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Salat times refers to times when Muslims perform prayers (salat). The term is primarily used for the five daily prayers plus the Friday prayer. According to Muslim beliefs, the salat times were taught by Allah to Muhammad.
Prayer times are standard for Muslims in the world, especially the fard prayer times. They depend on the condition of the Sun and geography. There are varying opinions regarding the exact salat times, the schools of Islamic thought differing in minor details. All schools agree that any given prayer cannot be performed before its stipulated time.
Five daily prayers
The five daily prayers are obligatory (fard) and they are performed at times determined essentially by the position of the Sun in the sky. Hence, salat times vary at different locations on the Earth.
Fajr begins at subh saadiq - true dawn or morning twilight when the morning light appears across the full width of the sky and ends at sunrise
The Dhuhr prayer starts after the sun passes its zenith, and lasts until Asr
The Asr prayer starts when the shadow of an object is the same length as the object itself (or, according to Hanafi fiqh, twice its length) plus the shadow length at Dhuhr, and lasts till sunset. Asr can be split into two sections; the preferred time is before the sun starts to turn orange, while the time of necessity is from when the sun turns orange until sunset.
The Maghrib prayer begins when the sun sets, and lasts till the red light has left the sky in the west.
The Isha'a prayer starts when the red light is gone from the western sky, and lasts until the rise of the "white light" (fajar sadiq) in the east. The preferred time for Isha'a is before midnight, meaning halfway between sunset and sunrise.
- Video Salat Isha'a in Makkah and Madinah.
To calculate prayer times two astronomical measures are necessary, the declination of the sun and the difference between clock time and sundial clock. This difference being the result of the eccentricity of the earth's orbit and the inclination of its axis, it is called the Equation of time. The declination of the sun is the angle between sun's rays and the equator plan.
In addition to the above measures, to calculate prayer times for a specific location we need its spherical coordinates.
An other important equation gives the time difference between when the sun hits its highest point in the sky (Dhuhr time) and any other angle , as follow:
- Midday (Dhuhr) time is easily obtained. When the sun reaches the mid sky, time is given by:
- Sunrise (Chorok) and Sunset (Maghreb) time are given by , in fact it is the astronomical sunset/sunrise that occurs for . 0.833 is a slight correction that gives the actual time. So and .
If we consider the elevation of the point we should add another correction to the constant .
- For Fajr and Isha many conventions about the angle exist. It is of 17 and 18 degrees respectively for Fadjr and Isha prayers according to the Muslim World League.
- For Asr time according to the majority of Muslim schools, including Shafi'i, Maliki, Ja'fari, and Hanbali, it is when the length of an object shadows became equal to its length plus the length of its shadow at noon. The Hanafi schools states that the time of Asr is when an object's shadow reaches two times the length of the object itself, plus the length of its shadow at noon. The time the shadow of an object reaches times its length is given by the equation: .
- It is called for the Maghrib prayer when the sun is completely folded behind the horizon, plus 3 minutes by precaution.
The Friday prayer replaces the dhuhr prayer performed on the other six days of the week. The precise time for this congregational prayer varies with the mosque, but in all cases it must be performed after the dhuhr and before the asr times. If one is unable to join the congregation, then they must pray the dhuhr prayer instead. This salat is compulsory to be done with ja'maat for men. Women have the option to perform Jumm'ah in the mosque or to pray dhuhr
- Video Salat Jumah/Friday in Makkah and Madinah.
Eid-ul-Adhaa and Eid-ul-Fitr
Salat during Ramadan, performed at night after Isha (night) prayer. Usually performed in congregation. 10 units of prayer are recited in pairs, each unit consisting of two rakaat.
- Video Salat Taraweeh in Makkah and Madinah, Ramadan 1429 AH or 2008 AC.
Salat at a funeral
- Prayer times for many countries
- Prayer Times Prayer times are calculated based location of the IP address.
- Prayer Times for more than 6 million cities in 252 countries in the world.
- Printable Prayer Times for more than 3.7 million cities in 200 countries in the world as well as latitude and longitude inputs.
- Salaah Time Reminders on Twitter for various Cities in South Africa
- Salat according to some Islamic schools of thought
- Prayer Times calculator based on city, address, postal code or latitude/longitude coordinates.