|Pratidwandi (The Adversary)|
|Directed by||Satyajit Ray|
|Produced by||Priya Films (Nepal Dutta, Asim Dutta)|
|Written by||Satyajit Ray|
|Release dates||27 October 1970|
|Running time||110 min.|
Pratidwandi or Pratidandi (literally Adversary, Opponent or Competitor in Bengali; known internationally as The Adversary) is a 1970 Indian Bengali drama filmdirected by Satyajit Ray based on the novel by Sunil Gangopadhyay. It is the first part of the Calcutta trilogy. Set during the period of the naxalite movement in Bengal, Pratidwandi tells the story of Siddharta, an educated middle-class man caught within the turmoils of social unrest. Corruption and unemployment is rampant, and Siddhartha cannot align himself with either his revolutionary activist brother, or career-oriented sister.
The historical background of the film is set in the decade of a wide range of political turmoil in India. The huge influx of refugees during the partition of India and loss of economic activity in the hinterland of Kolkata resulted in the stagnation of the economy of Kolkata. The Naxalbari movement under Charu Majumdar saw splitting in the Communist party and an uprise in Naxalite movement inspired by the Maoist doctrine. Kolkata saw the most activities of the Maoist revolutionary group who constantly preached the local students and intellectuals. The main character Siddhartha's brother is one such example.
- Nick Pinkerton (April 14, 2009). "First Light: Satyajit Ray From the Apu Trilogy to the Calcutta Trilogy". The Village Voice. Retrieved 2009-07-09.
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