Prāṇāyām (Sanskrit: प्राणायाम prāṇāyām) is a Sanskrit word meaning "extension of the prāṇ or breath" or, "extension of the life force". The word is composed of two Sanskrit words, Prāṇ, life force, or vital energy, particularly, the breath, and "ayām", to extend or draw out. (Not 'restrain, or control' as is often translated from 'yam' instead of 'ayāma'). The origins of this yogic discipline lies in ancient Bharat (India) and what is known as present day Hinduism.
Prāṇāyām (Devanagari: प्राणायाम, prāṇāyām) is a Sanskrit compound.
- Breath, respiration
- The breath of life, vital air, principle of life (usually plural in this sense, there being five such vital airs generally assumed, but three, six, seven, nine, and even ten are also spoken of)
- Energy, vigor
- The spirit or soul
Of these meanings, the concept of "vital air" is used by Bhattacharyya to describe the concept as used in Sanskrit texts dealing with prāṇāyāma. Thomas McEvilley translates prāṇ as "spirit-energy". Its most subtle material form is the breath, but is also to be found in blood, and its most concentrated form is semen in men and vaginal fluid in women.
Monier-Williams defines the compound prāṇāyāma as "(m., also pl.) N. of the three 'breath-exercises' performed during Saṃdhyā (See pūrak, rechak (English: retch or throw out), kumbhak". This technical definition refers to a particular system of breath control with three processes as explained by Bhattacharyya: pūrak (to take the breath inside), kumbhak (to retain it), and rechak (to discharge it). There are also other processes of prāṇāyāma in addition to this three-step model.
Macdonell gives the etymology as prāṇa + āyāma and defines it as "m. suspension of breath (sts. pl.)".
Apte's definition of āyāmaḥ derives it from ā + yām and provides several variant meanings for it when used in compounds. The first three meanings have to do with "length", "expansion, extension", and "stretching, extending", but in the specific case of use in the compound prāṇāyāma he defines āyāmaḥ as meaning "restrain, control, stopping".
An alternative etymology for the compound is cited by Ramamurti Mishra, who says that:
Expansion of individual energy into cosmic energy is called prāṇāyāma (prāṇa, energy + ayām, expansion).—
Hatha and Raja Yoga Varieties 
Some scholars distinguish between hath and rāj yog varieties of prāṇāyām, with the former variety usually prescribed for the beginner. According to Taimni, hath yogic prāṇāyām involves manipulation of pranic currents through breath regulation for bringing about the control of chitt-vritti and changes in consciousness, whereas rāj yog prāṇāyām involves the control of chitt-vritti by consciousness directly through the will of the mind. Students qualified to practice prāṇāyām are therefore always initiated first in the techniques of hath prāṇāyām.
Bhagavad Gītā 
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali 
|Pada (Chapter)||English meaning||Sutras|
|Samadhi Pada||On being absorbed in spirit||
|Sadhana Pada||On being immersed in spirit||
|Vibhuti Pada||On supernatural abilities and gifts||
|Kaivalya Pada||On absolute freedom||
Pranayama is the fourth 'limb' of the eight limbs of Ashtanga Yoga mentioned in verse 2.29 in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Patanjali, a Hindu Rishi, discusses his specific approach to pranayama in verses 2.49 through 2.51, and devotes verses 2.52 and 2.53 to explaining the benefits of the practice. Patanjali does not fully elucidate the nature of prana, and the theory and practice of pranayama seem to have undergone significant development after him. He presents pranayama as essentially an exercise that is preliminary to concentration, as do the earlier Buddhist texts.
Several researchers have reported that pranayama techniques are beneficial in treating a range of stress-related disorders, improving autonomic functions, relieving symptoms of asthma (though a different study did not find any improvement) and reducing signs of oxidative stress. Practitioners report that the practice of pranayama develops a steady mind, strong will-power, and sound judgement, and also claim that sustained pranayama practice extends life and enhances perception.
Alternate nostril breathing (ANB) prāṇāyāma, also known as Nadisuddhi prāṇāyāma, is one of the beneficial prāṇāyāma for cardiopulmonary functions. Regular practice of ANB (Nadisuddhi) increases parasympathetic activity and lowers systolic blood pressure as well as respiratory rate. In fact there are a number of studies indicating that pranayama causes changes in the cardiorespiratory system including a lowering of blood pressure and of heart rate.
Many yoga teachers recommend that Prāṇāyāma techniques be practiced with care, and that advanced prāṇāyāma techniques should be practiced under the guidance of a teacher. For example, people with low blood pressure must perform it cautiously or may even have to avoid it. On the other hand pranayama may be helpful for someone with high blood pressure as the practice has been shown to lower resting blood pressure and heart rate (see the Medical section this article). These cautions are also made in traditional Hindu literature. Pregnant women may have to forgo pranayama.
Exercises which incorporate the Valsalva maneuver, a moderately forceful attempt to exhale against a closed airway, usually done by closing one's mouth, pinching one's nose shut while pressing out as if blowing up a balloon, have been medically associated in emergency room practice with subcutaneous emphysema, development of pockets of air in the body outside the lungs, for example under the skin or in the abdomen. An incidence of rectus sheath hematoma which required emergency surgery to repair a ruptured inferior epigastric artery and removal of 750 ml of blood from a woman's abdomen occurred during vigorous pranayama practice by an older woman with high blood pressure.
See also 
- Apte, p. 679.
- For the vital airs as generally assumed to be five, with other numbers given, see: Macdonell, p. 185.
- Chidananda, Sri Swami, The Philosophy, Psychology, and Practice of Yog, Divine Life Society, 1984
- Yogananda, Paramhansa, The Essence of Self-Realization, ISBN 0-916124-29-0
- Bhattacharyya, p. 311.
- McEvilley, Thomas. "The Spinal Serpent", in: Harper and Brown, p. 94.
- Richard King, Indian philosophy: an introduction to Hindu and Buddhist thought. Edinburgh University Press, 1999, p. 70.
- Monier-Williams, p. 706, left column.
- Bhattacharyya, p. 429.
- Macdonell, p.185, main entry prāṇāghāta
- See main article आयामः (āyāmaḥ) in: Apte, p. 224. Passages cited by Apte for this usage are Bhagavatgita 4.29 and Manusmriti 2.83.
- Mishra, p. 216.
- Taimni, p. 258.
- Iyengar, p. 244 – Iyengar, B. K. Sundara Raja (1995). Light on Yoga. ISBN 0-8052-1031-8
- Gambhirananda, pp. 217–218.
- Bhagavad-gita As It Is Chapter 4 Verse 29. Vedabase.net. Retrieved on 2011-02-25.
- Stiles 2001, p. x.
- Taimni, p. 205.
- Flood (1996), p. 97.
- Taimni, pp. 258–268.
- G. C. Pande, Foundations of Indian Culture: Spiritual Vision and Symbolic Forms in Ancient India. Second edition published by Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1990, p. 97.
- Light on Pranayama, Sixth Edition, Crossroad Publishing Co.
- Brown RP, Gerbarg PL (2005). "Sudarshan Kriya Yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression. Part II—clinical applications and guidelines". J Altern Complement Med 11 (4): 711–7. doi:10.1089/acm.2005.11.711. PMID 16131297.
- Pal GK, Velkumary S, Madanmohan (2004). "Effect of short-term practice of breathing exercises on autonomic functions in normal human volunteers". Indian J. Med. Res. 120 (2): 115–21. PMID 15347862.
- Vedanthan PK, Kesavalu LN, Murthy KC, et al. (1998). "Clinical study of yoga techniques in university students with asthma: a controlled study". Allergy Asthma Proc 19 (1): 3–9. doi:10.2500/108854198778557971. PMID 9532318.
- Cooper S, Oborne J, Newton S, et al. (2003). "Effect of two breathing exercises (Buteyko and pranayama) in asthma: a randomised controlled trial". Thorax 58 (8): 674–9. doi:10.1136/thorax.58.8.674. PMC 1746772. PMID 12885982.
- Bhattacharya S, Pandey US, Verma NS (2002). "Improvement in oxidative status with yogic breathing in young healthy males". Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 46 (3): 349–54. PMID 12613400.
- Jerath R, Edry JW, Barnes VA, Jerath V (2006). "Physiology of long pranayamic breathing: neural respiratory elements may provide a mechanism that explains how slow deep breathing shifts the autonomic nervous system". Med. Hypotheses 67 (3): 566–71. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2006.02.042. PMID 16624497.
- Asana Pranayama Mudra Bandha, 2002.
- Upadhyay Dhungel K, Malhotra V, Sarkar D, Prajapati R (March 2008). "Effect of alternate nostril breathing exercise on cardiorespiratory functions". Nepal Med Coll J 10 (1): 25–7. PMID 18700626.
- Immediate Effect of Slow Pace Bhastrika Pranayama on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Tapas Pramanik, Hari Om Sharma, Suchita Mishra, Anurag Mishra, Rajesh Prajapati, and Smriti Singh. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. March 2009, 15(3): 293-295. doi:10.1089/acm.2008.0440.
- Effect of Short-Term Pranayama and Meditation on Cardiovascular Functions in Healthy Individuals by Roopa B. Ankad, Anita Herur, Shailaja Patil, G.V. Shashikala, and Surekharani Chinagudi
- Immediate effect of a slow pace breathing exercise Bhramari pranayama on blood pressure and heart rate by T Pramanik, B Pudasaini and R Prajapati
- Visakhapatanam, Bharat, Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Master E.K, Kulapathi Book Trust, ISBN 81-85943-05-2
- Prescriptions for pranayama, Claudia Cummins
- Breathing Lessons, Tony Briggs
- Kashyap, A S; K P Anand and S Kashyap (March 2007). Emergency Medical Journal 24 (3): 231. doi:10.1136/emj.2006.036459. PMC 2660045 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2660045/
|url=missing title (help). "These symptoms followed a yoga exercise called “pranayam”, which had involved a vigorous Valsalva manoeuvre"
- Sharma, Hemant; Narayan Singh Shekhawat, Sudhir Bhandari, Breda Memon, and Muhammed Ashraf Memon (October 2007). "Rectus sheath haematoma: a rare presentation of non‐contact strenuous exercises". British Journal of Sports Medicine 41 (10): 688–690. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2007.036087. PMC 2465161.
|Wikiversity has learning materials about Yoga oracle#85. Yoga and Breathing|
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- Iyengar, B. K. S.(1985). Light On Pranayama: The Yogic Art of Breathing. ISBN 0-8245-0686-3
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- Mishra, Ramamurti S. (1963). The Textbook of Yoga Psychology. Monroe, New York: Baba Bhagavandas Publication Trust. ISBN 1-890964-27-1. Reprint edition, 1997.
- Saraswati, Swami Niranjanananda (1994). Prana Pranayama Prana Vidya. ISBN 81-85787-84-0
- Shaw, Scott. The Little Book of Yoga Breathing: Pranayama Made Easy. ISBN 1-57863-301-X
- Taimni, I. K. (1996). The Science of Yoga. Adyar, Madras: The Theosophical Publishing House. ISBN 81-7059-212-7. Reprint edition.