Gurjara-Pratihara

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Pratihara

 

6th century CE–1036 CE
 

 

Capital Kannauj
Languages Sanskrit
Government Monarchy
Historical era Medieval India
 -  Established 6th century CE
 -  Battle of Rajasthan 738 CE
 -  Conquest of Kannauj by Mahmud of Ghazni 1008 CE
 -  Disestablished 1036 CE

The Gurjar Pratihara (गुर्जर-प्रतिहार), often simply called Pratihara Empire, was an imperial Indian dynasty that ruled much of Northern India from the 8th to the 11th centuries. At its peak of prosperity and power (c. 836–910), the Gurajara-Pratihara Empire rivaled or even exceeded the Gupta Empire in the extent of its territory. The Pratihara Empire started to decline in the early 10th century after it had to face several invasions by the south Indian Rashtrakuta dynasty.[1]

Kannauj was the capital of imperial Gurjara Pratiharas.[2][3][4] The Gurjara Pratihara rulers in the tenth century was entitled as Maharajadhiraja of Āryāvarta ("Great King over Kings of the abode of the Aryans". i.e. Lords of Northern India).[5][6]

Etymology[edit]

The word "Pratihara" means protector or "who takes over the enemy/opponent" and was used by the Gurjara-Pratihara rulers as self-designation. It is derived mainly from the term "Pratiharya" as title awarded to them for defending the Vedic realm of Āryāvarta. The Pratihara rulers claim descent from the Hindu mythological character Lakshmana, who had performed the duty of a guardian ("pratihara") for his elder brother Rama. They were thus Suryavansh dynasty according to traditional Indology.

A 1966 book published by the Directorate of Public Relations of Rajasthan mentions that the rulers of this dynasty came to be known as the Pratiharas, because they guarded the north-western borders of the Indian subcontinent against foreign invasions.[7]

Origin[edit]

Several scholars including D. B. Bhandarkar, Baij Nath Puri and A. F. Rudolf Hoernle believe that the Pratiharas were a branch of Gurjars.[8][9][10][11][12][13] The Pratihara dynasty is referred to as Gurjara Pratiharanvayah, i.e., Pratihara clan of the Gurjaras, in line 4 of the "Rajor inscription (Alwar)".[14][15] The historian Rama Shankar Tripathi states that the Rajor inscription confirms the Gurjara origin of the Pratiharas. In line 12 of this inscription, occur words which have been translated as "together with all the neighbouring fields cultivated by the Gurjaras". Here, the cultivators themselves are clearly called Gurjaras and therefore it is reasonable to presume that, in line four too, the term bears a racial signification.[16] The Rashtrakuta records, as well as the Arab writers like Abu Zaid and Al-Masudi (who allude their fights with the Juzr or Gurjara of the north), indicate the Gurjara origin of the Pratiharas.[16] The Kanarese poet Pampa expressly calls Mahipala Ghurjararaja. This epithet could hardly be applied to him, if the term Ghurjararaja bore a geographical sense denoting what after all was only a small portion of Mahipala's vast territories.[16] Tripathi believes that all these evidences point to the Gurjara ancestry of the Pratiharas.[17] However, H. A. Rose and Denzil Ibbetson stated that there is no conclusive proof that the Agnikula clans are of Gurjara origin; they believed that there is possibility of the indigenous tribes adopting Gurjara names, when their founders were enfiefed by Gurjara rulers.[18] Dasrath Sharma believed that Gurjara was applied for territory and conceded that although some sections of the Pratiharas (e.g. the one to which Mathanadeva belonged) were Gurjars by caste, the imperial Pratiharas of Kannauj were not Gurjars.[19][20] However, in the earliest epigraphical records of the Gurjars of Broach, which corresponds to the area of modern Bharuch in south Gujarat, Dadda is described as belonging to the Gurjara-nrpati-vamsa which, as Calukva-vamsa or Raghuvamsa, refers not to the country, but to the family or the people; i.e., it stands for the Gurjar family and not the country. Gurjaratra, Gurjara-bhumi or Gurjara-mandala would thus only mean land or Mandala of Gurjars.[21] According to a legend given in later manuscripts of Prithviraj Raso, the Pratiharas were one of the Agnikula clans of Rajputs, deriving their origin from a sacrificial fire-pit (agnikunda) at Mount Abu.[22] However, this mythical story of Agnikula is not mentioned at all in the original version of the Prithviraj Raso preserved in the Fort Library at Bikaner.[23]

Rulers[edit]

Gurjara-Pratihara Rulers (650-1036 AD)
Dadda I-II-III (650 - 750)
Nagabhata I (750 - 780)
Vatsaraja (780 - 800)
Nagabhata II (800 - 833)
Ramabhadra (833 - 836)
Mihira Bhoja I (836 - 890)
Mahendrapala I (890 - 910)
Bhoj II (910 - 913)
Mahipala I (913 - 944)
Mahendrapala II (944 - 948)
Devpala (948 - 954)
Vinaykpala (954 - 955)
Mahipala II (955 - 956)
Vijaypala II (956 - 960)
Rajapala (960 - 1018)
Trilochanpala (1018 - 1027)
Jasapala (Yashpala) (1024 - 1036)

Early rulers[edit]

Harichandra is said to have laid the foundation of this dynasty in the 6th century. He created a small kingdom at Bhinmal near about 550 A.D. after the fall of Gupta Empire. The Harichandra line of Gurjara-Pratiharas established the state of Marwar, based at Mandore near modern Jodhpur, which grew to dominate Rajasthan. The Pratihara rulers of Marwar also built the temple-city of Osian.

Expansion[edit]

Nagabhata I (730–756) extended his control east and south from Mandor, conquering Malwa as far as Gwalior and the port of Bharuch in Gujarat. He established his capital at Avanti in Malwa, and checked the expansion of the Arabs, who had established themselves in Sind. In this Battle of Rajasthan (738 CE) Nagabhata led a confedracy of Gurjars to defeat the Muslim Arabs who had till then been pressing on victorious through West Asia and Iran. Nagabhata I was followed by two weak successors, who were in turn succeeded by Vatsraja (775–805).

Varaha (the boar-headed Vishnu avatar), on a Pratihara coin. 850–900 CE. British Museum.

Conquest of Kannauj and further expansion[edit]

Vatsraja sought to capture Kannauj, which had been the capital of the seventh-century empire of Harsha. His ambitions brought the Pratiharas into conflict with the Pala dynasty of Bengal and the Rashtrakutas of the northern Deccan, with whom they would contest for primacy in northern India for the next two centuries. Vatsraja successfully challenged and defeated the Pala ruler Dharmapala and Danti durga the Rashtrakuta king for control of Kannauj. In about 786 the Rashtrakuta ruler Dhruva (c. 780–793) crossed the Narmada River into Malwa, and from there tried to capture Kannauj. Vatsraja was defeated by Dhruva around 800.Vatsraja was succeeded by Nagabhata II (805–833). Nagabhata II was initially defeated by the Rashtrakuta ruler Govinda III (793–814), but later recovered Malwa from the Rashtrakutas, conquered Kannauj and the Indo-Gangetic Plain as far as Bihar from the Palas, and again checked the Muslims in the west. He rebuilt the great Shiva temple at Somnath in Gujarat, which had been demolished in an Arab raid from Sindh. Kannauj became the center of the Gurjar Pratihara state, which covered much of northern India during the peak of their power, c. 836–910.

Rambhadra (833-c. 836) briefly succeeded Nagabhata II. Bhoja I or Mihir Bhoja (c. 836–886) expanded the Gurjar dominions west to the border of Sind, east to Bengal, and south to the Narmada. His son Mahenderpal 1 (890–910) expanded further eastwards in Magadha, Bengal, and Assam.

Decline[edit]

Bhoja II (910–912) was overthrown by Mahipala I (912–914). Several feudatories of the empire took advantage of the temporary weakness of the Gurjar Pratiharas to declare their independence, notably the Paramaras of Malwa, the Chandelas of Bundelkhand, and the Kalachuris of Mahakoshal. The south Indian Emperor Indra III (c.914–928) of the Rashtrakuta dynasty briefly captured Kannauj in 916, and although the Pratiharas regained the city, their position continued to weaken in the 10th century, partly as a result of the drain of simultaneously fighting off Turkic attacks from the west, the attacks from the Rashtrakuta dynasty from the south and the Pala advances in the east. The Gurjar-Pratiharas lost control of Rajasthan to their feudatories, and the Chandelas captured the strategic fortress of Gwalior in central India, c. 950. By the end of the tenth century the Gurjar Pratihara domains had dwindled to a small state centered on Kannauj. Mahmud of Ghazni sacked Kannauj in 1018, and the Pratihara ruler Rajapala fled. The Chandela ruler Gauda captured and killed Rajapala, placing Rajapala's son Trilochanpala on the throne as a proxy. Jasapala, the last Gurjar ruler of Kanauj, died in 1036.

It can be understood from many Arabic sources that armies of the Muslim invaders greatly feared the might of the Gurjar Pratiharas. The Persian traveler Ahmad ibn Rustah praised the Gujara-Pratihara ruler Mihir Bhoja I in his Kitāb al-A'lāk an-Nafīsa thus:[24][dubious ]

In Hind there is a Malik (ruler) who is called Al-juzar (Gujar). Such is awdl (justice) in his empire, if the gold is dropped in the way, there is no danger of its being picked up and stolen away by any body. His empire is very vast. Arab traders go to him, he makes ahsan (favour) to them, purchases merchandise from them; the purchase and sale are carried in gold coin called tatri. When the Arabs request him to provide a body guard, he says, there is no thief in my empire. If there is any incident or loss to your goods, merchandise and money I stand surety. Come to me, I will pay the compensation.

Gurjara Pratihara art[edit]

The Gurjara-Pratihara rulers great patrons of arts, architecture and literature. Mihir Bhoj, was the most outstanding ruler of the dynasty. Notable sculptures of this period, include Viswaroopa form of Vishnu and Marriage of Siva and Parvati from Kannauj. Beautifully carved panels are also seen on the walls of temples standing at Osian, Abhaneri and Kotah. The female figure named as Sursundari exhibited in Gwalior Museum is one of the most charming sculptures of the Gurjara-Pratihara art.[25]

The image of standing Laksmi Narayana (Plate 42) from Agroha, now preserved in the Chandigarh museum, is also a fine piece of art of the Gurjara-Pratihara period.[26] They are known for their open pavilion temples. The gretatest development of Gurjar Pratihara style of temple building took place at Khajuraho.[27] Gurjar Pratihar rulers also built many Jain temples.[28]

Battle of Rajasthan[edit]

Kanauj triangle

Junaid, the successor of Qasim, finally subdued the Hindu resistance within Sindh. Taking advantage of the conditions in Western India, which at that time was covered with several small states, Junaid led a large army into the region in early 738 CE. Dividing this force into two he plundered several cities in southern Rajasthan, western Malwa, and Gujarat.

Indian inscriptions confirm this invasion but record the Arab success only against the smaller states in Gujarat. They also record the defeat of the Arabs at two places. The southern army moving south into Gujarat was repulsed at Navsari by the south Indian Emperor Vikramaditya II of the Chalukya dynasty and Rashtrakutas. The army that went east, after sacking several places, reached Avanti whose ruler Nagabhata (Gurjar Pratihara) trounced the invaders and forced them to flee. After his victory Nagabhata took advantage of the disturbed conditions to acquire control over the numerous small states up to the border of Sindh.

Junaid probably died from the wounds inflicted in the battle with the Gurjara Pratihara. His successor Tamin organized a fresh army and attempted to avenge Junaid’s defeat towards the close of the year 738 CE. But this time Nagabhata, with his Chauhan and Guhilot feudatories, met the Muslim army before it could leave the borders of Sindh. The battle resulted in the complete rout of the Arabs who fled broken into Sindh with the Gurjara-Pratihara close behind them.

In the words of the Arab chronicler, a place of refuge to which the Muslims might flee was not to be found. The Arabs crossed over to the other side of the Indus River, abandoning all their lands to the victorious Hindus. The local chieftains took advantage of these conditions to re-establish their independence. Subsequently the Arabs constructed the city of Mansurah on the other side of the wide and deep Indus, which was safe from attack. This became their new capital in Sindh. Thus began the reign of the Imperial Gurjar-Pratiharas.

In the Gwalior inscription, it is recorded that Gurjara-Pratihara emperor Nagabhata crushed the large army of the powerful Mlechcha king. This large army consisted of cavalry, infantry, siege artillery, and probably a force of camels. Since Tamin was a new governor he had a force of Syrian cavalry from Damascus, local Arab contingents, converted Hindus of Sindh, and foreign mercenaries like the Turkics. All together the invading army may have had anywhere between 10–15,000 cavalry, 5000 infantry, and 2000 camels.

The Arab chronicler Sulaiman describes the army of the Imperial Pratiharas as it stood in 851 CE, The ruler of Gurjars maintains numerous forces and no other Indian prince has so fine a cavalry. He is unfriendly to the Arabs, still he acknowledges that the king of the Arabs is the greatest of rulers. Among the princes of India there is no greater foe of the Islamic faith than he. He has got riches, and his camels and horses are numerous.[29]

At the time of the Battle of Rajasthan the Gurjar Pratihars had only just risen to power. In fact Nagabhata was their first prominent ruler. But the composition of his army, which was predominantly cavalry, is clear from the description. There are other anecdotal references to the Indian rulers and commanders riding elephants to have a clear view of the battlefield. The infantry stood behind the elephants and the cavalry formed the wings and advanced guard.

At the time of the battle the Gurjar Pratihara may have had up to 5,000 cavalry, while their Tomar ,Guhilot and Chauhan feudatories may have had 2,000 horsemen each, added to which we may include infantry, camels, and elephants. So all told the Hindu and Muslim armies were evenly matched with the better cavalry in the former.

Later events[edit]

Following their victory the Gurjar Pratiharas spread their rule over North India. The Guhilots under their leader Bappa Rawal captured Chittor and the Chauhans established a kingdom in North Rajasthan. Along with their Pratihar overlords these clans formed a recognized clan hierarchy (miscalled feudalism), and a hereditary ownership of lands and forts.

The Arabs in Sindh took a long time to recover from their defeat. In the early 9th Century the governor Bashar attempted an invasion of India but was defeated by Nagabhatta II and his subordinates, Govindraja Chauhan and Khommana II Guhilot. After this the Arab chroniclers admit that the Caliph Mahdi, “gave up the project of conquering any part of India.”

The Arabs in Sindh lost all power and broke up into two warring states of Mansurah and Multan, both of which paid tribute to the Gurjar-Pratiharas. The local resistance in Sindh, which had not yet died out and was inspired by the victories of Pratiharas manifested itself when the foreign rulers were overthrown and Sindh came under its own half-converted Hindu dynasties like the Sumras and Sammas.

Legacy[edit]

Pointing out the importance of the Gurjara-Pratihara Empire in the history of India, Dr. R.C. Majumdar has observed, "the Gurjara Pratihara Empire which continued in full glory for nearly a century, was the last great empire in Northern India before the Muslim conquest. This honour is accorded to the empire of Harsha by many historians of repute, but without any real justification, for the Pratihara Empire was probably larger, certainly not less in extent, rivalled the Gupta Empire and brought political unity and its attendant blessings upon a large part of Northern India. But its chief credit lies in its succecessful resistance to the foreign invasions from the west, from the days of Junaid. This was frankly recognised by the Arab writers themselves."

Historians of India, since the days of Eliphinstone, have wondered at the slow progress of Muslim invaders in India, as compared with their rapid advance in other parts of the world. The Arabs possibly only stationed small invasions independent of the Caliph. Arguments of doubtful validity have often been put forward to explain this unique phenomenon. Currently it is believed that it was the power of the Gurjara Pratihara army that effectively barred the progress of the Muslims beyond the confines of Sindh, their first conquest for nearly three hundred years. In the light of later events this might be regarded as the "Chief contribution of the Gurjara Pratiharas to the history of India".[30]

See also[edit]

Middle kingdoms of India
Timeline and

cultural period

Northwestern India

(Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)

Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India
Western Gangetic Plain

(Kuru-Panchala)

Northern India

(Central Gangetic Plain)

Northeastern India

(Northeast India)

IRON AGE
Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period

(Brahmin ideology)[a]

Painted Grey Ware culture

Late Vedic Period

(Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)[b]

Northern Black Polished Ware

Pre-history
 6th century BC Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha Adivasi (tribes)
Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation"

Rise of Shramana movements
Jainism - Buddhism - Ājīvika - Yoga

Pre-history
 5th century BC (Persian rule) Shishunaga dynasty Adivasi (tribes)
 4th century BC (Greek conquests)

Nanda empire
Kalinga

HISTORICAL AGE
Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history Sangam period
(300 BC – AD 200)
 3rd century BC Maurya Empire Early Cholas

Early Pandyan Kingdom

Satavahana dynasty

Cheras

46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - "Hindu Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - AD300)[e][f]
Epics - Puranas - Ramayana - Mahabharata - Bhagavad Gita - Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition
Mahayana Buddhism
Sangam period

(continued)
(300 BC – AD 200)

 2nd century BC Indo-Greek Kingdom Sunga Empire Adivasi (tribes) Early Cholas

Early Pandyan Kingdom

Satavahana dynasty

Cheras

46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

 1st century BC Yona Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty
 1st century AD

Indo-Scythians
Indo-Parthians

Kuninda Kingdom
 2nd century Pahlava Varman dynasty
 3rd century Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa kingdom Kalabhras dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. AD 320-650)[g]
Puranas
Co-existence of Hinduism and Buddhism
 4th century Gupta Empire Kalabhras dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Kadamba Dynasty

Western Ganga Dynasty

 5th century Maitraka Adivasi (tribes) Kalabhras dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Vishnukundina

 6th century Kalabhras dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture Late-Classical Hinduism (ca. AD 650-1100)[h]
Advaita Vedanta - Tantra
Decline of Buddhism in India
 7th century Indo-Sassanids Vakataka dynasty, Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi (tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Pandyan Kingdom(Revival)

Pallava

 8th century Kidarite Kingdom Pandyan Kingdom

Kalachuri

 9th century Indo-Hephthalites (Huna) Gurjara-Pratihara Pandyan Kingdom

Medieval Cholas

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas)

Chalukya

Chera Perumals of Makkotai

10th century Pala dynasty

Kamboja-Pala dynasty

Medieval Cholas

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas)

Chera Perumals of Makkotai

Rashtrakuta

References[edit]

  1. ^ A History of India by Hermann Kulke,Dietmar Rothermund p.117
  2. ^ Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar. A history of India (4, illustrated ed.). Routledge, 2004. pp. 432 pages. ISBN 0-415-32920-5, ISBN 978-0-415-32920-0. "In 9th century the Gurjara Pratiharas kings, Bhoja (836–885) and Mahendrapala (885–910), proved to be more powerful than their contemporaries of the other two dynasties whom they defeated several times. Kannauj then emerged as the main focus of power in India." 
  3. ^ Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra; Samiti, Bhāratīya Itihāsa (1954). The History and Culture of the Indian People: The classical age. G. Allen & Unwin, original from-the University of Michigan. "Rajasekharan, the great poet and playwright at the Gurjara-pratihara court of Kannauj.." 
  4. ^ Chopra, Pran Nath (2003). A comprehensive history of ancient India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 196. ISBN 81-207-2503-4, ISBN 978-81-207-2503-4. "Al-Masudi who visited his (Gurjara Mahipala) court, also refers to the great power and resources of the Gurjara pratihara rules of Kannauj." 
  5. ^ André Wink (2002). Al-Hind: Early medieval India and the expansion of Islam, 7th–11th centuries. BRILL. p. 284. ISBN 0391041738, ISBN 978-0-391-04173-8. 
  6. ^ "TheFreeDictionary". Encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 2012-01-19. 
  7. ^ New image of Rajasthan. Directorate of Public Relations, Govt. of Rajasthan. 1966. p. 2. 
  8. ^ K.M. Munshi (1943). The Glory that was Gurjardesh. 
  9. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1834). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland. Cambridge University Press for the Royal Asiatic Society. p. 648. "The Parihars (Pratiharas), as Mr. Bhandarkar rightly points out, were one of the divisions of the Gurjara tribe." 
  10. ^ Chopra, Pran Nath (2003). A comprehensive history of ancient India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 196. ISBN 81-207-2503-4, ISBN 978-81-207-2503-4. "Al-Masudi who visited his (Gurjara mahipala) court, also refers to the great power and resources of the Gurjara pratihara rules of Kannauj." 
  11. ^ Jamanadas, K. "Rajput Period Was Dark Age Of India". Decline And Fall Of Buddhism: A tragedy in Ancient India. New Delhi: Bluemoon Books. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  12. ^ Bhandarkar, Devadatta Ramakrishna (1989). Some Aspects of Ancient Indian Culture. Asian Educational Services. p. 64. ISBN 81-206-0457-1. 
  13. ^ Baij Nath Puri, The history of the Gurjara-Pratihāras,Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1986, pp. 1–3
  14. ^ Rama Shankar Tripathi (1999). History of ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 318. ISBN 81-208-0018-4, ISBN 978-81-208-0018-2. 
  15. ^ University of Kerala, Dept. of History; University of Allahabad, Dept. of Modern Indian History; University of Kerala (1963). Journal of Indian history, Volume 41. Dept. of History, University of Kerala, Original from the University of California. p. 765. "Gurjara-Prathiranvaya, of the Rajor inscription, which was incised more than a hundred years later than Bhoja's Gwalior prasasti, nearly fifty years later than the works of the poet Rajasekhara." 
  16. ^ a b c Rama Shankar Tripathi (1989). History of Kanauj: To the Moslem Conquest. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 222. ISBN 81-208-0404-X, ISBN 978-81-208-0404-3. 
  17. ^ Radhey Shyam Chaurasia (2002). History of Ancient India: Earliest Times to 1000 A. D.. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 207. ISBN 81-269-0027-X,ISBN 978-81-269-0027-5. 
  18. ^ Rose, Horace Arthur; Ibbetson (1990). Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province. Asian Educational Services. p. 300. ISBN 81-206-0505-5. 
  19. ^ Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra (2002) [1976]. Readings in Political History of India, Ancient, Mediaeval, and Modern. B.R. Pub. Corp (on behalf of Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies), D.K. Publishers' Distributors. p. 209. "But he (Mr. Sharma) refused to believe that the Imperial Pratiharas of Kanauj were also Gujars in this sense." 
  20. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, vol. 2. Digital South Asia Library. p. 320. Retrieved 2007-05-31. "But whatever our theories regarding the infusion of Gujar blood among the Rajputs, there was certainly no Gurjara (Gujar) empire in Northern India" 
  21. ^ Manjulal Ranchholdlal Majmudar (1960). Historical and cultural chronology of Gujarat, Volume 1. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. p. 147. 
  22. ^ Rama Shankar Tripathi (1989). History of Kanauj: To the Moslem Conquest. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 221. ISBN 81-208-0404-X, ISBN 978-81-208-0404-3. 
  23. ^ S.R. Bakshi; S.G. Early Aryans to Swaraj. p. 325. "It has been reported that the story of agnikula is mot mentioned at all in the original version of the Raso preserved in the Fort Library at Bikaner." 
  24. ^ Ibne Rustah. Kitsbul Alaq Al-Nafisa Part 4. p. 134. 
  25. ^ Jayantika Kala (1988). Epic scenes in Indian plastic art. Abhinav Publications. p. 5. ISBN 81-7017-228-4, ISBN 978-81-7017-228-4. 
  26. ^ Brajesh Krishna, The art under the Gurjara-Pratihāras, Harman Pub. House, 1990, pp.142
  27. ^ Partha Mitter, Indian art, Oxford University Press, 2001 pp.66
  28. ^ Jain Tirths. "Gurjar Pratihar". 
  29. ^ Radhey Shyam Chaurasia (2002). History of Ancient India: Earliest Times to 1000 A. D.. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 207. ISBN 81-269-0027-X,ISBN 978-81-269-0027-5. "The king of Gurjars maintain numerous faces and no other Indian prince has so fine a cavalry .He has" 
  30. ^ Radhey Shyam Chaurasia (2002). History of Ancient India: Earliest Times to 1000 A. D. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 207 to 208. ISBN 81-269-0027-X, ISBN 978-81-269-0027-5.