Precision medicine

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Precision medicine is the application of panomic analysis and systems biology to analyze the cause of an individual patient's disease at the molecular level and then to utilize targeted treatments (possibly in combination) to address that individual patient's disease process. The patient's response is then tracked as closely as possible, often using surrogate measures such as tumor load (v. true outcomes, such as 5 year survival rate), and the treatment finely adapted to the patient's response.[1] The branch of precision medicine that addresses cancer is referred to as "precision oncology".[2]

Inter-personal difference of molecular pathology is diverse, so as inter-personal difference in the exposome, which influence disease processes through the interactome within the tissue microenvironment, differentially from person to person. As the theoretical basis of precision medicine, the "unique disease principle"[3] emerged to embrace the ubiquitous phenomenon of heterogeneity of disease etiology and pathogenesis. The unique disease principle was first described in neoplastic diseases as the unique tumor principle.[4] As the exposome is a common concept of epidemiology, precision medicine is intertwined with molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE). MPE research is capable of identifying potential biomarkers for precision medicine.[5]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Blau, CA, Liakopoulou, E (2013). "Can we deconstruct cancer, one patient at a time?". Trends in Genetics 29 (1): 6–10. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2012.09.004. 
  2. ^ Levi A. Garraway, Jaap Verweij and Karla V. Ballman (2013). "Precision Oncology: An Overview". J. Clinical Oncology 31 (15): 1803–1805. doi:10.1200/jco.2013.49.4799. 
  3. ^ Ogino S, Lochhead P, Chan AT, Nishihara R, Cho E, Wolpin BM, Meyerhardt AJ, Meissner A, Schernhammer ES, Fuchs CS, Giovannucci E. Molecular pathological epidemiology of epigenetics: emerging integrative science to analyze environment, host, and disease. Mod Pathol 2013;26:465-484.
  4. ^ Ogino S, Fuchs CS, Giovannucci E. How many molecular subtypes? Implications of the unique tumor principle in personalized medicine. Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2012; 12: 621-628.
  5. ^ Ogino S, Lochhead P, Giovannucci E, Meyerhardt JA, Fuchs CS, Chan AT. Discovery of colorectal cancer PIK3CA mutation as potential predictive biomarker: power and promise of molecular pathological epidemiology. Oncogene advance online publication 24 June 2013; doi: 10.1038/onc.2013.244