Connor BM. (2001). Patterns of Knemidokoptes jamaicensis (Acari: Knemidokoptidae) infestations among eight new avian hosts in the Dominican Republic. Journal of Medical Entomology. vol 38, no 3. p. 437-440.
  • Markland HM & Lovette IJ. (2005). Phylogenetic affinities and inter-island differentiation in the Vitelline Warbler Dendroica vitellina, a West Indian endemic. Ibis. vol 147, no 4. p. 764-771.
  • Martin PR, Fotheringham JR & Robertson RJ. (1995). A prairie warbler with a conspecific and heterospecific song repertoire. Auk. vol 112, no 3. p. 770-774.
  • Moore MC. (1980). Habitat Structure in Relation to Population Density and Timing of Breeding in Prairie Warblers Dendroica-Discolor. Wilson Bulletin. vol 92, no 2. p. 177-187.
  • Morimoto DC & Wasserman FE. (1991). Dispersion Patterns and Habitat Associations of Rufous-Sided Towhees Common Yellowthroats and Prairie Warblers in the Southeastern Massachusetts USA Pine Barrens. Auk. vol 108, no 2. p. 264-276.
  • Morimoto DC & Wasserman FE. (1991). Intersexual and Interspecific Differences in the Foraging Behavior of Rufous-Sided Towhees Common Yellowthroats and Prairie Warblers in the Pine Barrens of Southeastern Massachusetts. Journal of Field Ornithology. vol 62, no 4. p. 436-449.
  • Murray BGJ. (1991). Measuring Annual Reproductive Success with Comments on the Evolution of Reproductive Behavior. Auk. vol 108, no 4. p. 942-952.
  • Murray BGJ & Nolan VJ. (1989). The Evolution of Clutch Size I. an Equation for Predicting Clutch Size. Evolution. vol 43, no 8. p. 1699-1705.
  • Nelson DA. (1989). The Importance of Invariant and Distinctive Features in Species Recognition of Bird Song. Condor. vol 91, no 1. p. 120-130.
  • Niskanen JM. (1997). Unusual nesting habitat and song of the Prairie Warbler on Georgian Bay. Ontario Birds. vol 15, no 1. p. 21-26.
  • Nolan V, Jr., Ketterson ED & Buerkle CA. (1999). Prairie warbler: Dendroica discolor. Birds of North America. vol 455, p. 1-27.
  • Nolan VJ, Mueller HC & Ketterson ED. (1977). Male Prairie Warbler Dies During Courtship. Auk. vol 94, no 2. p. 393-393.
  • Oberle MW. (1986). Winter Prairie Warbler in the Piedmont Georgia USA. Oriole. vol 51, no 4.
  • Pease CM & Grzybowski JA. (1995). Assessing the consequences of brood parasitism and nest predation on seasonal fecundity in passerine birds. Auk. vol 112, no 2. p. 343-363.
  • Prather JW & Cruz A. (1995). Breeding biology of Florida prairie warblers and Cuban yellow warblers. Wilson Bulletin. vol 107, no 3. p. 475-484.
  • Prather JW & Cruz A. (1996). Resource use and population densities of Prairie and Yellow Warblers in an area of recent contact-the Florida Keys. Caribbean Journal of Science. vol 32, no 4. p. 399-405.
  • Price RD. (1977). The Menacanthus Mallophaga Menoponidae of the Passeriformes Aves. Journal of Medical Entomology. vol 14, no 2. p. 207-220.
  • Robinson WD & Robinson SK. (1999). Effects of selective logging on forest bird populations in a fragmented landscape. Conservation Biology. vol 13, no 1. p. 58-66.
  • Rodewald AD & Vitz AC. (2005). Edge- and area-sensitivity of shrubland birds. Journal of Wildlife Management. vol 69, no 2. p. 681-688.
  • Rodgers JA, Jr., Kale HWI & Smith HT. (1996). Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida, Vol. V. Birds. In Rodgers, J A, Jr [Editor], Kale, H W, II [Editor], Smith, H T [Editor] Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida, Vol V Birds xlvii+688p, 1996. University Press of Florida {a}, Gainesville, Florida.
  • Shifley SR, Thompson FR, III, Dijak WD, Larson MA & Millspaugh JJ. (2006). Simulated effects of forest management alternatives on landscape structure and habitat suitability in the Midwestern United States. Forest Ecology & Management. vol 229, no 1-3. p. 361-377.
  • Staicer CA. (1992). Social Behavior of the Northern Parula Cape May Warbler and Prairie Warbler Wintering in Second-Growth Forest in Southwestern Puerto Rico. In Hagan, J M Iii and D W Johnston (Ed) Ecology and Conservation of Neotropical Migrant Landbirds; Symposium, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA, December 6-9, 1989 Xiii+609p Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, DC, USA; London, England, Uk Illus Maps 308-320, 1992.
  • Svingen D & Martin RE. (2005). Second report of the North Dakota bird records committee: 2002-2003. Prairie Naturalist. vol 37, no 4. p. 205-223.
  • Villard M-A & Maurer BA. (1996). Geostatistics as a tool for examining hypothesized declines in migratory songbirds. Ecology. vol 77, no 1. p. 59-68.
  • Wapple R. (2003). Prairie Warbler in Saskatoon-the second record for Saskatchewan. Blue Jay. vol 61, no 1. p. 38-40.
  • Wilson CW, Masters RE & Bukenhofer GA. (1995). Breeding bird response to pine-grassland community restoration for red-cockaded woodpeckers. Journal of Wildlife Management. vol 59, no 1. p. 56-67.
  • Woodward AA, Fink AD & Thompson FR, III. (2001). Edge effects and ecological traps: Effects on shrubland birds in Missouri. Journal of Wildlife Management. vol 65, no 4. p. 668-675.