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Pratikraman (literally Sanskrit "introspection"), is a process of repentance of sins (prayaschit) during which Jains repent for their sins during their daily life, and remind themselves to refrain from doing so again. Devout Jains often do Pratikraman at least twice a day. In same one practices self-observation and emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation
There are five types of Pratikraman:
Devasi Pratikraman is performed daily in the evening, Raysi Pratikraman is performed in the early morning, Pakhi Pratikraman is done once every fifteen days. Chaumasi Pratikraman is done once in four months on the Purnima (full moon) of the Kartik, Falgun and Aṣaṛh months of the Vira Nirvana Samvat calendrical year for the sins committed during that period.
As per Aagams, the words of God, it is a compulsion for all to do Pratikraman at least once in a year, i.e. The Samvatsari Pratikraman.
Samvatsari Pratikraman includes all six things a Jain must do: Pratikraman is a combination of six avshyakas (essential rituals).
- Samayik - maintain equanimity
- Chauvisanttho - honor the Tirthankaras
- Vandana - honor all Jain sadhus and sadhvis
- Pratikraman - repent wrongdoing
- Kayotsarga - meditation and prayer
- Pratyakhan - take vows to keep self-control
The soul, in its pure form, has infinite perception, infinite knowledge,infinite vigor, and is non-attached. These attributes are not seen in a worldly soul because it is soiled with karmas. By following religious principles principals and activities, Jains believe they overcome karmas and promote liberation of the soul. There are various kinds of religious activities, sometimes called rituals, and among them Pratikraman is the most important ritual. During pratikraman, Jains repent for non-meritorious activities on a daily basis.
- "Jainism Simplified Chapter 18 - Pratikraman". Umich.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-05.