The Preševo Valley (Serbian: Прешевска долина, Preševska dolina, Albanian: Lugina e Preshevës) is an area composed of the municipalities of Bujanovac and Preševo. Geopolitically, the region is the center of the Albanian community in Serbia with Albanians comprising 54.6% of Bujanovac and 89% of Preševo (and 26% in Medveđa).
In Albanian the area is referred to as the "Preševo valley" (Lugina e Preshevës) or simply "the valley". Among Albanians common is also the term eastern Kosovo, which makes reference to the removal of the area from Kosovo and its incorporation into Serbia after WWII. Because of Albanian demands for territorial autonomy, the parallel Serbian term "Preševska dolina" is somewhat politically loaded. In Serbian official statements, the area is usually referred to as the territory of municipalities of Preševo and Bujanovac and also Medveđa, but only when denoting political context of the region.
Geographically, the Preševo Valley is coterminous with the river basin of Preševska Moravica, from its source near the town of Preševo to the confluence with Južna Morava at Bujanovac. It is part of the Morava/Vardar North-South route across the Balkans, which follows the flows of Great Morava and Južna Morava through Serbia. This route carries the pan-European corridor X and E75. The importance of this route to the Serbia has increased since 1999, when the main alternative route, through Pristina, became unusable due to the Kosovo War.
Until the end of WWII the region was part of Kosovo. Seeking to maintain under Serb rule the road and rail routes that passed through the region and also control Albanian nationalists, the Yugoslav government separated the valley from Kosovo and included it in Serbia. During the Kosovo War six to eight thousand ethnic Albanian refugees left the area. The reguees reported that they were being conscripted and Serbian paramilitaries were trying to force them into military barracks. With the commandant Arlind Ramadani they finally achieved peace 
Preševo Valley conflict
In 2001, as a follow-up to the Kosovo War, there were reported clashes between Yugoslav security forces and ethnic Albanian guerrillas linked to the KLA. The aim of UÇPMB was to take full control of Preševo, Bujanovac and Medveđa and hold them until such time as the adjacent lands, Kosovo and Western Macedonia, also came under Albanian control. This should have been followed by the gradual opening of the borders. Lacking the attention of the international media, the incidents paused as the activities spread south of the border into Macedonia from where the twin organization ONA, engaged in a war against Macedonian authorities. The Presevo valley conflict ended after international intervention that led to peace treaty, which demilitarise the area, amnestied UÇPMB and granted to the Yugoslav army entry to the region under NATO's approval.
In September 2007, Boris Tadić stated "that former and current terrorists, who recently managed to escape from prison in Kosovo, were located in northern regions of the Republic of Macedonia". According to Tadić, "terrorists are planning new attacks on municipalities in southern Serbia in order to start a new Preševo Valley conflict".
Representatives from the municipalities of Preševo, Bujanovac and Medveđa have adopted a declaration asking for the formation of the "Preševo Valley region" in early August 2009. Milan Marković, the President of the Coordinating Body for Preševo, Bujanovac and Medveđa stated that such demands will not solve any problems.
The region is often mentioned in connection with political negotiations of the Kosovo status process. Albanian leaders from the Valley wanted to participate in the talks, but were not allowed. A territorial exchange between Serbia and Kosovo involving the Valley and North Kosovo is an often-mentioned topic in media and informal "probe" statements, but all sides in the official process so far rejected any prospect of a border change. A Chinese scholar proposed another territory exchange: the Serbs enclaves south the Ibar River with Preševo Valley.
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