List of predecessors of sovereign states in Europe

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This is a list of all present sovereign states in Europe and their predecessors. The borders of Europe are difficult to define. The borders between Europe and Asia are generally agreed to be the Caucasus Mountains, the Ural Mountains, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles.

Sovereign state Predecessors
Albania  Epirus (1183-186 BC)
 Province of Macedonia (146 BC – 357 AD):::Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (167–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC – 357 AD)

 Diocese of Macedonia (357 – c. 842)

Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (357–476 AD)
 Byzantine Empire (476 – c. 846)

 Theme of Dyrrhachium (c. 846–1190)

 Byzantine Empire

Principality of Arbanon (1190–1255)

 Byzantine Empire (1190–1204)
 Despotate of Epirus (1205–1255)

 Despotate of Epirus (1255–1337)
Arms of the Kingdom of Naples.svg Kingdom of Albania (1272–1368)

Bandiera del Regno di Sicilia 4.svg Kingdom of Sicily

 Lordship of Berat (1335–1444)
 Serbian Empire (1337–1356)
 Principality of Valona (1346–1417)

 Serbian Empire (1346–1355)

 Despotate of Epirus (1356–1479)
Coat of arms of the Despotate of Arta.jpg Despotate of Angelokastron and Lepanto (1358–1374)
Coat of arms of the Despotate of Arta.jpg Despotate of Arta (1358–1416)
Coat of arms of the Thopia.jpg Princedom of Albania (1368–1444)
 Principality of Gjirokastër (1386–1418)
 Principality of Dukagjini (1387–1444)
Coa Kastrioti Family.svg Principality of Kastrioti (1389–1444)
 Venetian Albania (1420–1797)

 Most Serene Republic of Venice

Coa Kastrioti Family.svg League of Lezhë (1444 – c. 1468)
 Ottoman Empire (1479–1912)
Flag of Albanian Provisional Government (1912-1914).svg Independent Albania (1912–1914)
Albania Principality of Albania (1914–1925)
Flag of Albania (1926-1928).svg Albanian Republic (1925–1928)
Albania Albanian Kingdom (1928–1939)
 Kingdom of Italy (1939–1943)
Flag of Albania (1943-1944).svg Albanian Kingdom (1943–1944)
Flag of Albania (1944-1946).svg Democratic Government of Albania (1944–1946)
Albania People's Republic of Albania (1946–1976)
Albania Socialist People's Republic of Albania (1976–1992)
 Republic of Albania (1992–present)

Andorra Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (100–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
 Carolingian Empire (817–843)
Urgell.png County of Urgell (843–1133)
 Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell (1133–1208)
Blason du comté de Foix.svg County of Foix (1208–1607/1610)
 Principality of Andorra (1278–present)
Armenia  Hayasa Azzi (1500-1290 BC)
 Arme Shupria (1290-1190 BC)
 Nairi (1114-860 BC)
 Urartu (860-590 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire (549 - 331 BC)
 Kingdom of Armenia (321 BC- 428 AD)
 Ottoman Empire (1586–1828)
 Russian Empire (1828–1917)
Flag of the Transcaucasian Federation.svg Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (1918)
 Democratic Republic of Armenia (1918–1920)
Flag of Armenian SSR.svg Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (1920–1922)
Flag of Transcaucasian SFSR.svg Federative Union of Socialist Soviet Republics of Transcaucasia (1922)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
 Republic of Armenia (1991–present)
Austria  Noricum (400-16 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (16 BC–476 AD)
 Archduchy of Austria (1156–1804) within the Holy Roman Empire (962–1806)
 Austrian Empire (1804–1867) within the German Confederation (1815–1866)
 Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
 Republic of Austria (1918–1938)
 Nazi Germany (1938–1945)
Flag of Austria.svg Allied-occupied Austria (1945–1955)
 Republic of Austria (1955–present)
Azerbaijan KarakoyunluFlag.png Kara Koyunlu (1375–1468)
AkkoyunluFlag.png Aq Qoyunlu (1378–1501)
Safavid Flag.svg Safavid Empire (1501–1736)
 Russian Empire (1813–1917)
Flag of the Transcaucasian Federation.svg Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (1918)
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918–1920)
Flag of Azerbaijan SSR.svg Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (1920–1922)
Flag of Transcaucasian SFSR.svg Federative Union of Socialist Soviet Republics of Transcaucasia (1922)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
 Republic of Azerbaijan[1] (1991–present)
Belarus  Kievan Rus' (862–1240)
 Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1240–1569)
Flag of Poland.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1793)
 Russian Empire (1793–1917)
Flag of Belarus (1918, 1991-1995).svg Belarusian People's Republic (1918–1919)
 Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia (1919)
Flag of the Lithuanian-Byelorussian SSR.svg Lithuanian–Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (1919)
Flag of Byelorussian SSR.svg Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (1920-1992)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
 Republic of Belarus (1991–present)
Belgium Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (509–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
Flag of the Low Countries.svg Spain (1482–1713) but within the Holy Roman Empire
Flag of Austrian Low Countries.svg Archduchy of Austria (1713–1797) within the Holy Roman Empire
 France (1797–1815)
 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1830)
 Kingdom of Belgium (1830–present)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Duchy of Bosnia Duchy of Bosnia (753-1154)
Banate of Bosnia (1154–1377)
Kingdom of Bosnia (1377–1463)
 Ottoman Empire (1463-1878)
 Austria-Hungary (1878–1918)
noborder State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (1918)
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
 Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1991)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995)
 Bosnia and Herzegovina[1] (1992–present)
Bulgaria  Thrace (1000 BC - 46 AD)
 First Bulgarian Empire (681–1018)
 Byzantine Empire (1018–1185)
 Second Bulgarian Empire (1185–1396)
 Ottoman Empire (1396–1908)
Bulgaria Principality of Bulgaria (1878–1908) (within Ottoman Empire)
 Kingdom of Bulgaria (1908–1946)
Bulgaria People's Republic of Bulgaria (1946–1990)
 Republic of Bulgaria (1990–present)
Croatia noborder Littoral Croatian Duchy (7th century-925)
noborder Kingdom of Croatia (925-1102)
noborder Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg) (1102-1804)
 Austrian Empire (1804–1867)
 Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
noborder State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (1918)
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
 Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1991)
 Republic of Croatia (1991–present)
Cyprus  Alashiya (1450-1050 BC)
 Assyrian Empire (811 - 669 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire (550 - 330 BC)
Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (509–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
 Byzantine Empire (476–1190)
Armoiries Chypre.svg Kingdom of Cyprus (1192–1489 AD)
 Ottoman Empire (?–1878)
 British Empire (1878–1960)
 Republic of Cyprus (1960–present)
Czech Republic  Great Moravia (833-902)

 Duchy of Bohemia (?–1198)
 Kingdom of Bohemia (1198–1804 (–1918)) within the Holy Roman Empire (?–1806)
 Austrian Empire (1804–1867)
 Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
 Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1948 (–1992))
Flag of Bohmen und Mahren.svg Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (1939–1945)
 Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1960–1990)
 Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (1990–1992)
 Czech Republic (1993–present)

Denmark noborder Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
 Kingdom of Denmark[2] (c. 965–present)
Estonia  Terra Mariana (1207–1561)
Sweden Swedish Empire (1561–1721)
 Russian Empire (1721–1918)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1940–1991)
 Republic of Estonia (1918–present, legal succession; de facto 1918–1940 and 1991–present)[3][4]
Finland noborder Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
Sweden Swedish Empire (c. 1210–1809)
 Russian Empire (1809–1917)
 Republic of Finland (1917–present)
France Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (123–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–260 AD)
 Gallic Empire (260-274 AD)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (274–285 AD)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svgWestern Roman Empire(285–457 AD)
 Kingdom of Soissons (457–486 AD)
 Frankish Empire (481-800)
 Carolingian Empire (800–843)
 West Francia (843–987)
 Kingdom of France (987–1791)
 Kingdom of the French (1791–1792)
France French Republic (1792–1804)
France French Empire (1804–1814, 1815)
France Kingdom of France (1814–1815, 1815–1830)
France Kingdom of the French (1830–1848)
France French Republic (1848–1852)
France French Empire (1852–1870)
France French Republic (1870–1940)
France French State (1940–1944)
 French Republic[5] (1944–present)
Georgia  Caucasian Iberia (c. 159 BC-580)

 Principality of Iberia (580-891)

 Kingdom of Iberia (mostly titular revival) (891-1008)
 Tao-Klarjeti (813-1008)

Sakartvelo - drosha.svg Kingdom of Georgia (1008-1465)

Imereti CoA tr.png Kingdom of Imereti (1455-1810)
Coat of arms of Kartli Georgia.png Kingdom of Kartli (1484-1762)
Kakheti CoA tr.png Kingdom of Kakheti (1465-1762)
Flag of Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti.svg Kingdom of Kartl-Kakheti (1762–1801)

 Russian Empire (1801–1917)
Flag of the Transcaucasian Federation.svg Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (1918)
Flag of Georgia (1918-1921).svg Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918–1921)
Flag of Georgian SSR.svg Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (1921–1922)
Flag of Transcaucasian SFSR.svg Federative Union of Socialist Soviet Republics of Transcaucasia (1922)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
 Georgia (1991–present)

Germany  Carolingian Empire (800–843)
 East Francia (843–919)
 Kingdom of Germany (919-962)
 Holy Roman Empire (962–1806)
 Confederation of the Rhine (1806–1813) (client states of the French Empire) & noborder Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1871)
Wappen Deutscher Bund.svg German Confederation (1815–1866)
noborder North German Confederation (1866–1871)
 German Empire (1871–1918)
 Weimar Republic (1918–1933) & noborder Saar (1920–1935)
 Nazi Germany (1933–1945)
noborder Allied-occupied Germany (1945–1949)
 Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) (1949–1990; 1990-present), noborder West Berlin (1949–1990), noborder Saar (1947–1956) &  German Democratic Republic (East Germany) (1949–1990)
 Federal Republic of Germany (1990–present) (Modern Germany is a continuation of the FRG (West Germany), it is not a successor state)
Greece Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (167–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
 Byzantine Empire
 Ottoman Empire (?–1830)
 Kingdom of Greece (1830–1967)
 Hellenic Republic (1967–present)
Hungary  Pannonia (400 BC - 20 AD)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Province of Pannonia (20-107)
 Hunnic Empire (370-469)
 Avar Khaganate (567-804)
 Great Moravia (833-902)
Flag of Hungary (11th c. - 1301).svgPrincipality of Hungary (895-1000)
Alex K Kingdom of Hungary.svg Kingdom of Hungary (1000–1918)
 Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
Civil Ensign of Hungary.svg Hungarian Democratic Republic (1918–1919)
Socialist red flag.svg Hungarian Soviet Republic (1919–1920)
Flag of Hungary (1920–1946).svg Kingdom of Hungary (1920-1946) (1920–1946)
Flag of Hungary (1946-1949, 1956-1957).svg Republic of Hungary (1946-1949) (1946–1949)
Flag of Hungary.svg People's Republic of Hungary (1949–1989)
 Republic of Hungary (1989–present)
Iceland  Icelandic Free State (930–1262)
Norway Kingdom of Norway (1262–1814)
 Danish Crown (1380–1944)
 Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
Denmark Denmark–Norway (1536–1814)
 Kingdom of Denmark (1814–1918)
Light Blue Flag of Iceland.svg Kingdom of Iceland (1918–1944)
 Iceland (1944–present)
Ireland  Hibernia (300 BC - 100 AD)
 Connachta (357-1439 AD)
 Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1651)
 Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1653–1659)
 Kingdom of Ireland (1659–1800)
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922)
 Irish Free State (1922–1937)
 Ireland (1937–present)
Italy  Roman Kingdom
Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (509–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
the Italian peninsula divided into many states c. 400–1861, among them the medieval Kingdom of Italy (774–1806) within the Holy Roman Empire
 Duchy of Savoy (1416–1713)
 Kingdom of Sardinia (1720–1861)
 Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
 Italian Republic (1946–present)
Kazakhstan Golden Horde flag 1339.svg Golden Horde (1240s–1456)
Kazakh Khanate.svg Kazakh Khanate (1456-1847)
 Russian Empire (1735/1860–1919)
Flag of Russian SFSR (1918-1937).svg Soviet Russia (1919–1922)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
 Republic of Kazakhstan[1] (1991–present)
Latvia  Terra Mariana (1207–1583)
Flag of Poland.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1583–1611)
Flag of Poland.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth & Sweden Swedish Empire (1611–1721)
Flag of Poland.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth &  Russian Empire (1721–1772)
 Russian Empire (1772–1918)
Flag of Latvian SSR (1918-1920).svg Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic (1918–1920)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1940–1991)
 Republic of Latvia (1918–present, legal succession; de facto 1918–1940 and 1991–present)[3][4]
Liechtenstein  German Confederation (?–1866)
 Principality of Liechtenstein (1866–present)
Lithuania  Grand Duchy of Lithuania (13th century–1569)
Flag of Poland.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)
 Russian Empire (1795–1918)
Lithuania Kingdom of Lithuania (1918)
Flag of the Lithuanian-Byelorussian SSR.svg Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (1918–1919)
Flag of the Lithuanian-Byelorussian SSR.svg Lithuanian–Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (1919)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1940–1991)
 Republic of Lithuania (1918–present, legal succession; de facto 1918–1940 and 1991–present)[3][4]
Luxembourg  Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1890)
 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (1890–present)
Macedonia  Kingdom of Macedon (860 - 146 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire (510 - 330 BC)
Spqrstone.jpg  Byzantine Empire (330-1204, 1261–1453)
noborder Second Bulgarian Empire (1185–1346)
noborder Principality of Serbia (768-1217) & noborder Kingdom of Serbia (1217–1346)
 Serbian Empire (1346–1371)
noborder Kingdom of Prilep (1371–1395)
 Ottoman Empire (1395-1913)
 Kingdom of Serbia (1913–1918)
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
 Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1991)
 Republic of Macedonia (1991–present)
Malta[6] Invis flag.gif Phoenicia (800-480 BC)
Invis flag.gif Carthaginian Empire (480-218 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman province of Sicilia (218 BC-395 AD)
 Byzantine Empire (395-870) (occupied by the Vandals 454-464 and Goths 464-533)
Black flag.svg Abbasid Caliphate (870–909)
Fatimid flag.svg Fatimid Caliphate (909–1091)
Blason sicile famille Hauteville.svg County of Sicily (1091–1130)
Bandiera del Regno di Sicilia 4.svg Kingdom of Sicily (1130–1530)
Sovereign Military Order of Malta Order of Saint John (1530–1798)
France French occupation of Malta (1798–1800), La Nazione Gozitana (1798–1801)
United Kingdom British Protectorate of Malta (1800–1813)
Malta Crown Colony of Malta (1813–1964)
Malta State of Malta (1964–1974)
Malta Republic of Malta (1974–present)
Moldova  Byzantine Empire
 Moldavia (1359-1812) (vassal of  Ottoman Empire between 1514–1812)
 Russian Empire (1812–1918)
 Kingdom of Romania (1918–1945)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1945–1991)
 Republic of Moldova (1991–present)
Monaco  Republic of Genoa (?–1297)
 Principality of Monaco (1297–present)
Montenegro noborder Principality of Serbia (768-1217)
noborder Kingdom of Serbia (1217–1346)
 Serbian Empire (1346–1371)
noborder Principality of Zeta (1371–1402)
noborder Serbian Despotate (1402–1540)
 Ottoman Empire (1540-1852)
 Principality of Montenegro (1852–1910) (within Ottoman Empire until 1878)
 Kingdom of Montenegro (1910–1918)
 Kingdom of Serbia (1918)
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
 Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1992)
 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992–2003)
 State Union of Serbia and Montenegro[7] (2003–2006)
 Montenegro[8] (2006–present)
Netherlands  Frankish Kingdom (5th to 10th centuries), Frisian Kingdom (600-734), Duchy of (Lower) Lorraine (903–1190) & noborder County of Holland (880-1384)
noborder Burgundian Netherlands (1384–1482)
noborder Seventeen Provinces (1482–1581)
Dutch Republic Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (1581–1795)
 Batavian Republic (1795–1806)
Kingdom of the Netherlands Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810)
France First French Empire (1810–1813)
noborder United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1839)
 Kingdom of the Netherlands (1839–present)
Norway noborder Kingdom of Norway (?–1397)
noborder Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
noborder Denmark–Norway (1536–1814)
noborder Kingdom of Norway (1814)
noborder United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway (1814–1905)
 Kingdom of Norway (1905–present)
Poland  Poland in the Early Middle Ages (?–1025)
noborder Kingdom of the Piasts (1025–1385)
noborder Kingdom of the Jagiellons (1385–1569)
noborder Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)
Grand Coat of Arms of Duchy of Warsaw.svg Duchy of Warsaw (1807-1815)
 Austria-Hungary,  Prussia and the  Russian Empire (1795–1918)
Flag of Poland.svg Kingdom of Poland (1916–1918)
Flag of Poland.svg Second Polish Republic (1918–1939)
 Nazi Germany (1939–1944)
Flag of Poland.svg Polish People's Republic (1944–1989)
 Republic of Poland (1989–present)
Portugal Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (197 BC–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
 Suebic Kingdom (410-585)
 Visigothic Kingdom (418–711)
Umayyad Flag.svg Umayyad Caliphate (711-750)
Umayyad Flag.svg Emirate of Córdoba (756–868)
PortugueseFlag1095.svg County of Portugal, within the Kingdom of León (868–1139)
PortugueseFlag1185.svg Kingdom of Portugal (1139–1189)
PortugueseFlag1185.svg Kingdom of Portugal and Silves (1189–1191)
PortugueseFlag1248.svg Kingdom of Portugal (1191–1249)
PortugueseFlag1385.svg Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarve (1249–1471)
PortugueseFlag1750.png Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves (1471–1815)
Flag United Kingdom Portugal Brazil Algarves.svg United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1825)
Portugal Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves (1825–1910)
 Portuguese Republic (1910–present)
Romania  Dacia (700 - 82 BC)
 Kingdom of Dacia (82 BC - 106 AD)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (106-271/275 AD)
 Wallachia (1330–1859; vassal of  Ottoman Empire between 1415–1859)
 Moldavia (1359–1859; vassal of  Ottoman Empire between 1514–1859)
Flag of the United Principalities of Romania (1862 - 1866).svg Romanian United Principalities (1859–1866)
Flag of Romania.svg Principality of Romania (1866–1881)
Flag of Romania.svg Kingdom of Romania (1881–1947)
Flag of Romania (1952-1965).svg People's Republic of Romania
Flag of Romania (1965-1989).svg Socialist Republic of Romania
 Romania (1862–present)
Russia  Volga Bulgaria (7th–13th century)
 Khazar Khaganate (7th–10th century)
 Rus' Khaganate (9th century)
 Kievan Rus' (862–1283)
 Novgorod Republic (1136–1478)
 Vladimir-Suzdal (1157–1331; vassal of the Golden Horde 1240–1331)
Golden Horde flag 1339.svg Golden Horde (1240–1502)
 Grand Duchy of Moscow (1283–1547; vassal of the Golden Horde until 1480)
Flag of Russia.svg Tsardom of Russia (1547–1721)
 Russian Empire (1721–1917)
Flag of Russian SFSR (1918-1937).svg Soviet Russia (1917–1922)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
 Russian Federation (1991–present)
San Marino Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (509–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
 Ostrogothic Kingdom (493–533)
 Byzantine Empire (533–?)
 Papal States (728–1600)
 Republic of San Marino (1600–present)
Serbia  Serbian Sklavinia (520s-768)
noborder Principality of Serbia (768-1217)
noborder Kingdom of Serbia (1217–1346)
 Serbian Empire (1346–1371)
noborder Moravian Serbia (1371–1402)
noborder Serbian Despotate (1402–1540)
 Kingdom of Serbia (1718–1739 and 1788–1791)
 Ottoman Empire (1540–1817)
Serbia Principality of Serbia (1817–1882)
 Kingdom of Serbia (1882–1918)
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
 Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1992)
 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992–2003)
 State Union of Serbia and Montenegro[7] (2003–2006)
 Republic of Serbia (2006–present)
Slovakia  Great Moravia (833-902)
 Kingdom of Hungary (1000–1804)
 Austrian Empire (1804–1867)
 Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
 Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1948 (–1992)
Flag of First Slovak Republic 1939-1945.svg Slovak Republic (1939–1945)
 Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
 Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (1918–) 1948–1992)
 Slovak Republic (1993–present)
Slovenia  Holy Roman Empire (955–1806)
 Austrian Empire (1804–1867)
 Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)
noborder State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (1918)
 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
 Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1991)
 Republic of Slovenia (1991–present)
Spain  Celtiberia (580 - 76 BC)
 Carthaginian Iberia (576 - 206 BC)
Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (76–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC - 285 AD)
Labarum.svg Western Roman Empire (285-418)
Visigothic Kingdom (418–711)
Umayyad Flag.svg Umayyad Caliphate (Al-Andalus) (711-756)
Umayyad Flag.svg Emirate of Córdoba (756–929)
Umayyad Flag.svg Caliphate of Córdoba (929–1031)


Estandarte de la Corona de Aragon.pngCatalan_counties
Estandarte de la Corona de Aragon.png Crown of Aragon &  Crown of Castile (?–1716)
 Kingdom of Spain (1716–1873)
Spanish Republic (1873–1874)
 Kingdom of Spain (1873–1931)
 Spanish Republic (1931–1939)
 Kingdom of Spain (1939–present)

Sweden noborder Kalmar Union (1397–1523)
 Kingdom of Sweden (c. 1210–present)
Switzerland  Holy Roman Empire (?–1291)
 Old Swiss Confederacy (1291–1798)
 Helvetic Republic (1798–1803)
  Swiss Confederation (1803–present)
Turkey  Hittite Empire (1600 - 1178 BC)
 Phrygia (1200 - 700 BC)
Standard of Cyrus the Great (White).svg Achaemenid Empire (550 - 330 BC)
Spqrstone.jpg Roman Republic (167–27 BC)
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD)
 Byzantine Empire (476–1453)
Seljuqs Eagle.svg Seljuq Empire (1037–1194)
Seljuqs Eagle.svg Seljuq Sultanate of Rum (1077–1307)
Karamanid Dynasty flag.svg Karamanids (1250–1487)
 Ottoman Empire (1299–1923)
 Republic of Turkey (1923–present)
Ukraine  Cimmeria (1300–625 BC)
 Scythia (690–250 BC)
 Sarmatia (450 BC – 400 AD)
 Rus' Khaganate (838–862)
Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus' (862–1240)
Alex K Kyiv Michael.svg Principality of Kiev (1132–1471)
Alex K Halych-Volhynia-flag.svg Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia (1199–1349)
Alex K Grundwald flags 1410-03.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1349–1569)
Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1648)
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Cossack Hetmanate (1648–1764)
 Russian Empire (1764–1917)
Flag of Galicia (Central Europe, 1849-1918).svg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria (1772–1918)
Flag of Ukrainian People's Republic (non-official, 1917).svg Ukrainian People's Republic (1917–1921)
Flag of Ukraine.svg West Ukrainian People's Republic (1918–1919)
Flag of Ukrainian SSR.svg Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1919–1922)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)
 Ukraine (1991–present)
United Kingdom  Caledonia
 Hibernia
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire (AD 43–410)
 Kingdom of Cantwara, Dál Riata, Kingdom of East Anglia, Kingdom of Mercia, Kingdom of Northumbria, Pictland, Kingdom of Strathclyde, Ireland, Principality of Wales & Kingdom of Wessex
 Kingdom of Scotland (843–1651),  Kingdom of England (927–1649) &  Lordship of Ireland (1171–1541)
 Kingdom of Scotland,  Kingdom of England &  Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1651)
 Commonwealth of England (1649–1653)
 Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1653–1659)
 Commonwealth of England (1659–1660)
 Kingdom of Ireland (1659–1800),  Kingdom of Scotland (1659–1707) &  Kingdom of England (1660–1707)
 Kingdom of Ireland &  Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1800)
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927)
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1927–present)
Vatican City Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire
 Ostrogothic Kingdom (493–533)
 Byzantine Empire (533–?)
 Papal States (728–1870) & Roman Republic (1798–1799)
 Papal States (728–1870) & Roman Republic (1849)
 Kingdom of Italy (1870–1929)
  State of the Vatican City (1929–present)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c ISO 3166-1 NEWSLETTER No. V-4 changed the official name of Azerbaijan from "Azerbaijani Republic" to "Republic of Azerbaijan", removed "Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina" as the official name of Bosnia and Herzegovina and changed the spelling of "Kazakstan" to "Kazakhstan".
  2. ^ "Denmark". The World Factbook. CIA. 29 April 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c Talari, Pekka T. (1996). State Succession in Respect of Debts: The Effect of State Succession in the 1990's on the Rules of Law. The Finnish Yearbook of International Law 2. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 167. ISBN 9789041104694. 
  4. ^ a b c Bühler, Konrad G. (2001). State Succession and Membership in International Organizations. Legal Aspects of International Organization Series. Volume 38. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 177–9. ISBN 9789041115539. 
  5. ^ "France". The World Factbook. CIA. 29 April 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2010. 
  6. ^ Debattista, Martin. "Timeline of Malta History". aboutmalta.com. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  7. ^ a b ISO 3166-1 NEWSLETTER No. V-8 has the official name of Serbia and Montenegro as just "Serbia and Montenegro".
  8. ^ ISO 3166-1 NEWSLETTER No. V-12 has the official name of Montenegro as "Republic of Montenegro".