|Nickname(s): City of Prime Ministers,
|• Body||Allahabad Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Abhilasha Gupta|
|• Member of Parliament||Shyama Charan Gupta (Agrahari)|
|• City||63.07 km2 (24.35 sq mi)|
|Elevation||98 m (322 ft)|
|• Density||1,087/km2 (2,820/sq mi)|
|• Metro rank||42nd|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||901 ♂/♀|
Allahabad (i//), also known as Prayag (//) and Ilahabad, is a city in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of the Allahabad District. As of 2011, Allahabad is the seventh most-populous city in the state, most populous district of the state, twelfth most populous district in India and thirty-sixth most-populous city in India, with an estimated population of 1.11 million in the city and 1.21 million in its metropolitan region. In 2011, it was ranked the world's 130th fastest-growing city.
The city's original name – Prayaga, or "place of offerings" – comes from its position at the union of the Ganges, Yamuna and mythical Sarasvati Rivers. It is the second-oldest city in India, and plays a central role in Hindu scriptures. Allahabad was originally called Kaushambi (now a separate district) by the Kuru rulers of Hastinapur, who developed it as their capital. Since then, Allahabad has been a political, cultural and administrative centre of the Doab region. The Mughal emperor Akbar renamed Prayag, Ilahabad, which the British changed to Allahabad. In 1833 it became the seat of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces region before its capital was moved to Agra in 1835. Allahabad became the capital of the North-Western Provinces in 1858, and was the capital of India for a day. Allahabad was the capital of the United Provinces from 1902 to 1920.
Located in southern Uttar Pradesh, the city's metropolitan area covers 63.07 km2 (24.35 sq miles). Although the city and its surrounding area are governed by several municipalities, a large portion of Allahabad District is governed by the Allahabad City Council. The city is home to colleges, research institutions and central and state government offices. Allahabad has hosted cultural and sporting events, including Kumbh Mela and the Indira Marathon. Although the city's economy was built on tourism, most of its income now derives from real estate and financial services.
The city was earlier known as Prayāga, a name still commonly used. Prayāga existed during the Vedic period, and is mentioned in the Veda as the location where Brahma (the Hindu creator of the universe) attended a ritual sacrifice. Excavations have revealed Northern Black Polished Ware dating to 600–700 BCE. The Puranas record that Yayati left Prayag and conquered the region of Saptha Sindhu. His five sons (Yadu, Druhyu, Puru, Anu and Turvashu) founded the main tribes of the Rigveda. Lord Rama, the protagonist of the Ramayana, spent time at the Ashram of Sage Bharadwaj before travelling to nearby Chitrakoot.
When the Aryans first settled in what they called the Āryāvarta (or Madhyadesha), Prayag (then Kaushambi) was an important part of their territory. The Kurus, rulers of Hastinapur (near present day Delhi), established the town of Kaushambi near Prayag. They shifted their capital to Kaushambi when Hastinapur was destroyed by floods.
The Doab region, which includes Allahabad, was controlled by a succession of empires and dynasties. The area became part of the Mauryan and Gupta Empires from the east and the Kushan Empire from the west before being governed by Kannauj during the 15th century. The city was the site of Maratha incursions before India was colonised. In 1765, the British established a garrison at Allahabad Fort. Prayag became a part of the Delhi Sultanate when it was annexed by Mohammad Ghori in 1193. Later, the Mughals took over from the slave rulers of Delhi and under them Prayag rose to prominence. Allahabad was a provincial capital in the Moghul Empire under the reign of Jahangir. Akbar built a fort on the banks of the sangam and renamed the settlement Ilāhābād (Persian for "place of a god") in 1575. A unique artefact associated with Jahangir's reign found in Allahabad is a large jade terrapin, now in the British Museum's collection.
In 1765, forces of Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal, Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Awadh and the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II lost the Battle of Buxar to the British; this was followed by the Treaty of Allahabad. Although the British did not yet establish direct rule, they saw Allahabad's strategic position and established a garrison in Akbar's fort. In 1801, the Nawab of Awadh ceded the city to the British East India Company. Gradually, the rest of the Doab and its adjoining western region in its west (including Delhi and Ajmer-Merwara) came under British rule. The northwestern area became a new presidency, the North Western Provinces of Agra, with its capital at Agra. Allahabad was an important part of the state. In 1834, the city became the governmental seat of Agra Province and a High Court was established; a year later, both were moved to Agra. Allahabad was a participant in the 1857 Indian Mutiny, when Maulvi Liaquat Ali unfurled the banner of revolt. During the rebellion Allahabad, with a number of European troops, was the scene of a massacre.
After the mutiny the British established a high court, a police headquarters and a public-service commission in Allahabad, making the city an administrative center. They truncated the Delhi region of the state, merging it with the Punjab and moving the capital of the North-Western Provinces to Allahabad (where it remained for 20 years). In January 1858, Earl Canning departed Calcutta for Allahabad. That year he read Queen Victoria's proclamation, transferring control of India from the East India Company to the British Crown (beginning the British Raj), in Minto Park. In 1877 the provinces of Agra and Awadh were merged to form the United Provinces, with Allahabad its capital until 1920.
The 1888 session of the Indian National Congress was held in the city, and by the turn of the 20th century Allahabad was a revolutionary centre. Nityanand Chatterji became a household name when he hurled a bomb at a European club. In Alfred Park in 1931, Chandrashekhar Azad died when surrounded by British police. The Nehru family homes, Anand Bhavan and Swaraj Bhavan, were centers of Indian National Congress activity. During the years before independence Allahabad was home to thousands of satyagrahis led by Purushottam Das Tandon, Bishambhar Nath Pande, Narayan Dutt Tiwari and others. The first seeds of the Pakistani nation were sown in Allahabad. On 29 December 1930, Allama Muhammad Iqbal's presidential address to the All-India Muslim League proposed a separate Muslim state for the Muslim-majority regions of India.
Allahabad is known as the "city of prime ministers" because seven out of 15 prime ministers of India since independence have connections to Allahabad (Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, Gulzarilal Nanda, Vishwanath Pratap Singh and Chandra Shekhar). All seven leaders were either born there, were alumni of Allahabad University or were elected from an Allahabad constituency.
The old part of the city, at the south of Allahabad Junction Railway Station, consists of neighborhoods like Chowk, Johnstongunj, Dariyabad, Khuldabad and other more. In the north of the Railway Station, the new city consists of neighborhoods like Lukergunj, Civil Lines, Georgetown, Tagoretown, Ashok Nagar, Mumfordgunj etc., which are relatively new and were built during the British rule. Civil Lines is the central business district of the city and is famous for its urban setting, gridiron plan roads and high rise buildings. Built in 1857, it was the largest town-planning project carried out in India before the establishment of New Delhi. Allahabad has many buildings featuring Indo-Islamic and Indo-Saracenic architecture. Although several buildings from the colonial period have been declared "heritage structures", others are deteriorating. Famous landmarks of the city are Allahabad Museum, New Yamuna Bridge, Allahabad University, Triveni Sangam, All Saints Cathedral, Anand Bhavan, Alfred Park etc.
Allahabad is in south-eastern part of Uttar Pradesh, at the confluence of the Ganges and Yamuna . The region was known in antiquity first as the Kuru, then as the Vats country. To the southwest is Bundelkhand, to the east and southeast is Baghelkhand, to the north and northeast is Awadh and to the west is the lower doab (of which Allahabad is part). The city is divided by a railway line running east-west. South of the railway is the Old Chowk area, and the British-built Civil Lines is north of it. Allahabad is geographically and culturally strategically located. Geographically part of the Ganga-Yamuna Doab (at the mouth of the Yamuna), culturally it is the terminus of the Indian west. The Indian Standard Time longitude (25.15°N 82.58°E) is near the city. According to a United Nations Development Programme report, Allahabad is in a "low damage risk" wind and cyclone zone. In common with the rest of the doab, its soil and water are primarily alluvial. Pratapgarh is north of the city, Bhadohi is east, Rewa is south and Kaushambi is west.
Allahabad has a humid subtropical climate common to cities in the plains of North India, designated Cwa in the Köppen climate classification. The annual mean temperature is 26.1 °C (79.0 °F); monthly mean temperatures are 18–29 °C (64–84 °F). Allahabad has three seasons: a hot, dry summer, a cool, dry winter and a warm, humid monsoon. Summer lasts from April to June with temperatures in the low 30 °C (86.0 °F); during dry spells, maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) in May and June. The monsoon begins in early July, and lasts till September. Winter runs from December to February, with temperatures rarely dropping to the freezing point. The daily average maximum temperature is about 22 °C (72 °F) and the minimum about 9 °C (48 °F). Although Allahabad experiences dense fog in January, resulting in traffic and travel delays, the city does not receive snow. Its highest recorded temperature is 48 °C (118.4 °F), and its lowest is −2 °C (28 °F).
Rain from the Bay of Bengal or the Arabian Sea branches of the southwest monsoon falls on Allahabad from June to September, supplying the city with most of its annual rainfall of 1,027 mm (40 in). The highest monthly rainfall total, 333 mm (13 in), occurs in August. The city receives 2,961 hours of sunshine per year, with maximum sunlight in May.
|Climate data for Allahabad|
|Record high °C (°F)||28.8
|Average high °C (°F)||23.6
|Average low °C (°F)||8.9
|Record low °C (°F)||1.8
|Precipitation mm (inches)||17.9
|Avg. rainy days||2.0||2.6||1.0||1.2||2.0||5.7||16.3||13.2||10.7||2.1||0.6||1.1||58.5|
|Average humidity (%)||69||57||39||29||33||50||77||81||78||67||61||68||59.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||224.9||244.2||263.2||274.1||292.3||206.4||143.3||180.6||184.3||259.7||256.7||244.0||2,773.7|
|Source #1: India Meteorological Department (1901–2000)|
|Source #2: Weather Report for Allahabad|
The Ganga-Jamuna Doab, of which Allahabad is a part, is on the western Indus-Gangetic Plain region. The doab (including the Terai) is responsible for the city's unique flora and fauna. Since the arrival of humans, nearly half of city's vertebrates have become extinct. Others are endangered or have had their range severely reduced. Associated changes in habitat and the introduction of reptiles, snakes and other mammals led to the extinction of bird species, including large birds such as eagles. The Allahabad Museum, one of four national museums in India, is documenting the flora and fauna of the Ganges and Yamuna.
The most common birds found in the city are doves, peacocks, junglefowl, black partridge, house sparrows, songbirds, blue jays, parakeets, quails, bulbuls, and comb ducks. Other animals in the state include reptiles such as lizards, cobras, kraits, and gharials. During winter, large numbers of Siberian birds are reported in the sangam and nearby wetlands.
|Population Growth of Allahabad|
The 2011 census reported a population of 1,117,094 in Allahabad. Provisional data suggest a density of 1,086 people per km2 in 2011, compared to 901 in 2001. Natives of Uttar Pradesh form the majority of Allahabad's population. The sex ratio of Allahabad is 858 per 1000 males and child sex ratio of girls is 876 per 1000 boys.
Allahabad's literacy rate of 86.50 percent is close to the all-India average of 74 percent and the highest in the region. Male literacy is 90.21 percent and female literacy 82.17 percent. Among 35 major Indian cities, Allahabad reported the greatest number of violations of special and local laws to the National Crime Records Bureau.
Hindi, the official state language, is the predominant language in Allahabad. English is also used, particularly by white-collar workers. Urdu is spoken by a sizable minority. The Hindi dialect spoken in Allahabad is Awadhi, although Khariboli is also common in the city. Bengali and Punjabi are also spoken.
Allahabad is known as the "Prime Minister Capital of India", since seven of fifteen Prime Ministers of India are from the city. The city is administered by several government agencies. The Allahabad Nagar Nigam (ANN), also called Allahabad Municipal Corporation (AMC), oversees the city's civic infrastructure under the Allahabad Metropolitan Region. The corporation originated in 1864, when the Lucknow Municipal Act was passed by the Government of India. Allahabad is divided into 80 wards, with one member (or corporator) elected from each ward to form the Municipal Committee. The corporators elect the city's mayor. Allahabad's chief executive is its Commissioner, who is appointed by the state government. The city's rapid, unplanned growth has created traffic congestion and stress on infrastructure which has challenged the ANN. Traffic gridlock has been addressed by a flyover system and one-way streets. Land is expensive in Allahabad, especially in Civil Lines (where skyscrapers exceeding 10–15 floors are being built).
As of 2012, the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) controls the AMC. The city has a non-political titular head, who presides over municipal functions and conferences. As the seat of the Government of Uttar Pradesh, Allahabad is home to local governing agencies and the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly (located in the Allahabad High Court building). The Allahabad police, headed by a commissioner, is overseen by the Uttar Pradesh Ministry of Home Affairs. The Allahabad district elects two representatives to India's lower house, the Lok Sabha, and 12 representatives to the state legislative assembly.
The primary economic sectors of the district are tourism, fishing and agriculture, and the city is a hub for India's agricultural industry. In case of Agriculture crops Paddy has the largest share followed by Bajra, Arhar, Urd & Moong in declining order during the Kharif season. In Rabi, Wheat is pre dominant followed by pulses and oilseed. Among oilseed crops, Mustard has very less area under pure farming and is grown mainly as a mixed crop. Linseed dominates the oilseed scenario of the district and is mainly grown in Jamunapar area. In case of pulses gram has largest area followed by pea and lentil (masoor). There is fairly good acreage under barley.
In case of horticultural vegetable crops, the cultivation of potato, brinjal, tomato, ladies finger and the pea are the main crops. Guava is the main horticulture fruit crop grown largely in Gangapar area. Watermelon (hirminji) and melon (kharbuja) are largely grown in riverbed area of Gangapar. There is a vast scope for development of horticulture as an enterprise.
Both big and medium farmers prefer to keep one or two livestock. Overall buffalo is preferred over cow, but the Dwaba and Jamunapar area has preference for now. In Gangapar area both cow and buffalo are important. Some Scheduled Caste families are involved in pig keeping. goat and sheep are preferred in low-lying area. Poultry, duckery, fish farming is catching up.
The construction sector is a major part of Allahabad's economy. Secondary manufacturers and services may be registered or unregistered; according to the third All India Census for Small Scale Industries, there are more than 10,000 unregistered small-scale industries in the city. An integrated industrial township has been proposed for 1,200 acres (490 ha) in Allahabad by the Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India.
The city is home to glass- and wire-based industry. The main industrial areas of Allahabad are Naini and Phulpur, where several public and private sector companies have offices and factories. Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, India's largest oil company (which is state-owned), is constructing a seven-million-tonnes-per-annum (MTPA) capacity refinery in Lohgara with an investment estimated at ₹62 billion. Allahabad Bank, which began operations in 1865, Bharat Pumps & Compressors and A. H. Wheeler and Company have their headquarters in the city.
Major companies in Allahabad are Reliance Industries, Alstom, ITI Limited, Areva, BPCL, Dey's Medical, Food Corporation of India, Raymond Synthetics, Triveni Sheet Glass, Triveni Electroplast, EMC, Steel Authority of India, HCL Technologies, Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative (IFFCO), Vibgyor Laboratories, Geep Industries, Hindustan Cable and GEEP Industries. The Harish-Chandra Research Institute and the Civil Aviation Training Center are also located in the city.
Culture and tourism
Allahabad has a literary and artistic heritage; the former capital the of United Provinces, it was known as Prayag in the Vedas, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Allahabad has been called the "literary capital of Uttar Pradesh", attracting visitors from East Asia; the Chinese travellers Huen Tsang and Fa Hien found a flourishing city in the fifth and seventh centuries, respectively. Allahabad remained at the forefront of national importance during the struggle for Indian independence. The city has a tradition of political graffiti which includes limericks and caricatures. In 1900, Saraswati first Hindi monthly magazine of India, was started by Chintamani Ghosh. Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, the doyen of modern Hindi literature, remained its editors from 1903 to 1920. The Anand Bhavan, built during the 1930s as a new home for the Nehru family when the Swaraj Bhavan became the local Indian National Congress headquarters, has memorabilia from the Gandhi-Nehru family.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, Hindi literature was modernised by authors such as Mahadevi Varma, Sumitranandan Pant, Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala' and Harivansh Rai Bachchan. A noted poet was Raghupati Sahay, better known as Firaq Gorakhpuri. Gorakhpuri and Varma have received Jnanpith Awards. Allahabad is a publication centre for Hindi literature, including the Lok Bharti, Rajkamal and Neelabh. Persian and Urdu literature are also studied in the city. Akbar Allahabadi is a noted modern Urdu poet, and Nooh Narwi, Tegh Allahabadi, Shabnam Naqvi and Rashid Allahabadi hail from Allahabad. English author and 1907 Nobel laureate Rudyard Kipling was an assistant editor and overseas correspondent for The Pioneer.
Although Hindu women have traditionally worn saris, the shalwar kameez and Western attire is gaining acceptance among younger women. Western dress is worn more by men, although the dhoti and kurta are seen during festivals. The formal male sherwani is often worn with chooridar on festive occasions. Diwali (celebrated as a festival of light between mid-October and mid-December) and Rama Navami (when decorations light the banks of the Ganges and Yamuna) are the two most popular festivals in Allahabad.
Allahabad is noted for historic, cultural and religious tourism. Historic sites include Alfred Park, the Victoria and Thornhill Mayne Memorials, Minto Park, Allahabad Fort, the Ashoka Pillar and Khusro Bagh. Religious attractions include the Kumbh Mela, the Triveni Sangam (sacred in Shaktism) and All Saints Cathedral. The city hosts the Maha Kumbh Mela, the largest religious gathering in the world, every twelve years and the Ardh (half) Kumbh Mela every six years. Cultural attractions include the Allahabad Museum, the Jawahar Planetarium and the University of Allahabad.
Allahabad is served by Allahabad Airport (IATA: IXD, ICAO: VIAL), which began operations in February 1966. The airport is 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from the city centre. Air India and Spice Jet connect Allahabad to Delhi and Mumbai. Air India began operating a Delhi-Allahabad-Mumbai route on 9 September 2013. Other nearby airports are in Varanasi, Lucknow and Kanpur.
Allahabad Junction is one of the main railway junctions in northern India and headquarters of the North Central Railway Zone. The four major railway stations in Allahabad are Prayag Station, City Station at Rambagh, Daraganj Station and Allahabad Junction. The city is connected to most other Uttar Pradesh cities and major Indian cities such as Agra, Aligarh, Bareilly, Jhansi, Kolkata, New Delhi, Patna, Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Chennai, Hyderabad, Pune, Indore, Bhopal, Kanpur, Lucknow and Jaipur. Three-wheeled yellow-and-black auto rickshaws, known as vikram, are a popular mode of transportation. Taxis, known as city taxis, are usually available on call. Also metered, they are generally more expensive than auto rickshaws. Cycle rickshaws are the most economical means of transportation in Allahabad along with e-rickshaws.
Buses operated by Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC) are an important means of public transport in the city. National Highway 2 runs through the city centre. India's longest cable-stayed bridge, the New Yamuna Bridge (built 2001–04), is located in Allahabad and connects the city to the suburb of Naini across the Yamuna. The Old Naini Bridge now accommodates railway and auto traffic. A road bridge across the Ganges also connects Allahabad and Jhusi. National Waterway 1, the longest Waterway in India, connects Allahabad and Haldia.
Education and sports
The Allahabad educational system is distinct from Uttar Pradesh's other cities, with an emphasis on broad education. The city's's schools are run by the state government and private organisations, many of which are religious. Although English is the language of instruction in most private schools, government schools and colleges offer Hindi and English-medium education. Schools in Allahabad follow the 10+2+3 plan. After completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in higher secondary schools affiliated with the Uttar Pradesh Board of High School and Intermediate Education, the ICSE or the CBSE. and focus on liberal arts, business or science. Vocational programs are also available.
Allahabad attracts students throughout India. As of 2010, the city had one central university, three deemed universities and an open university. Allahabad University, founded in 1876, is the oldest university in the state. Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad is a noted technical institution. Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences is an 'A-grade', deemed university with global standards. Other notable schools in Allahabad include the Indian Institute of Information Technology - Allahabad; Motilal Nehru Medical College; Ewing Christian College; Harish-Chandra Research Institute; Govind Ballabh Pant Social Science Institute and Institute of Engineering and Rural Technology.United Institute Of Management
Academics and artists who were born, worked or studied in Allahabad include mathematician Manindra Agrawal, electrical engineer Sorab K. Ghandhi, poet Subhadra Kumari Chauhan, novelist Julia Strachey, philanthropist Jagmal Raja Chauhan, actor Amitabh Bachchan, Nobel laureate Rudyard Kipling and Lieutenant General Syed Ata Hasnain.
Cricket and field hockey are the most popular sports in Allahabad, with kabaddi, kho-kho, gilli danda and pehlwani are played in rural areas near the city. Gully cricket, also known as street cricket, is popular among city youth. Several sports complexes are used by amateur and professional athletes; these include the Madan Mohan Malviya Stadium, the Amitabh Bachchan Sports Complex and the Boys' High School and College Gymnasium. There is an international-level swimming complex in Georgetown. The National Sports Academy in Jhalwa trains gymnasts for the Commonwealth Games. The Indira Marathon honors the late prime minister Indira Gandhi.
Allahabad's Hindi-language newspapers include Dainik Jagran, Amar Ujala, Dainik Bhaskar, Nai Dunia, Hindustan Dainik, Aj and Rajasthan Patrika. The Leader and The Pioneer are English-language newspapers published in the city; others include The Times of India, the Hindustan Times, The Hindu, The Indian Express, and The Asian Age. Newspapers in Urdu, Gujarati and Punjabi are also available.
All India Radio, the national, state-owned radio broadcaster, has AM radio stations in the city. Allahabad has five FM stations, including two AIR stations: BIG FM 92.7, Red FM 93.5, Gyan Vani, Vividh Bharti and Akashwani. There is a Doordarshan radio station in the city. Regional TV channels are accessible via cable subscription, direct-broadcast satellite service or Internet-based television.
- "City of Prime Ministers". http://allahabad.nic.in/. Government of Uttar Pradesh. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- Mani, Rajiv (21 May 2014). "Sangam city, Allahabad". Times of India (Times Group). Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- "Mayor of the city". The Indian Express. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- "Constituency wise candidates". http://eciresults.ap.nic.in/. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- "Census 2011" (pdf). censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (pdf). censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner,. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Allahabad City Population Census 2011 | Uttar Pradesh". Census2011.co.in. Retrieved 2014-05-26.
- "Allahabad Metropolitan Urban Region Population 2011 Census". Census2011.co.in. Retrieved 2014-05-26.
- "The world's fastest growing cities and urban areas from 2006 to 2020". City Mayors Statistics. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- "10 Twin Towns and Sister Cities of Indian States". walkthroughindia.com. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- H.S. Bhatia. Military History of British India: 1607 – 1947. Deep and Deep Publications'. p. 97. ISBN 978-81-8450-079-0. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
- Ashutosh Joshi (1 January 2008). Town Planning Regeneration of Cities. New India Publishing. p. 237. ISBN 81-89422-82-0.
- Kerry Ward. Networks of Empire: Forced Migration in the Dutch East India Company. Cambridge University Press. p. 340. ISBN 978-0-521-88586-7. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Shiva Kumar Dubey. Kumbh city Prayag. Centre for Cultural Resources and Training. pp. 31–41. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Koenraad Elst. Who is a Hindu?: Hindu revivalist views of Animism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and other offshoots of Hinduism. Voice of India. p. 7. ISBN 978-81-85990-74-3. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Romila Thapar. Ancient Indian Social History: Some Interpretations. Orient Blackswan. pp. 298–320. ISBN 978-81-250-0808-8. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- K. Krishnamoorthy. A Critical Inventory of Rāmāyaṇa Studies in the World: Indian languages and English. Sahitya Academy. pp. 28–51. ISBN 978-81-7201-100-0. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Vincent Arthur Smith; Stephen Meredyth Edwardes. The Oxford history of India, from the earliest times to the end of 1911. The Clarendon press. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- K-M. Sarup & Sons. p. 247. ISBN 978-81-7625-365-9. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Surjit Singh Gandhi. History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1606–1708 C.E. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 575. ISBN 978-81-269-0858-5. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- Surinder Kaur; Tapan Kumar Sanyal. The Secular Emperor Babar: A victim of Indian partition. Lokgeet Parkashan. p. 78. ISBN 978-81-85220-07-9. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Stephen Meredyth Edwardes; Herbert Leonard Offley Garrett. Mughal Rule in India. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 279–281. ISBN 978-81-7156-551-1. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Pletcher, Kenneth (15 August 2010). The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 128. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- British Museum Highlights
- B. R. Andhare. Bundelkhand under the Marathas, 1720–1818 A.D.: a study of Maratha-Bundela relations 1–2. Vishwa Bharati Prakashan. p. 93. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Edward Thompson; Edward T. & G.T. Garratt. History of British Rule in India 2. Atlantic Publishers. p. 453. ISBN 978-81-7156-804-8. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Harriet Martineau. British rule in India: a historical sketch. Smith, Elder and company. p. 128. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- A. L. Basham. The Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent Before the Coming of the Muslims. ACLS History E-Book Project. p. 699. ISBN 978-1-59740-599-7. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Visalakshi Menon (9 October 2003). From Movement To Government: The Congress in the United Provinces, 1937–42. SAGE Publications. p. 286. ISBN 978-0-7619-9620-0. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Sugata Bose. Modern South Asia: History, Culture and Political Economy. Taylor & Francis. pp. 74–77. ISBN 978-0-415-30787-1. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Edward John Thompson; Geoffrey Theodore Garratt. Rise and Fulfilment of British rule in India. Central Book Depot. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- Bhai Nahar Singh; Bhai Kirpal Singh. Rebels Against the British Rule. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 290. ISBN 978-81-7156-164-3. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Civil Disobedience". Gandhi Research Foundation. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- "Progress of events in Eastern Bengal, Orisa, Bihar, Oudh, Rohilkhand, and Rajputana". http://www.ibiblio.org//. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: In 36 Volumes. Uttar ... – Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- "Minto Park – Minto Park Allahabad – Allahabad Minto Park – Madan Mohan Malaviya Park Allahabad India". Bharatonline.com. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- Surendra Bhana; Uma Dhupelia-Mesthrie; E. S. (FRW) Reddy. A Comprehensive, Annotated Bibliography on Mahatma Gandhi: Books And Pamphlets About Mahatma Gandhi. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 12–18. ISBN 978-0-313-30217-6. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Indian National Congress. All India Congress Committee. The Allahabad conference of the presidents and secretaries of provincial Congress committees. Provincial Congress Committee Allahabad. p. 57. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Besides, locals still pride". Zee News. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Bhawan Singh Rana (1 January 2005). Chandra Shekhar Azad (An Immortal Revolutionary of India). Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. p. 10. ISBN 978-81-288-0816-6. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "The hub for freedom struggle". High Beam Research. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- Akshayakumar Ramanlal Desai (1986). Violation of Democratic Rights in India. Popular Prakashan. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-86132-130-8. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Rafiq Zakaria. The Man Who Divided India. Popular Prakashan. pp. 152–158. ISBN 978-81-7991-145-7. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Upinder Singh. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. pp. 4–6. ISBN 978-81-317-1677-9. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Uneasy calm prevails in old Allahabad areas". The Times of India. 19 August 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- Jonathan M. Bloom, Sheila Blai (2009). The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture, Volume 3. Oxford University Press. p. 57. ISBN 8125013830.
- Henry George Keene (1875). A Hand-book for Visitors to Lucknow: With Preliminary Notes on Allahabad and Cawnpore. J. Jetley. pp. 14–15. ISBN 8120615271.
- "Colonial period buildings in city". All India Radio, Allahabad. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- "Location of city". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Allahabad Location Guide". Weather-forecast. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Kenneth Pletcher (15 August 2010). The History of India. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-61530-122-5. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- "City or Locality infirmation". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- Deo Prakash Sharma. "Archaeology of Lower Ganga-Yamuna Doab". Vedic Books. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- Deo Prakash Sharma (1 January 2006). Archaeology of lower Ganga-Yamuna Doab (circa 1200 B.C. to 1200 A.D.). Bharatiya Kala Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-8090-033-4. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- "Hazard profiles of Indian districts" (PDF). National Capacity Building Project in Disaster Management. UNDP. Archived from the original on 19 May 2006. Retrieved 23 August 2006.
- "Agricultural Productivity and Productivity Regions in Ganga-Yamuna Doab". Bharatiya Kala Prakashan. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- "Tropical Moist Climates". The Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- "Weatherbase entry for Allahabad". Canty and Associates LLC. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Allahabad Weather". India Weather. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- "Weather Report & Forecast". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- "Average monthly precipitation over the year (rainfall, snow)". World Weather & Climate Information. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- "Allahabad climate". Climate Maps India. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Khichar, M. L.; Niwas, R. "Know your monsoon". The Tribune (Chandigarh, India). Retrieved 9 June 2007.
- "Local weather report". Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- "Climate of Allahabad". India meteorological department. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- "Climatological Information for Allahabad". Weather forecast network. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Satish Chandra Kala; Allahabad Municipal Museum. Flora and fauna in art: particularly in terracottas. Allahabad Museum. p. 86. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- Bal Krishna Misra; Birendra Kumar Verma. Flora of Allahabad District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh Publishing House. p. 530. ISBN 978-81-211-0077-9. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "Allahabad museum to document flora, fauna of Ganga-Yamuna belt". The Indian Express. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- S.K.Agarwal. Environment Biotechnology. APH Publishing. pp. 61–. ISBN 978-81-313-0294-1. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- Aarti, Aggarwal. "Siberian birds flock Sangam, other wetlands". The Times of India. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "Historical Census of India".
- The Far East and Australasia. Psychology Press. p. 469.
- "Allahabad : Census 2011". 2011 census of India. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Population census 2011". Census of India 2011, Government of India. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
- "Allahabad has highest literacy rate in region". The Times of India. 15 April 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Average literacy rate of Allahabad". Census of India. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Snaphhots – 2008" (PDF). National Crime Records Bureau. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
- "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. p. 3. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
- "Nagar Nigam – From the casement of history". Allahabad Nagar Nigam. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Nagar Nigam to encourage people's participation". High Beam Research. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- "'Urban Reforms Agenda' under JNNURM". Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- "Bicameral legislature of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh". Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- "Agricultural industries in Allahabad". Planning commission of India. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- "Key industries of Allahabad". District Level Information of Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh). Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- "Agricultureinallahabad". zpdk.org.in. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- "Industrial units in allahabad". U.P Pollution Control Board. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- organizations, Significant industrial. "Large scale industries". Explore Allahabad Press. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- "Summary results of third census". All India Census of Small scale Industries. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- Office of the Development Commissioner (Small Scale Industries). Final results, third all India census of small scale industries, 2001–2002. Development Commissioner, Ministry of Small Scale Industries, Govt. of India. pp. 13–18. ISBN 978-81-88905-17-1. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "Eastern dedicated freight corridor to get rs 42,000 cr investments to UP". The Times of India (Swati Mathur). 17 December 2013.
- "Minor industries". Rediff.com. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Office of the Development Commissioner, Small-Scale Industries, India. Report on the second all-India census of small scale industrial units. Development Commissioner, Small Scale Industries, Ministry of Industry, Govt. of India. p. 72. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "GDP & per capita income of Allahabad". Planning Commission of India. 8 March 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- of the city., accelerating the development. "significant industrial organizations". Explore Allahabad Press. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- "List of Companies". Ministry of Corporate Affairs. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- "CATC". Airports Authority of India. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- Ashutosh Joshi (1 January 2008). Town Planning Regeneration of Cities. New India Publishing. pp. 238–239. ISBN 978-81-89422-82-0.
- "A city of many dimensions is what befits a description of Allahabad". Uttar Pradesh Tourism. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- "Cultural importance of Allahabad". http://www.allahabadonline.in/. Allahabad Online Portal. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- "Role in Ancient time". Maps of India. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "Hieun Tsang, sukapha to the treaty of Yandaboo". The Times of Assam. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- "Education will lay the foundation of India’s future, says President". Press Information Bureau, President's Secretariat. 25 December 2013. Retrieved 2014-09-19.
- "Swaraj Bhavan". Rediff.com. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- Peter Gaeffke (1978). Hindi Literature in the Twentieth Century. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 3. ISBN 978-3-447-01614-8. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "Raghupati Sahay, better known under his pen name Firaq Gorakhpuri". Urdu Poetry Archive. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "List of Jnanpith Award Winners". Word Press. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "List of all Bhartiya Jnanpith Award Winners". UPSC. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "Jnanpith Award Winners (1965–2012)". Creative Literary. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "Urdu and Persian Literature in Allahabad". Columbia Education. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "Urdu writers and poets of Allahabad". Uttar Pradesh Urdu Academy. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- Alfred Nobel Foundation. "Who is the youngest ever to receive a Nobel Prize, and who is the oldest?". Nobelprize. p. 409. Archived from the original on 25 September 2006. Retrieved 30 September 2006.
- Rebika, Laishram. "The city have a very rich culture". The Hindu. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- Festivals, Fairs And. "The Prayag Tirtha". Cultural and Heritage, india. Retrieved 12 January 2014.[dead link]
- (Translator), F. Max Muller (1 June 2004). The Upanishads, Vol I. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 1-4191-8641-8.
- (Translator), F. Max Muller (26 July 2004). The Upanishads Part II: The Sacred Books of the East Part Fifteen. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 1-4179-3016-0.
- "Kottiyoor Devaswam Temple Administration Portal". http://kottiyoordevaswom.com/. Kottiyoor Devaswam. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- "Mythological Significance". Embassy of India. Archived from the original on 3 April 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "Pilgrims visiting the Kumbh mela". NDTV. 13 June 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Allahabad Agricultural Institute. The Allahabad aviation 11. Allahabad Agricultural Institute, Uttar Pradesh. p. 44. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Ashwini Phadnis (21 August 2013). "Air India to begin new services from Sept 9 | Business Line". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- "Profile of UP State Unit". National Informatics Centre. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "North Central Railways present network". North Central Railways. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Railways (India): return to an order from any correspondence. 1853. pp. 30–44. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- The Railway magazine 124. IPC Business Press. p. 178. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Allahabad Travel". Kumbh Mela organizing committee. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- Mohammad, Anas (21 Oct 2014). "Meet Tabassum Bano - the first female e-rickshaw driver of Allahabad". I am in DNA of India (Allahabad). Retrieved 29 Oct 2014.
- "Important Service". Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Completed Stretches on NH2". National Highways Authority of India. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "Structural Monitoring System". National Highways Authority of India. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- P. Dayaratnam (2000). Cable Stayed, Supported, and Suspension Bridges. Universities Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-81-7371-271-5. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- "India's biggest cable-stayed bridge". Murer Swivel Joist. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- The Allahabad transportation 32. Agricultural Institute,University of Allahabad. p. 68. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- "Union Government launched National Waterway-4 project in Tamil Nadu". JagranJosh. 25 Jan 2014. Retrieved 29 Oct 2014.
- "Broad education system in city". DASA UG. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- "Allahabad University". Allahabad University. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "Center of Computer Education and Training". Allahabad University. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "University history". Allahabad University. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- S.L. Goel Aruna Goel. Educational Administration And Management:An Integrated Approach. Deep & Deep Publications. p. 94. ISBN 978-81-8450-143-8. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "Suresh Babu G awarded best scientist award". The Times of India (Allahabad). Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- Ameeta Gupta; Ashish Kumar. Handbook of Universities. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 377–379. ISBN 978-81-269-0607-9. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "All sporting activities". Eastern Uttar Pradesh Tourism. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- "List of sports". North Central Railway. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- "City a hub of sports". The Times of India. 2 March 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- "Quality of sport life-An About-Face". Asia Now. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- "Stage set for Indira Marathon". The Times of India. 16 November 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Sharad, Deep (9 October 2006). "Indira Marathon faces cancellation". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Vijay Pratap, Singh (20 November 2008). "Pune institute dominates Indira Marathon". The Indian Express. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- "Areawise analysis". India Grid. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "History of The Pioneer". Indian Tour Operators Promotion Council. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- "English-language newspapers that are produced from city". The Sunday Tribune. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- "All India Radio Allahabad". All India Radio. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "Radio stations in city". Asiawaves. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "Doordarshan Kendra, Lajpat Rai Marg, Allahabad". Doordarshan Kendra Allahabad. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "Present composition of the Prasar Bharati Board". Broadcasting Corporation of India. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Allahabad.|
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Official website
- Allahabad, the Land of Prime Ministers
- Allahabad at DMOZ
- North Western Provinces
- Allahabad at Wikimapia – Places, geography, terrain and routes in and around Allahabad, with satellite images