Pre-service teacher education
Pre-service teacher education is the education and training provided to student teachers before they have undertaken any teaching.
Before entering into any pre-service education most students will have obtained a previous academic degree, either a general or honours, in a subject of their choice, (e.g. English, math, science, religion). In the US, students are often required to take a test prior to acceptance into an accredited program, and/or upon graduation in order to earn certification. Commonly, the PRAXIS I or PRAXIS II are required for this purpose. Common topics include classroom management, lesson plans, and professional development. A major focus during such education programs are the practicum where the pre-service teacher is placed within a school setting (either elementary, or senior) and shadows an experienced teacher. The pre-service teacher will be given opportunities to develop skills through lesson plans, teaching lessons and classroom management.
Not all pre-service programs are designed the same and a certificate obtained in one country may not be recognized within another. Within the US, state-to-state reciprocity is limited. In Canada jurisdictional requirements for required teacher education differs provincially. Each province has a designated authority responsible for the certification and provision of, and related evaluation of teacher qualifications. 
The practical nature of pre-service education training programs aligns with American philosopher John Dewey’s theory of experience. In his book Experience and Education Dewey prescribes that learning must be based upon the actual life experiences of an individual that are interactive, experimental, and purposive in nature. Donald Schon expanded upon Dewey’s model by focusing further upon the importance of reflective practice in the learning process. Schon was a proponent of using reflection in teacher education and other professions to guide learning through reflection on past experiences to guide future learning and practice, as evidenced in his 1996 work, Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. 
- "Teaching Jobs in Canada". EducationCanada.com. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
- Schon, D.A. (1996). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.