Prayer for the dead

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Wherever there is a belief in the continued existence of human personality through and after death, religion naturally concerns itself with the relations between the living and the dead. And where the idea of a future judgment or a Resurrection of the Dead or of Purgatory obtains, prayers are often offered on behalf of the dead to God.

Judaism[edit]

Main article: Yizkor

Prayers for the dead form part of the Jewish services. The prayers offered on behalf of the deceased consist of: Recitation of Psalms; Reciting a thrice daily communal prayer in Aramaic which is known as "Kaddish". Kaddish actually means "Sanctification" (or "Prayer of Making Holy") which is a prayer "In Praise of God"; or other special remembrances known as Yizkor; and also a Hazkara which is said either on the annual commemoration known as the Yahrzeit as well on Jewish holidays.

The form in use in England contains the following passage: Have mercy upon him; pardon all his transgressions . . . Shelter his soul in the shadow of Thy wings. Make known to him the path of life.

El Maleh Rachamim is the actual Jewish prayer for the dead, although less well known than the Mourner's Kaddish. While the Kaddish does not mention death but rather affirms the steadfast faith of the mourners in God's goodness, El Maleh Rachamim is a prayer for the rest of the departed. There are various translations for the original Hebrew which vary significantly. One version reads:

God, filled with mercy, dwelling in the heavens' heights, bring proper rest beneath the wings of your Shechinah, amid the ranks of the holy and the pure, illuminating like the brilliance of the skies the souls of our beloved and our blameless who went to their eternal place of rest. May You who are the source of mercy shelter them beneath Your wings eternally, and bind their souls among the living, that they may rest in peace. And let us say: Amen.

A record of Jewish prayer and offering of sacrifice for the dead at the time of the Maccabees is seen being referred to in 2 Maccabees, a book written in Greek, which, though not accepted as part of the Jewish Bible, is regarded as canonical by Eastern Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church:

But under the tunic of each of the dead they found amulets sacred to the idols of Jamnia, which the law forbids the Jews to wear. So it was clear to all that this was why these men had been slain. They all therefore praised the ways of the Lord, the just judge who brings to light the things that are hidden. Turning to supplication, they prayed that the sinful deed might be fully blotted out. The noble Judas warned the soldiers to keep themselves free from sin, for they had seen with their own eyes what had happened because of the sin of those who had fallen. He then took up a collection among all his soldiers, amounting to two thousand silver drachmas, which he sent to Jerusalem to provide for an expiatory sacrifice. In doing this he acted in a very excellent and noble way, inasmuch as he had the resurrection of the dead in view; for if he were not expecting the fallen to rise again, it would have been useless and foolish to pray for them in death. But if he did this with a view to the splendid reward that awaits those who had gone to rest in godliness, it was a holy and pious thought. Thus he made atonement for the dead that they might be freed from this sin.[1]

French historian Jacques Le Goff concluded, "at the time of Judas Maccabeus-around 170 B.C., a surprisingly innovative period- prayer for the dead was not practiced, but that a century later it was practiced by certain Jews.”[2]

This extract does not explain on what grounds Le Goff argued that prayer for the dead was not in use in the first half of the 2nd century BC. The account of the action of Judas Maccabaeus was written midway through the second half of the same century, in about 124 B.C.,[3] and in the view of Philip Schaff its mention of prayer for the dead "seems to imply habit".[4]

Christianity[edit]

New Testament[edit]

A passage in the New Testament which may refer to a prayer for the dead is found in 2 Timothy 1:16-18, which reads as follows:

"May the Lord grant mercy to the house of Onesiphorus, for he often refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain, but when he was in Rome, he sought me diligently, and found me (the Lord grant to him to find the Lord's mercy on that day); and in how many things he served at Ephesus, you know very well."

As with the verses from 2 Maccabees, these verses refer to prayers that will help the deceased "on that day" (perhaps Judgement Day, see also end times). It is not stated that Onesiphorus, for whom Saint Paul prayed, was dead, though some scholars infer this, based on the way Paul only refers to him in the past tense, and prays for present blessings on his household, but for him only "on that day". And towards the end of the same letter, in 2 Timothy 4:19, Paul sends greetings to "Prisca and Aquila, and the house of Onesiphorus", distinguishing the situation of Onesiphorus from that of the still living Prisca and Aquila.

Tradition[edit]

Prayer for the dead is well documented within early Christianity, both among prominent Church Fathers and the Christian community in general. In Eastern Orthodoxy Christians pray for "such souls as have departed with faith, but without having had time to bring forth fruits worthy of repentance".[5] In the Catholic Church the assistance that the dead receive by prayer on their behalf is linked with the process of purification known as purgatory.[6][7] While prayer for the dead continues in both these traditions and in those of Oriental Orthodoxy and of the Assyrian Church of the East, many Protestant groups reject the practice.

The tomb of the Christian Abercius of Hieropolis in Phrygia (latter part of the 2nd century) bears the inscription: Let every friend who observes this pray for me, i.e. Abercius, who throughout speaks in the first person.

The inscriptions in the Roman catacombs bear similar witness to the practice, by the occurrence of such phrases as:

  • Mayst thou live among the saints (3rd century);
  • May God refresh the soul of . . . ;
  • Peace be with them.

Among Church writers Tertullian († 230) is the first to mention prayers for the dead, and not as a concession to natural sentiment, but as a duty: The widow who does not pray for her dead husband has as good as divorced him. This passage occurs in one of his later Montanist writings, dating from the beginning of the 3rd century. Subsequent writers similarly make incidental mention of the practice as prevalent, but not as unlawful or even disputed (until Arius challenged it towards the end of the 4th century). The most famous instance is Saint Augustine's prayer for his mother, Monica, at the end of the 9th book of his Confessions, written around 398.

An important element in the Christian liturgies both East and West consisted of the diptychs, or lists of names of living and dead commemorated at the Eucharist. To be inserted in these lists was a confirmation of one's orthodoxy, and out of the practice grew the official canonization of saints; on the other hand, removal of a name was a condemnation.

In the middle of the 3rd century we find St. Cyprian enjoining that there should be no oblation or public prayer made for a deceased layman who had broken the Church's rule by appointing a cleric trustee under his will: "He ought not to be named in the priests prayer who has done his best to detain the clergy from the altar."

Although it is not possible, as a rule, to name dates for the exact words used in the ancient liturgies, yet the universal occurrence of these diptychs and of definite prayers for the dead in all parts of the Christian Church, East and West, in the 4th and 5th centuries shows how primitive such prayers were. The language used in the prayers for the departed is very reserved, asking only for rest and freedom from pain and sorrow. We may cite the following from the so-called Liturgy of St James:

Remember, O Lord, the God of Spirits and of all Flesh, those whom we have remembered and those whom we have not remembered, men of the true faith, from righteous Abel unto to-day; do thou thyself give them rest there in the land of the living, in thy kingdom, in the delight of Paradise, in the bosom of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, our holy fathers, from whence pain and sorrow and sighing have fled away, where the light of thy countenance visiteth them and always shineth upon them.

Public prayers were only offered for those who were believed to have died as faithful members of the Church. But Saint Perpetua, who was martyred in 202, believed herself to have been encouraged in a vision to pray for her brother, who had died in his eighth year, almost certainly unbaptized; and a later vision assured her that her prayer was answered and he had been translated from punishment. St. Augustine thought it needful to point out that the narrative was not canonical Scripture, and contended that the child had perhaps been baptized.

Eastern Christianity[edit]

Theology[edit]

Among the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, while there is no doctrine of purgatory, prayer for the dead is encouraged in the belief that it is helpful for them. Specifically how the prayers of the faithful help the departed is not elucidated; Eastern Orthodox simply believe that tradition teaches that prayers should be made for the dead.[8][9]

Saint Basil the Great († 379), a saint of undivided Christianity, writes in his Third Kneeling Prayer at Pentecost O Christ our God...(who) on this all-perfect and saving Feast, art graciously pleased to accept propitiatory prayers for those who are imprisoned in hades, promising unto us who are held in bondage great hope of release from the vilenes that doth hinder us and did hinder them ... send down Thy consolation... and establish their souls in the mansions of the Just; and graciously vouchsafe unto them peace and pardon; for not the dead shall praise thee, O Lord, neither shall they who are in Hell make bold to offer unto thee confession. But we who are living will bless thee, and will pray, and offer unto thee propitiatory prayers and sacrifices for their souls.[10]

Saint Gregory Dialogus († 604) in his famous Dialogues (written in 593) teaches that, "The Holy Sacrifice (Eucharist) of Christ, our saving Victim, brings great benefits to souls even after death, provided their sins (are such as) can be pardoned in the life to come."[11] However, St. Gregory goes on to say, the Church's practice of prayer for the dead must not be an excuse for not living a godly life on earth. "The safer course, naturally, is to do for ourselves during life what we hope others will do for us after death."[12] Father Seraphim Rose († 1982) says, "the Church's prayer cannot save anyone who does not wish salvation, or who never offered any struggle (podvig) for it himself during his lifetime."[13]

Eastern Orthodox Praxis[edit]

The various prayers for the departed have as their purpose to pray for the repose of the departed, to comfort the living, and to remind those who remain of their own mortality. For this reason, memorial services have an air of penitence about them.[14]

The Church's prayers for the dead begin at the moment of death, when the priest leads the Prayers at the Departure of the Soul , consisting of a special Canon and prayers for the release of the soul. Then the body is washed, clothed and laid in the coffin, after which the priest begins the First Panikhida (prayer service for the departed). After the First Panikhida, the family and friends begin reading the Psalter aloud beside the casket. This reading continues until the funeral begins (usually on the third day after death), being interrupted only by more Panikhidas (at least one per day).

Orthodox Christians offer particularly fervent prayers for the departed on the first 40 days after death. Traditionally, in addition to the service on the day of death, the memorial service is performed at the request of the relatives of an individual departed person on the following occasions:

  • Third day after death[15]
  • Ninth day
  • Fortieth day
  • First anniversary of death
  • Third anniversary (some will request a memorial every year on the anniversary of death)

In addition to Panikhidas for individuals, there are also several days during the year that are set aside as special general commemorations of the dead, when all departed Orthodox Christians will be prayed for together (this is especially to benefit those who have no one on earth to pray for them). The majority of these general commemorations fall on the various "Soul Saturdays" throughout the year (mostly during Great Lent). On these days, in addition to the normal Panikhida, there are special additions to Vespers and Matins, and there will be propers for the departed added to the Divine Liturgy. These days of general memorial are:

  • Meatfare Saturday (two Saturdays before Great Lent begins)—in some traditions families and friends will offer Panikhidas for their loved ones during the week, culminating in the general commemoration on Saturday
  • The second Saturday of Great Lent
  • The third Saturday of Great Lent
  • The fourth Saturday of Great Lent
  • Radonitsa (the second Tuesday after Easter)
  • The Saturday before Pentecost—in some traditions families and friends will offer Panikhidas for their loved ones during the week, culminating in the general commemoration on Saturday
  • Demetrius Saturday (the Saturday before the feast of Saint Demetrius, October 26). In the Bulgarian Orthodox Church there is a commemoration of the dead on the Saturday before the feast of Saint Michael the Archangel, November 8, instead of the Demetrius Soul Saturday.

The most important form of prayer for the dead occurs in the Divine Liturgy. Particles are cut from the prosphoron during the Proskomedie at the beginning of the Liturgy. These particles are placed beneath the Lamb (Host) on the diskos, where they remain throughout the Liturgy. After the Communion of the faithful, the deacon brushes these particles into the chalice, saying, "Wash away, O Lord, the sins of all those here commemorated, by Thy Precious Blood, through the prayers of all thy saints." Of this action, Saint Mark of Ephesus says, "We can do nothing better or greater for the dead than to pray for them, offering commemoration for them at the Liturgy. Of this they are always in need... The body feels nothing then: it does not see its close ones who have assembled, does not smell the fragrance of the flowers, does not hear the funeral orations. But the soul senses the prayers offered for it and is grateful to those who make them and is spiritually close to them."[16]

Normally, candidates for sainthood, prior to their Glorification (Canonization) as a saint, will be commemorated by serving Panikhidas. Then, on the eve of their Glorification will be served an especially solemn Requiem, known as the "Last Panikhida."

Roman Catholic Church[edit]

In the West there is ample evidence of the custom of praying for the dead in the inscriptions of the catacombs, with their constant prayers for the peace and refreshment of the souls of the departed and in the early liturgies, which commonly contain commemorations of the dead; and Tertullian, Cyprian and other early Western Fathers witness to the regular practice of praying for the dead among the early Christians.[17]

However, in the case of martyred Christians, it was felt that it was inappropriate to pray "for" the martyrs, since they were believed to be in no need of such prayers, have instantly passed to the Beatific Vision of Heaven. Theoretically, too, prayer for those in hell (understood as the abode of the eternally lost) would be useless, but since there is no certainty that any particular person is in hell understood in that sense, prayers were and are offered for all the dead, except for those believed to be in heaven. These are prayed to, not for. Thus, prayers were and are offered for all those in Hades, the abode of the dead who are not known to be in heaven, sometimes rendered as "hell".[18] With the development of the doctrine of purgatory, the dead prayed for were spoken of as being in purgatory and, in view of the certainty that by the process of purification and with the help of the prayers of the faithful they were destined for heaven, they were referred to as the "holy souls".

Limits were placed on public offering of Mass for the unbaptised and notorious sinners, but prayers and even Mass in private could be said for them. The present Code of Canon Law states that, unless the person concerned gave some signs of repentance before death, no form of funeral Mass may be offered for notorious apostates, heretics and schismatics; those who for anti-Christian motives chose that their bodies be cremated; and other manifest sinners to whom a Church funeral could not be granted without public scandal to the faithful.[19]

On the other hand, "provided their own minister is not available, baptised persons belonging to a non-catholic Church or ecclesial community may, in accordance with the prudent judgement of the local Ordinary, be allowed Church funeral rites, unless it is established that they did not wish this."[20]

During the slaughter of the First World War, Pope Benedict XV on 10 August 1915, allowed all priests everywhere to say three Masses on All Souls' Day. The two extra Masses were in no way to benefit the priest himself: one was to be offered for all the faithful departed, the other for the Pope's intentions, which at that time were presumed to be for all the victims of that war. The permission remains.

Each Eucharistic Prayer of the Order of Mass has a prayer for the departed.

Anglicanism[edit]

The Church of England's 1549 Book of the Common Prayer still had prayer for the dead, as (in the Communion Service): "We commend into thy mercy all other thy servants, which are departed hence from us with the sign of faith and now do rest in the sleep of peace: grant unto them, we beseech thee, thy mercy and everlasting peace." But since 1552 the Book of Common Prayer has no express prayers for the dead, and the practice is denounced in the Homily "On Prayer" (part 3).[21] Nonjurors included prayers for the dead, a practice that spread within the Church of England in the mid-nineteenth century, and was authorized in 1900 for forces serving in South Africa and since then in other forms of service. Many jurisdictions and parishes of the Anglo-Catholic tradition continue to practice prayer for the dead, including offering the Sunday liturgy for the peace of named departed Christians and keeping All Souls' Day.

The Episcopal Church's 1979 Book of Common Prayer includes a few prayers for the dead.

Protestantism[edit]

Lutheran Church[edit]

Martin Luther, notably, believed that prayer for the dead was not only justified, but should be encouraged for a child who died before baptism could be conferred; "In summary, see to it that above all else you are a true Christian and that you teach a heartfelt yearning and praying to God in true faith, be it in this or in any other trouble. Then do not be dismayed about your child or yourself. Know that your prayer is pleasing to God and that God will do everything much better than you can comprehend or desire. 'Call upon me,' he says in Psalm 50. 'In the day of trouble; I will deliver you, and you shall glorify me.' For this reason, we ought not to condemn such infants. Believers and Christians have devoted their longing and yearning and praying for them."[22] However, the Lutheran Church does not approve of "the application ex opere operato of the Lord's Supper on behalf of the dead."[23]

Methodist Church[edit]

John Wesley, the founder of the Methodist Church, taught "taught the propriety of Praying for the Dead, practised it himself, provided Forms that others might."[24] One of the prayers in the Forms is "O grant that we, with those who are already dead in Thy faith and fear, may together partake of a joyful resurrection."[24] As such, many Methodists pray "for those who sleep."[25]

Free churches[edit]

Prayer for the dead is not practiced by members of free churches.[17] For example, members of the Baptist churches hold that "dead mean receive no benefit from the prayers, sacrifices, &c. of the living."[26]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church)[edit]

The LDS Church has a number of sacred ordinances and rituals that are performed for the dead. The chief among these are baptism for the dead and the sealing of the dead to families.[citation needed] These practices are based upon multiple New Testament scriptures, some of which are 1 Corinthians 15:29-32, Matthew 16:19

Islam[edit]

See also: Islamic funeral

In Islam, Muslims of their community gather to their collective prayers for the forgiveness of the dead, a prayer is recited and this prayer is known as the Salat al-Janazah (Janazah prayer).

The Janazah prayer is as follows:

like Eid prayer, the Janazah prayer incorporates an additional (four) Takbirs, the Arabic name for the phrase Allahu Akbar, but there is no Ruku' (bowing) and Sujud (prostrating).

Supplication for the deceased and mankind is recited.

In extraordinary circumstances, the prayer can be postponed and prayed at a later time as was done in the Battle of Uhud.

Dogma states it is obligatory for every Muslim adult male to perform the funeral prayer upon the death of any Muslim, but the dogma embraces the practical in that it qualifies, when Janazah is performed by the few it alleviates that obligation for all.

In addition, "Peace be upon him" (sometimes abbreviated in writing as PBUH) is a constantly repeated prayer for dead people such as Mohammed.

Hinduism[edit]

In Hinduism there are funeral speeches with prayers for the dead.[27][28][29]

Many of these Funeral speeches are read out from the Mahabharata, usually in Sanskrit.

Family members will pray around the body as soon as possible after Death. People try to avoid touching the corpse as it is considered polluting.

Here is an example of a funeral speech that may be read out during a Hindu Funeral.

The wise have said that Atman is immortal:

And that the phenomenon of death is merely the separation of the astral body from the physical body. The five elements of which the body is composed return to their source. Our scriptures teach us that as pilgrims unite and separate at a public inn, so also fathers, mothers, sons, brothers, wives, relations unite and separate in this world. He who thus understands the nature of the body and all human relationships based upon it will derive strength to bear the loss of our dear ones. In Divine plan, one day each union must end with separation.

Many of these speeches are a collection of scriptural texts about Life and Death.

Buddhism[edit]

Along reading Buddhist sutras such as Sutra of The Great Vows of Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva, Amitabha Sutra or Diamond Sutra, Ritsu offer refuge, Pure Land Buddhists nianfo or chant Pure Land Rebirth Dhāraṇī and Tibetan Buddhists chant Om mani padme hum repeatedly.[30][31][32][33][34][35][36] Prayers such as Namo Ratnasikhin Tathagata are for animals.[37][38]

Taoism[edit]

Taoists chant Qinghuahao (青華誥) or Jiukujing (救苦經).[39][40][41]

Other religions[edit]

Zoroastrians chant prayers in funeral ceremonies.[42]

In Bahá'í Faith a prayer is required only when the deceased is over the age of fifteen.[43][44][45]

There are prayers in other religions.[which?][46][47][48][49][50]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 2 Maccabees 12:40-46
  2. ^ Le Goff, Jacques (1984). surprisingly innovative period&f=false The Birth of Purgatory. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. p. 45. 
  3. ^ Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  4. ^ Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, Volume II: Ante-Nicene Christianity. A.D. 100-325, "§156. Between Death and Resurrection."
  5. ^ The Longer Catechism of the Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church, 376
  6. ^ Le Goff, Jacques. The birth of purgatory. University of Chicago Press. 1984.
  7. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1032
  8. ^ "Of course we do not understand exactly how such prayer benefits the departed. Yet equally, when we intercede for people still alive, we cannot explain how this intercessions assists them. We know from our personal experience that prayer for others is effective, and so we continue to practice it." (Kallistos Ware, The Inner Kingdom (St Vladimir's Seminary Press 2000, ISBN 978-0-88141-209-3), p. 36).
  9. ^ Timothy Ware, The Orthodox Church (Penguin Books, 1964, ISBN 0-14-020592-6), p. 259
  10. ^ Isabel F. Hapgood, Service Book of the Holy Orthodox-Catholic Apostolic Church (Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese, Englewood, New Jersey, 1975, 5th edition), p. 255.
  11. ^ Dialogues IV, 57.
  12. ^ Id. IV, 60.
  13. ^ Fr. Seraphim Rose, The Soul After Death (Saint Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, Platina, California, ISBN 0-938635-14-X), p. 191.
  14. ^ For instance, the Panikhida does not have the chanting of "God is the Lord..." as the Moleben does; but instead, the "Alleluia" is chanted, reminiscent of the "Alleluia" that is chanted at Lenten services.
  15. ^ In calculating the number of days, the actual day of death is counted as the first day. According to St. Macarius the Great, the reason for these days is as follows: from the third day to the ninth day after death, the departed is soul is shown the mansions of Paradise (the funeral is normally performed on the third day); from the ninth to the fortieth days, the soul is shown the torments of hell; and on the fortieth day, the soul stands before the throne of God to undergo the Particular Judgement and is assigned the place where it will await the Second Coming. For this reason, the fortieth day is considered to be the most important. In some traditions, there is also a commemoration at six months.
  16. ^ Quoted in Seraphim Rose, The Soul After Death, p. 192, op. cit.
  17. ^ a b Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), article dead, prayer for the
  18. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 633
  19. ^ canons 1184-1185
  20. ^ canon 1183 §3
  21. ^ "Neither let us dreame any more, that the soules of the dead are any thing at all holpen by our prayers: But as the Scripture teacheth us, let us thinke that the soule of man passing out of the body, goeth straight wayes either to heaven, or else to hell, whereof the one needeth no prayer, and the other is without redemption" (An Homilie or Sermon concerning Prayer, part 3)
  22. ^ Martin Luther's Basic Theological Writings (Fortress Press 2012 ISBN 978-0-80069883-6); cf. Elisa Erikson Barrett, What Was Lost: A Christian Journey through Miscarriage (Westminster John Knox Press 2010 ISBN 978-1-61164074-8), p. 70
  23. ^ "Defense of the Augsburg Confession". Book of Concord (in English). Retrieved 10 April 2014. "Now, as regards the adversaries' citing the Fathers concerning the offering for the dead, we know that the ancients speak of prayer for the dead, which we do not prohibit; but we disapprove of the application ex opere operato of the Lord's Supper on behalf of the dead. Neither do the ancients favor the adversaries concerning the opus operatum. And even though they have the testimonies especially of Gregory or the moderns, 95] we oppose to them the most clear and certain Scriptures." 
  24. ^ a b Holden, Harrington William (1872). John Wesley in Company with High Churchmen. London: J. Hodges. p. 84. "Wesley taught the propriety of Praying for the Dead, practised it himself, provided Forms that others might. These forms, for daily use, he put fort, not tentatively or apologetically, but as considering such prayer a settled matter of Christian practice, with all who believe that the Faithful, living and dead, are one Body in Christ in equal need and like expectation of those blessings which they will together enjoy, when both see Him in His Kingdom. Two or three examples, out of many, may be given:--"O grant that we, with those who are already dead in Thy faith and fear, may together partake of a joyful resurrection."" 
  25. ^ Holden, Harrington William (1872). John Wesley in Company with High Churchmen. London: J. Hodges. p. 84. "The Prayers passed though many editions, and were in common use among thousands of Methodists of every degree, who, without scruple or doubtfulness prayed for those who sleep in Jesus every day that they prayed to the common Father of all." 
  26. ^ Crosby, Thomas (1738). The History of the English Baptists. Church History Research & Archives. p. 38. "That dead men receive no benefit from the prayers, ſacrifices, &c. of the living." 
  27. ^ Funerals
  28. ^ RITUALS
  29. ^ Kamat's Potpourri: FAQ on Hindu Funerals
  30. ^ 與生死有關--超度佛事的功德(下)
  31. ^ 佛教喪葬禮儀內容及程序
  32. ^ 符咒详解
  33. ^ 生命的終極關懷(第二章~後事處理)
  34. ^ 慈濟大學-實驗動物中心-第三章第四節動物之安樂死與屍體之處置
  35. ^ 寵物死了怎麼辦? @ 小行者的部落格:: 痞客邦PIXNET ::
  36. ^ 金丹大法
  37. ^ 多尊佛名號功德/ 海濤法師開示節錄
  38. ^ 護生手冊
  39. ^ 救苦朝科
  40. ^ 論道教太乙救苦天尊的信仰
  41. ^ 救苦往生神咒
  42. ^ The Funeral Ceremonies of the Parsees
  43. ^ Prayer for the Dead
  44. ^ Compilation: Baha'i Burial
  45. ^ The Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Pages 101-102 - Baha'i Reference Library
  46. ^ 彝文《指路经》
  47. ^ 送魂引路经_一路向北_百度空间
  48. ^ 傣族火葬原始神秘的葬礼
  49. ^ 专家文章-- 杨民康
  50. ^ 《指路经》节选

External links[edit]