List of predecessors of sovereign states in Europe

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This is a list of all present sovereign states in Europe and their predecessors. The borders of Europe are difficult to define. The borders between Europe and Asia are generally agreed to be the Caucasus Mountains, the Ural Mountains, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles.

Sovereign state Predecessors
Albania  Province of Macedonia (146 BC – 357 AD)
Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (167–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC – 357 AD)

 Diocese of Macedonia (357 – c. 842)

Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (357–476 AD)
 Byzantine Empire (476 – c. 846)

 Theme of Dyrrhachium (c. 846–1190)

 Byzantine Empire

Principality of Arbanon (1190–1255)

 Byzantine Empire (1190–1204)
 Despotate of Epirus (1205–1255)

 Despotate of Epirus (1255–1337)
Arms of the Kingdom of Naples.svg Kingdom of Albania (1272–1368)

Bandiera del Regno di Sicilia 4.svg Kingdom of Sicily

 Lordship of Berat (1335–1444)
 Serbian Empire (1337–1356)
 Principality of Valona (1346–1417)

 Serbian Empire (1346–1355)

 Despotate of Epirus (1356–1479)
Flag of the Despotate of Arta.jpg Despotate of Angelokastron and Lepanto (1358–1374)
Flag of the Despotate of Arta.jpg Despotate of Arta (1358–1416)
Flag of the Topiaj principality.jpg Princedom of Albania (1368–1444)
 Principality of Gjirokastër (1386–1418)
 Principality of Dukagjini (1387–1444)
Coa Kastrioti Family.svg Principality of Kastrioti (1389–1444)
 Venetian Albania (1420–1797)

 Most Serene Republic of Venice

Coa Kastrioti Family.svg League of Lezhë (1444 – c. 1468)
 Ottoman Empire (1479–1912)
Flag of Albanian Provisional Government (1912-1914).svg Independent Albania (1912–1914)
Albania Principality of Albania (1914–1925)
Flag of Albania (1926-1928).svg Albanian Republic (1925–1928)
Albania Albanian Kingdom (1928–1939)
 Kingdom of Italy (1939–1943)
Flag of Albania (1943-1944).svg Albanian Kingdom (1943–1944)
Flag of Albania (1944-1946).svg Democratic Government of Albania (1944–1946)
Albania People's Republic of Albania (1946–1976)
Albania Socialist People's Republic of Albania (1976–1992)
 Republic of Albania (1992–present)

Andorra Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (100–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
 Carolingian Empire (817–843)
Urgell.png County of Urgell (843–1133)
 Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell (1133–1208)
Blason du comté de Foix.svg County of Foix (1208–1607/1610)
 Principality of Andorra (1278–present)
Armenia  Ottoman Empire (1586–1828)
 Russian Empire (1828–1917)
Flag of the Transcaucasian Federation.svg Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (1918)
 Democratic Republic of Armenia (1918–1920)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
 Republic of Armenia (1991–present)
Austria Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (509–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
 Archduchy of Austria (1156–1804) within the Holy Roman Empire (962–1806)
 Austrian Empire (1804–1867) within the German Confederation (1815–1866)
 Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
 Republic of Austria (1918–1938)
 Nazi Germany (1938–1945)
Flag of Austria.svg Allied-occupied Austria (1945–1955)
 Republic of Austria (1955–present)
Azerbaijan  Russian Empire (1813–1917)
Flag of the Transcaucasian Federation.svg Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (1918)
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918–1920)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
 Republic of Azerbaijan[1] (1991–present)
Belarus  Grand Duchy of Lithuania (13th century–1569)
Flag of Poland.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1793)
 Russian Empire (1793–1917)
Flag of Belarus (1991-1995).svg Belarusian People's Republic (1918–1919)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
 Republic of Belarus (1991–present)
Belgium Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (509–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
Flag of the Low Countries.svg Spain (1482–1713) but within the Holy Roman Empire
Flag of Austrian Low Countries.svg Archduchy of Austria (1713–1797) within the Holy Roman Empire
 France (1797–1815)
 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1830)
 Kingdom of Belgium (1830–present)
Bosnia and Herzegovina noborder Kingdom of Croatia (925-1102)
noborder Principality of Serbia (768–1217)
noborder Kingdom of Serbia (1217–1346)
 Serbian Empire (1346–1371)
Kingdom of Bosnia (1371–1463)
 Ottoman Empire (1463-1878)
 Austria-Hungary (1878–1918)
noborder State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (1918)
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
 Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1991)
 Bosnia and Herzegovina[1] (1992–present)
Bulgaria  First Bulgarian Empire (681–1018)
 Byzantine Empire (1018–1185)
 Second Bulgarian Empire (1185–1396)
 Ottoman Empire (1396–1878)
Bulgaria Principality of Bulgaria (1878–1908)
 Kingdom of Bulgaria (1908–1946)
Bulgaria People's Republic of Bulgaria (1946–1990)
 Republic of Bulgaria (1990–present)
Croatia noborder Littoral Croatian Duchy (7th century-925)
noborder Kingdom of Croatia (925-1102)
noborder Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg) (1102-1804)
 Austrian Empire (1804–1867)
 Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
noborder State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (1918)
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
 Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1991)
 Republic of Croatia (1991–present)
Cyprus Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (509–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
 Byzantine Empire (476–1190)
Armoiries Chypre.svg Kingdom of Cyprus (1192–1489 AD)
 Ottoman Empire (?–1878)
 British Empire (1878–1960)
 Republic of Cyprus (1960–present)
Czech Republic  Great Moravia (833-902)

 Duchy of Bohemia (?–1198)
 Kingdom of Bohemia (1198–1804 (–1918)) within the Holy Roman Empire (?–1806)
 Austrian Empire (1804–1867)
 Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
 Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1948 (–1992))
Flag of Bohmen und Mahren.svg Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (1939–1945)
 Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1960–1990)
 Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (1990–1992)
 Czech Republic (1993–present)

Denmark noborder Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
 Kingdom of Denmark[2] (c. 965–present)
Estonia  Terra Mariana (1207–1561)
Sweden Swedish Empire (1561–1721)
 Russian Empire (1721–1918)
 Republic of Estonia (1918–present)[3][4]
Finland noborder Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
Sweden Swedish Empire (c. 1210–1809)
 Russian Empire (1809–1917)
 Republic of Finland (1917–present)
France Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (123–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–260 AD)
 Gallic Empire (260-274 AD)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (274–285 AD)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svgWestern Roman Empire(285–457 AD)
 Kingdom of Soissons (457–486 AD)
 Frankish Empire (481-800)
 Carolingian Empire (800–843)
 West Francia (843–987)
 Kingdom of France (987–1791)
 Kingdom of the French (1791–1792)
France French Republic (1792–1804)
France French Empire (1804–1814, 1815)
France Kingdom of France (1814–1815, 1815–1830)
France Kingdom of the French (1830–1848)
France French Republic (1848–1852)
France French Empire (1852–1870)
France French Republic (1870–1940)
France French State (1940–1944)
 French Republic[5] (1944–present)
Georgia  Caucasian Iberia (c. 159 BC-580)

 Principality of Iberia (580-891)

 Kingdom of Iberia (mostly titular revival) (891-1008)
 Tao-Klarjeti (813-1008)

 Kingdom of Georgia (1008-1465)

 Kingdom of Imereti (1455-1810)
 Kingdom of Kartli (1484-1762)
 Kingdom of Kakheti (1465-1762)
Erekle II of Georgia coat of arms.jpg Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti (1762–1801)

 Russian Empire (1801–1917)
Flag of Georgia (1918-1921).svg Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918–1921)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
 Georgia (1991–present)

Germany  Carolingian Empire (800–843)
 East Francia (843–919)
 Kingdom of Germany (919-962)
 Holy Roman Empire (962–1806)
Confederation of the Rhine (1806–1813) & noborder Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1871)
noborder German Confederation (1815–1866)
noborder North German Confederation (1866–1871)
 German Empire (1871–1918)
 Weimar Republic (1918–1933) & noborder Saar (1920–1935)
 Nazi Germany (1933–1945)
noborder Flensburg Government (1945)
noborder Allied-occupied Germany (1945–1949)
 Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) (1949–1990 (–present),  German Democratic Republic (East Germany) (1949–1990) & noborder Saar (1947–1956)
 Federal Republic of Germany (1990–present)
Greece Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (167–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
 Byzantine Empire
 Ottoman Empire (?–1830)
 Kingdom of Greece (1830–1967)
 Hellenic Republic (1967–present)
Hungary  Hunnic Empire (370-469)
 Avar Khaganate (567-804)
 Great Moravia (833-902)
 Principality of Hungary (895-1000)
 Kingdom of Hungary (1000–1918)
 Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
Civil Ensign of Hungary.svg Hungarian Democratic Republic (1918–1919)
Socialist red flag.svg Hungarian Soviet Republic (1919–1920)
Flag of Hungary (1920–1946).svg Kingdom of Hungary (1920-1946) (1920–1946)
Flag of Hungary (1946-1949, 1956-1957).svg Republic of Hungary (1946-1949) (1946–1949)
Flag of Hungary.svg People's Republic of Hungary (1949–1989)]]
 Republic of Hungary (1989–present)
Iceland  Icelandic Free State (930–1262)
Norway Kingdom of Norway (1262–1814)
 Danish Crown (1380–1944)
 Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
Denmark Denmark–Norway (1536–1814)
 Kingdom of Denmark (1814–1918)
Light Blue Flag of Iceland.svg Kingdom of Iceland (1918–1944)
 Iceland (1944–present)
Ireland  Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1651)
 Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1653–1659)
 Kingdom of Ireland (1659–1800)
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922)
 Irish Free State (1922–1937)
 Ireland (1937–present)
Italy  Roman Kingdom
Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (509–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
the Italian peninsula divided into many states c. 400–1861, among them the medieval Kingdom of Italy (774–1806) within the Holy Roman Empire
 Duchy of Savoy (1416–1713)
 Kingdom of Sardinia (1720–1861)
 Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
 Italian Republic (1946–present)
Kazakhstan Golden Horde flag 1339.svg Golden Horde (1240s–1456)
Kazakh Khanate.svg Kazakh Khanate (1456-1847)
 Russian Empire (1735/1860–1919)
Flag of Russian SFSR (1918-1937).svg Soviet Russia (1919–1922)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
 Republic of Kazakhstan[1] (1991–present)
Latvia  Terra Mariana (1207–1583)
Flag of Poland.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1583–1611)
Flag of Poland.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth & Sweden Swedish Empire (1611–1721)
Flag of Poland.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth &  Russian Empire (1721–1772)
 Russian Empire (1772–1918)
 Republic of Latvia (1918–present)[3][4]
Liechtenstein  German Confederation (?–1866)
 Principality of Liechtenstein (1866–present)
Lithuania  Grand Duchy of Lithuania (13th century–1569)
Flag of Poland.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)
 Russian Empire (1795–1918)
Lithuania Kingdom of Lithuania (1918)
 Republic of Lithuania (1918–present)[3][4]
Luxembourg  Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1890)
 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (1890–present)
Macedonia  Byzantine Empire (?–1346), noborder Second Bulgarian Empire (1185–1346), noborder Principality of Serbia (768-1217) & noborder Kingdom of Serbia (1217–1346)
 Serbian Empire (1346–1371)
noborder Kingdom of Prilep (1371–1395)
 Ottoman Empire (1395-1913)
 Kingdom of Serbia (1913–1918)
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
 Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1991)
 Republic of Macedonia (1991–present)
Malta [6] Invis flag.gif Phoenicia (800-480 BC)
Invis flag.gif Carthaginian Empire (480-218 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman province of Sicilia (218 BC-395 AD)
 Byzantine Empire (395-870) (occupied by the Vandals 454-464 and Goths 464-533)
Black flag.svg Abbasid Caliphate 870-909
Fatimid flag.svg Fatimid Caliphate 909-1091
Blason sicile famille Hauteville.svg County of Sicily (1091-1130)
Bandiera del Regno di Sicilia 4.svg Kingdom of Sicily (1130-1530)
Flag of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.svg Order of Saint John (1530–1798)
Flag of France.svg French occupation of Malta (1798-1800), Invis flag.gif Gozo (1798-1800)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg British Protectorate of Malta (1800-1813)
Flag of Malta (1943).svg Crown Colony of Malta (1813–1964)
Flag of Malta.svg State of Malta (1964–1974)
Flag of Malta.svg Republic of Malta (1974–present)
Moldova  Byzantine Empire
 Moldavia (1359-1812) (vassal of  Ottoman Empire between 1514–1812)
 Russian Empire (1812–1918)
 Kingdom of Romania (1918–1945)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1945–1991)
 Republic of Moldova (1991–present)
Monaco  Republic of Genoa (?–1297)
 Principality of Monaco (1297–present)
Montenegro noborder Principality of Serbia (768-1217)
noborder Kingdom of Serbia (1217–1346)
 Serbian Empire (1346–1371)
noborder Principality of Zeta (1371–1402)
noborder Serbian Despotate (1402–1540)
 Ottoman Empire (1540-1852)
 Principality of Montenegro (1852–1910)
 Kingdom of Montenegro (1910–1918)
 Kingdom of Serbia (1918)
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
 Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1992)
 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992–2003)
 State Union of Serbia and Montenegro[7] (2003–2006)
 Montenegro[8] (2006–present)
Netherlands  Frankish Kingdom (5th to 10th centuries), Frisian Kingdom (600-734), Duchy of (Lower) Lorraine (903–1190) & noborder County of Holland (880-1384)
noborder Burgundian Netherlands (1384–1482)
noborder Seventeen Provinces (1482–1581)
Dutch Republic Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (1581–1795)
 Batavian Republic (1795–1806)
Kingdom of the Netherlands Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810)
France First French Empire (1810–1813)
noborder United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1839)
 Kingdom of the Netherlands (1839–present)
Norway noborder Kingdom of Norway (?–1397)
noborder Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
noborder Denmark–Norway (1536–1814)
noborder Kingdom of Norway (1814)
noborder United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway (1814–1905)
 Kingdom of Norway (1905–present)
Poland  Poland in the Early Middle Ages (?–1025)
noborder Kingdom of the Piasts (1025–1385)
noborder Kingdom of the Jagiellons (1385–1569)
noborder Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)
 Austria-Hungary,  Prussia and the  Russian Empire (1795–1918)
Flag of Poland.svg Kingdom of Poland (1916–1918)
 Republic of Poland (1918–present)
Portugal Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (197 BC–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
 Suebic Kingdom (410-585)
 Visigothic Kingdom (418–711)
 Umayyad Caliphate (711-750)
 Emirate of Córdoba (756–868)
PortugueseFlag1095.svg County of Portugal, within the Kingdom of León (868–1139)
PortugueseFlag1185.svg Kingdom of Portugal (1139–1189)
PortugueseFlag1185.svg Kingdom of Portugal and Silves (1189–1191)
PortugueseFlag1248.svg Kingdom of Portugal (1191–1249)
PortugueseFlag1385.svg Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarve (1249–1471)
PortugueseFlag1750.png Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves (1471–1815)
Flag United Kingdom Portugal Brazil Algarves.svg United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1825)
Portugal Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves (1825–1910)
 Portuguese Republic (1910–present)
Romania Kingdom of Dacia
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (106-271/275 AD)
 Wallachia (1330–1859)) (vassal of  Ottoman Empire between 1415–1859)
 Moldavia (1359-1859) (vassal of  Ottoman Empire between 1514–1859)
Flag of the United Principalities of Romania (1862 - 1866).svg Romanian United Principalities (1859–1866)
Flag of Romania.svg Principality of Romania (1866–1881)
Flag of Romania.svg Kingdom of Romania (1881–1947)
Flag of Romania (1952-1965).svg People's Republic of Romania
Flag of Romania (1965-1989).svg Socialist Republic of Romania
 Romania (1862–present)
Russia Kievan Rus' (862-1283)
Grand Duchy of Moscow (1283–1547)
Flag of Russia.svg Tsardom of Russia (1547–1721)
 Russian Empire (1721–1917)
Flag of Russian SFSR (1918-1937).svg Soviet Russia (1917–1922)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
 Russian Federation (1991–present)
San Marino Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (509–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
 Ostrogothic Kingdom (493–533)
 Byzantine Empire (533–?)
 Papal States (728–1600)
 Republic of San Marino (1600–present)
Serbia Serbian Sklavinia(520s-768)
noborder Principality of Serbia (768-1217)
noborder Kingdom of Serbia (1217–1346)
 Serbian Empire (1346–1371)
noborder Moravian Serbia (1371–1402)
noborder Serbian Despotate (1402–1540)
Kingdom of Serbia (1718–1739) 1718–1739 and 1788-1791
 Ottoman Empire (1540–1817)
Serbia Principality of Serbia (1817–1882)
 Kingdom of Serbia (1882–1918)
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
 Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1992)
 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992–2003)
 State Union of Serbia and Montenegro[7] (2003–2006)
 Republic of Serbia (2006–present)
Slovakia  Great Moravia (833-902)
 Kingdom of Hungary (1000–1804)
 Austrian Empire (1804–1867)
 Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
 Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1948 (–1992)
Flag of First Slovak Republic 1939-1945.svg Slovak Republic (1939–1945)
 Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
 Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (1918–) 1948–1992)
 Slovak Republic (1993–present)
Slovenia  Holy Roman Empire (955–1806)
 Austrian Empire (1804–1867)
 Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
noborder State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (1918)
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
 Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1991)
 Republic of Slovenia (1991–present)
Spain Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire
Labarum.svg Western Roman Empire (285-418)
Visigothic Kingdom (418–711)
Umayyad Flag.svg Umayyad Caliphate (Al-Andalus) (711-756)
Umayyad Flag.svg Emirate of Córdoba (756–929)
Umayyad Flag.svg Caliphate of Córdoba (929–1031)
Estandarte de la Corona de Aragon.png Crown of Aragon &  Crown of Castile (?–1716)
 Kingdom of Spain (1716–1873)
Flag of the First Spanish Republic.svg Spanish Republic (1873–1874)
 Kingdom of Spain (1873–1931)
Flag of Spain (1931 - 1939).svg Spanish Republic (1931–1939)
 Kingdom of Spain (1939–present)
Sweden noborder Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
 Kingdom of Sweden (c. 1210–present)
Switzerland  Holy Roman Empire (?–1291)
 Old Swiss Confederacy (1291–1798)
 Helvetic Republic (1798–1803)
  Swiss Confederation (1803–present)
Turkey Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (167–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
 Byzantine Empire (476–1453)

 Ottoman Empire (1299–1923)
 Republic of Turkey (1923–present)
Ukraine Principality of Kiev (822-1471)
Galicia-Volynia (1119-1349)
Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1349-1569)
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569-1648)
Cossack Hetmanate (1648-1764)
 Russian Empire (1764–1917)
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
Flag of Ukrainian People's Republic (non-official, 1917).svg Ukrainian People's Republic (1917–1921)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
 Ukraine (1991–present)
United Kingdom Flag of Unknow.svg Caledonia
Flag of Unknow.svg Hibernia
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (AD 43–410)
 Kingdom of Cantwara, Dál Riata, Kingdom of East Anglia, Kingdom of Mercia, Kingdom of Northumbria, Pictland, Kingdom of Strathclyde, Ireland, Principality of Wales & Kingdom of Wessex
 Kingdom of Scotland (843–1651),  Kingdom of England (927–1649) &  Lordship of Ireland (1171–1541)
 Kingdom of Scotland,  Kingdom of England &  Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1651)
 Commonwealth of England (1649–1653)
 Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1653–1659)
 Commonwealth of England (1659–1660)
 Kingdom of Ireland (1659–1800),  Kingdom of Scotland (1659–1707) &  Kingdom of England (1660–1707)
 Kingdom of Ireland &  Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1800)
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927)
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1927–present)
Vatican City Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire
 Ostrogothic Kingdom (493–533)
 Byzantine Empire (533–?)
 Papal States (728–1870) & Roman Republic (1798–1799)
 Papal States (728–1870) & Roman Republic (1849)
 Kingdom of Italy (1870–1929)
  State of the Vatican City (1929–present)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c ISO 3166-1 NEWSLETTER No. V-4 changed the official name of Azerbaijan from "Azerbaijani Republic" to "Republic of Azerbaijan", removed "Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina" as the official name of Bosnia and Herzegovina and changed the spelling of "Kazakstan" to "Kazakhstan".
  2. ^ "Denmark". The World Factbook. CIA. 29 April 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c Talari, Pekka T. (1996). State Succession in Respect of Debts: The Effect of State Succession in the 1990's on the Rules of Law. The Finnish Yearbook of International Law 2. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 167. ISBN 9789041104694. 
  4. ^ a b c Bühler, Konrad G. (2001). State Succession and Membership in International Organizations. Legal Aspects of International Organization Series. Volume 38. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 177-9. ISBN 9789041115539. 
  5. ^ "France". The World Factbook. CIA. 29 April 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2010. 
  6. ^ TIMELINEOF MALTA HISTORY
  7. ^ a b ISO 3166-1 NEWSLETTER No. V-8 has the official name of Serbia and Montenegro as just "Serbia and Montenegro".
  8. ^ ISO 3166-1 NEWSLETTER No. V-12 has the official name of Montenegro as "Republic of Montenegro".