|12th President of India|
25 July 2007 – 25 July 2012
|Prime Minister||Manmohan Singh|
|Vice President||Mohammad Hamid Ansari|
|Preceded by||A. P. J. Abdul Kalam|
|Succeeded by||Pranab Mukherjee|
|Governor of Rajasthan|
8 November 2004 – 23 June 2007
|Chief Minister||Vasundhara Raje|
|Preceded by||Madan Lal Khurana|
|Succeeded by||Akhlaqur Rahman Kidwai|
19 December 1934 |
Nadgaon, Bombay Presidency, British India
(now in Maharashtra, India)
|Political party||Indian National Congress|
|United Front (1996–2004)
United Progressive Alliance (2004–present)
|Spouse(s)||Devisingh Ransingh Shekhawat|
|Alma mater||Mooljee Jetha College, Jalgaon
Government Law College, Mumbai
Pratibha Devisingh Patil ( pronunciation (help·info)) (born 19 December 1934) is an Indian politician who served as the 12th President of India from 2007 to 2012; she was the first woman to hold the office. She was sworn in as President on 25 July 2007, succeeding Abdul Kalam, after defeating her rival Bhairon Singh Shekhawat. She retired from the office in July 2012. She was succeeded as President by Pranab Mukherjee.
Pratibha Devisingh Patil is the daughter of Narayan Rao Patil. She was born on 19 December 1934 in the village of Nadgaon, in the Jalgaon district of Maharashtra, India. She was educated initially at RR Vidyalaya, Jalgaon and subsequently was awarded a Masters degree in Political Science and Economics by Mooljee Jetha College, Jalgaon, and then a Bachelor of Law degree by Government Law College, Mumbai. Patil then began to practice law at the Jalgaon District Court, while also taking interest in social issues such as improving the conditions faced by Indian women.
The BBC has described Patil's political career prior to assuming Presidential office as "long and largely low-key". In 1962, at the age of 27, she was elected to the Maharashtra Legislative Assembly for the Jalgaon[clarification needed] constituency. Thereafter she won in the Muktainagar (formerly Edlabad) constituency on four consecutive occasions between 1967 and 1985, before becoming a Member of Parliament in the Rajya Sabha between 1985 and 1990. In the 1991 elections for the 10th Lok Sabha, she was elected as a Member of Parliament representing the Amravati constituency. A period of retirement from politics followed later in that decade.
Patil had held various Cabinet portfolios during her period in the Maharashtra Legislative Assembly and she had also held official positions while in both the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha. In addition, she had been for some years the president of the Maharashtra Pradesh Congress Committee and also held office as Director of the National Federation of Urban Co-operative Banks and Credit Societies and as a Member of the Governing Council of the National Co-operative Union of India.
The presidential role is largely that of a figurehead but it does potentially have greater significance, including that of overseeing the formation of a government in certain situations. The presidential electoral college consisted of around 4900 voters, being MPs and also legislators at state level who between them represented 1.09 million votes, and the selection of a candidate for election is usually arranged by consensus among the various political parties. Consequently, it is common that the candidate does not face a challenger.
On 14 June 2007, United Progressive Alliance (UPA), which was the ruling alliance of political parties in India, headed by the Indian National Congress, and the Indian Left nominated Patil as their candidate for the presidential election to be held in July that year. She emerged as a compromise candidate, being proposed by Sonia Gandhi, the UPA chairwoman, after the Left parties would not agree to the nomination of former Home Minister Shivraj Patil or Karan Singh. Patil had been loyal to the INC and the Nehru-Gandhi family for decades and this was considered to be a significant factor, although Patil said that she had no intention of being a "rubber-stamp president".
Contrary to the normal pattern of events, Patil faced a challenge in the 2007 presidential election. The BBC described the situation as "the latest casualty of the country's increasingly partisan politics and [it] highlights what is widely seen as an acute crisis of leadership". It "degenerated into unseemly mud slinging between the ruling party and the opposition". Her challenger was Bhairon Singh Shekhawat, the incumbent vice-president and a Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) veteran. Shekhawat stood as an independent candidate and was supported by the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), a group led by the BJP, which had initially considered a legal challenge to Patil's candidature on the basis of media reports concerning alleged irregularities in her financial affairs. That basis of challenge was dropped after legal advice was obtained and the focus of opposition became characterised as one of morality.
Those opposed to Patil claimed that she lacked charisma, experience and ability. They also highlighted her time spent away from high-level politics and queried her belief in the supernatural when she claimed to have received a message from Dada Lekhraj, a dead guru, who told her than she would become president. Various specific issues were raised, such as a comment made by her in 1975 that those suffering from hereditary diseases should be sterilised. It was alleged that Patil had protected her brother, G. N. Patil, who had been named in connection with the Vishram Patil murder case,[clarification needed] while another alleged that as a Member of Parliament for Amravati between 1991 and 1996 Patil diverted Rs 36 lakh (Rs 3.6 million) from her MPLADS fund to a trust run by her husband Devisingh Shekhawat. This was in violation of Government rules which barred MPs from providing funds to organisations run by their relatives. The parliamentary affairs minister denied any wrongdoing on Patil's part, and noted that the funds utilized under MPLADS are audited by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India
The INC countered the various issues raised by claiming that in 1947, soon after India gained independence, Shekhawat had been briefly suspended from his police work for taking a bribe. The opposition denied this, and also the INC claim that he had been protecting his son, who had faced charges of illegally acquiring land. The gender of Patil and her interest in issues relating to Indian women were reported as positive attributes. The BBC noted her supporters' claim that her election would be "a landmark for women in a country where millions routinely face violence, discrimination and poverty", while Bloomberg summarised the opinion of the social activist Nafisa Ali as, "In India, where female infanticide is still common and women's representation in the lower house of parliament hasn't crossed 9 percent since independence in 1947, Patil's elevation is seen as a step toward greater empowerment of women." The INC had campaigned for Shekhawat to stand down from his challenge in order to allow a woman to be elected.
Bal Thackeray, the leader of the Maharashtra-based Shiv Sena (SS) party that had been allies with the BJP for 21 years, had announced that his party would break ranks with the NDA and support Patil rather than Shekhawat. This was in part because of her gender but also because SS desired to see the country have a Marathi president. Although he did not expect the decision to cause a more general split with the BJP, Thackeray said that if Kalam had been willing to stand for a second term then SS would have supported him. He also noted that Shekhawat's position as an independent candidate was a ploy by the BJP who, according to him, had realised that if Shekhawat stood as a BJP candidate then he would lose support.
Along with her husband, she set up Vidya Bharati Shikshan Prasarak Mandal, an educational institute which runs a chain of schools and colleges in Amravati, Jalgaon and Mumbai. She also set up Shram Sadhana Trust, which runs hostels for working women in New Delhi, Mumbai and Pune; and an engineering college in Jalgaon. She also founded a cooperative sugar factory known as Sant Muktabai Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana at Muktainagar and an eponymous cooperative bank, Pratibha Mahila Sahakari Bank, that ceased trading in February 2003.
Pratibha Patil's term as the President of India has seen various controversies.
During her term as president, Patil has commuted the death sentences of 35 petitioners to life, a record — among them are those convicted of mass murder, kidnapping, rape and killing of children. Presidential office, however, defended this by saying that the President had granted clemency to the petitioners after due consideration and examining the advice of the Home Ministry.
Patil has held various official offices during her career. These are:
|1967–72||Deputy Minister, Public Health, Prohibition, Tourism, Housing & Parliamentary Affairs, Government of Maharashtra|
|1972–74||Cabinet Minister, Social Welfare, Government of Maharashtra|
|1974–75||Cabinet Minister, Public Health & Social Welfare, Government of Maharashtra|
|1975–76||Cabinet Minister, Prohibition, Rehabilitation and Cultural Affairs, Government of Maharashtra|
|1977–78||Cabinet Minister, Education, Government of Maharashtra|
|1979–1980||Leader of the Opposition, Maharashtra Legislative Assembly|
|1982–85||Cabinet Minister, Urban Development and Housing, Government of Maharashtra|
|1983–85||Cabinet Minister, Civil Supplies and Social Welfare, Government of Maharashtra|
|1986–1988||Deputy Chairman, Rajya Sabha|
|1986–88||Chairman, Committee of Privileges, Rajya Sabha; Member, Business Advisory Committee, Rajya Sabha|
|1991–1996||Chairman, House Committee, Lok Sabha|
|8 November 2004 – 23 June 2007||Governor of Rajasthan|
|25 July 2007 – 25 July 2012||President of India|
- Pranab Mukherjee sworn-in as 13th President of India. NDTV.com (25 July 2012). Retrieved on 14 April 2013.
- "Ex Governor of Rajasthan". Rajathan Legislative Assembly Secretariate. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- "Profile: President of India". NIC / President's Secretariat. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- "Profile: Pratibha Patil". BBC. 21 July 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- "Former Governors of Rajasthan". Rajasthan Legislative Assembly Secretariat. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- "Prez polls: Sonia announces Pratibha Patil's name". NDTV. 14 June 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- Pradhan, Bibhudatta (19 July 2007). "Patil Poised to Become India's First Female President". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- "I will not be a rubber stamp President". Daily News & Analysis. PTI. 16 June 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- Biswas, Soutik (13 July 2007). "India's muckraking presidential poll". BBC. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- "Indian MPs vote for new president". BBC. 19 July 2007. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- Singh, Sanjay (2 July 2007). "NDA's legal ploy fails, aims moral fire at Pratibha". DNA. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- Dhawan, Himanshi (27 June 2007). "Pratibha believes in spirits?". The Times of India. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- "Congman's wife drags Pratibha name into allegations, NDA distances itself". Indian Express. 23 June 2007. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- DNA – Mumbai – Now, a land grab haunts Patil – Daily News & Analysis. Dnaindia.com (4 July 2007). Retrieved on 6 November 2011.
- "For family again: Patil’s MP funds for sports complex on land leased to husband society". Indian Express. 6 July 2007. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
- "Advani writes to EC, wants Patil to declare assets". The Times of India. PTI. 2 July 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- Menon, Meena (26 June 2007). "Shiv Sena backs Pratibha Patil". The Hindu. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- "First female president for India". BBC. 21 July 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
- Kshirsagar, Alka (25 June 2012). "Pratibha Patil gets retirement home in Pune". Business Line (The Hindu). Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- Pratibha Patil's Resume. The Times of India. 19 July 2007.
- "Report on Trend and Progress of Banking in India, 2005–06: Appendix Table IV.3: Urban Co-operative Banks Under Liquidation". Reserve Bank of India. p. 328 (5). Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- President Pratibha Patil's brush with controversy – India News – IBN Live. Ibnlive.in.com (12 April 2012). Retrieved on 14 April 2013.
- "President defends mercy spree to death row convicts". The Times of India. 26 June 2012.
- "President Pratibha Patil goes on mercy overdrive". The Times of India. 22 June 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pratibha Patil|
|Member for Amravati
Madan Lal Khurana
|Governor of Rajasthan
Akhlaqur Rahman Kidwai
|President of India