Susenghphaa

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Ahom dynasty
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1 Sukaphaa 1228–1268
2 Suteuphaa 1268–1281
3 Subinphaa 1281–1293
4 Sukhaangphaa 1293–1332
5 Sukhrangpha 1332–1364
Interregnum 1364–1369
6 Sutuphaa 1369–1376
Interregnum 1376–1380
7 Tyao Khamti 1380–1389
Interregnum 1389–1397
8 Sudangphaa 1397–1407
9 Sujangphaa 1407–1422
10 Suphakphaa 1422–1439
11 Susenphaa 1439–1488
12 Suhenphaa 1488–1493
13 Supimphaa 1493–1497
14 Suhungmung 1497–1539
15 Suklenmung 1539–1552
16 Sukhaamphaa 1552–1603
17 Susenghphaa 1603–1641
18 Suramphaa 1641–1644
19 Sutingphaa 1644–1648
20 Sutamla 1648–1663
21 Supangmung 1663–1670
22 Sunyatphaa 1670–1672
23 Suklamphaa 1672–1674
24 Suhung 1674–1675
25 Gobar Roja 1675–1675
26 Sujinphaa 1675–1677
27 Sudoiphaa 1677–1679
28 Sulikphaa 1679–1681
29 Supaatphaa 1681–1696
30 Sukhrungphaa 1696–1714
31 Sutanphaa 1714–1744
32 Sunenphaa 1744–1751
33 Suremphaa 1751–1769
34 Sunyeophaa 1769–1780
35 Suhitpangphaa 1780–1795
36 Suklingphaa 1795–1811
37 Sudingphaa 1811–1818
38 Purandar Singha 1818–1819
39 Sudingphaa 1819–1821
40 Jogeswar Singha 1821–1822
41 Purandar Singha 1833–1838

Susenghphaa (reign 1603–1641), also Pratap Singha (Assamese: স্বৰ্গদেউ প্ৰতাপ সিংহ ), was the 17th and one of the most prominent kings of the Ahom kingdom. As he was advanced in years when he became king, he is also called the Burha Raja (Old king). His reign saw an expansion of the Ahom kingdom to the west, the beginning of the Ahom-Mughal conflicts, and a reorganization of the kingdom with an expanded Paik system and reoriented village economy designed by Momai Tamuli Borbarua. His expansion to the west is underlined by the two new offices that he created: that of the Borbarua and the Borphukan. The alliances he formed with the rulers of Koch Hajo resulted in formation that successfully thwarted Mughal expansion. The administrative structure that he created survived till the end of the Ahom kingdom in 1826.

Reign[edit]

After the death of Sukhamphaa in 1603, his son Langi Gohain, was installed as the Swargadeo by the ministers Tonkham Borgohain, Chaopet Burhagohain and Banjangi Borpatrogohain.[1] At his coronation he was 58 and he assumed the name Susenghphaa accorded to him by the Tai priests. He accepted an offer of marriage to the Jaintia princess and the subsequent events brought him into conflict with the Kachari kingdom.[2] He also established alliance with the Koch Hajo rulers by marrying Mangaldahi, the daughter of Parikshit Narayan, in 1608.[3]

According to historian Late Benudhar Sarma, the present form of worship of Durga with earthen idol in Assam was started during the reign of King Susenghphaa or Pratap Singha. The King heard about the festivity, the pomp and grandeur with which the King Naranarayan of Koch Bihar celebrated Durga Puja from one Sondar Gohain, who was held captive by the Koch Raja. King Pratap Singha sent artisans to Koch Bihar to learn the art of idol making. The King organised the first such Durga Puja celebration in Bhatiapara near Sibsagar. This was the first time Durga Puja with earthen idols in Assam was held for the masses, in addition to the worship in Durga temples.

The conflict between Koch Bihar and Koch Hajo drew the Mughals and finally the Ahoms into the conflict in 1615, which finally ended in 1682 with Supaatphaa a later Ahom Swargadeo removing Mughal influence for ever from Assam. An interim truce (Treaty of Asurar Ali) was signed during Susenghphaa's reign. A necessary outcome of the Ahom-Mughal conflicts was cessation of Ahom-Kachari hostilities and restoration of peace, to confront a common enemy.[4]

Administration[edit]

As the Mughal attacks weakened Koch Hajo state powers and Ahom influence spread west, Susenghphaa appointed Langi Panisiya the first Borphukan as his western viceroy, based at Kajali, and in charge of all Ahom territories west of Kaliabor.[5] The three classes of ministers Burhagohain, Borgohain and Borpatrogohain had their well defined areas to rule and function, and those part of the kingdom which did not fall under their jurisdiction were brought under the control of the Borbarua, a new office that was also created during the rule of Pratap Singha. Under him Momai Tamuli Borbarua, the first Borbarua, made extensive changes to the Paik system and village economy.[6]

He redistributed populations to consolidate his rule. He moved the Bhuyans, the remnant of the Bhuyan chieftains, from the north to the south bank of the Brahmaputra, decreasing their power considerably. He moved eight thousand families to the sparsely populated Marangi area which was originally recovered from the Kachari kingdom by Suhungmung.

Creation of other posts like Rohiyal Barua, Jagiyal Gohain, Kajalimukhiya Gohain is also credited to him. For his organizational capability, political acumen and his wisdom, he was also known as Buddhi Swarganarayan.

Pratap Singha died in the year 1641 after a long reign of 38 years. Although a great part of his reign was distracted by wars with the Kacharis and the Mughals, he was still able to devote much attention the internal organisation of his kingdom, development of backward tracts and construction of roads, embankments and tanks.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ (Gogoi 1968:331)
  2. ^ (Gogoi 1968:333–335)
  3. ^ (Gogoi 1968:341)
  4. ^ (Gogoi 1968:351)
  5. ^ (Gogoi 1968:365)
  6. ^ (Gogoi 1968:382)

References[edit]

  • Gogoi, Padmeshwar (1968). The Tai and the Tai Kingdoms. Guwahati: Gauhati University. 

See also[edit]