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Pre-nominal letters are a title which is placed before the name of a person as distinct from a post-nominal title which is placed after the name. Examples of pre-nominal titles, for instance professional titles include: Doctor, Captain, Eur Ing (European Engineer), Ir (Ingenieur), CA (Indian Chartered Accountant) and Professor; whilst other common social titles are Mr., Master, The Honorable, Ms., Mrs. and Miss. Pre-nominal letters are generally social, but can be professional in nature (e.g. Eur Ing).
In some Continental European countries all academic degrees were traditionally pre-nominal. For example, pre-nominal academic degrees in German-speaking countries include: Dipl.-Ing. (Master's degree in Engineering), Dipl.-Kfm. (Master's degree in management), Dipl.-Phys. (Master's degree in physics), Dr.-Ing. (German doctorate in engineering), Dr. med. (German doctorate in Medicine) and Mag. (Austrian Master's degree (Magister) in all disciplines except engineering).
Pursuant to the Bologna process, most of these pre-nominal degrees will be replaced by post-nominal Bachelor's and Master's degrees; but people who held academic degrees before the Bologna process may continue to use the pre-nominal academic degrees. In contexts where pre-nominal academic letters are used, such degrees may be placed prenominally for consistency (for example, "MMathPhil Marcos Cramer").
In Finland, abbreviated academic titles can appear before or after the name (for example, FM Matti Meikäläinen or Matti Meikäläinen, FM).
Order of titles
In the UK, those with both a knighthood and rank in the armed forces (or clergy, or academic titles) put the Sir after the other title; for example: Lieutenant General Sir John Leishaman; His Eminence Sir Norman Cardinal Gilroy, KBE; Professor Sir Richard Peto.
- Titles and Forms of Address: A Guide to Correct Use (22nd ed.)