Prehistoric medicine

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For medicine in specific prehistoric societies, see Traditional Medicine
A skull showing evidence of trepanning

Prehistoric medicine is any use of medicine from before the invention of writing. Because the timing of the invention of writing varies per culture and region, the term "prehistoric medicine" encompasses a wide range of time periods and dates.[1]

The study of prehistoric medicine relies heavily on artifacts and human remains, and on anthropology. Previously uncontacted peoples and certain indigenous peoples who live in a traditional way have been the subject of anthropological studies in order to gain insight into both contemporary and ancient practices.[2]

Disease and mortality[edit]

Different diseases and ailments were common in prehistory than are prevalent today; there is evidence that many people suffered from osteoarthritis, probably caused by the lifting of heavy objects which would have been a daily and necessary task in their societies.[citation needed] The transport of, for example, latte stones, though this practice only started after 800 A.D, during the neolithic era: involving hyper extension and torque of the lower back, while dragging the stones, may have contributed to the development of micro fractures in the spine and subsequent spondylolysis. Things such as cuts, bruises, and breakages of bone, without antiseptics, proper facilities, or knowledge of germs, would become very serious if infected.[3][unreliable source?] There is also evidence of rickets bone deformity and bone wastage (Osteomalacia),[4] which is caused by a lack of Vitamin D.

The life expectancy in prehistoric times was low, 25–40 years,[5] with men living longer than women; archaeological evidence of women and babies found together suggests that many women would have died in childbirth, perhaps accounting for the lower life expectancy in women than men. Another possible explanation for the shorter life spans of prehistoric humans may be malnutrition; men, as hunters, generally received better food than their female counterparts, who would subsequently have been less resistant to disease.[6]

Treatments for disease[edit]

Plant materials[edit]

Herbs such as rosemary may have been used for medicinal purposes by prehistoric peoples.[which?][7][8][9]

Plant materials (herbs and substances derived from natural sources)[10] were among the treatments for diseases in prehistoric cultures.[which?] Since plant materials quickly rot under most conditions, historians are unlikely to fully understand which species were used in prehistoric medicine. An idea can be obtained by looking at the climate of the respective society and which species continue to grow there today[11] and through anthropological studies of existing indigenous peoples.[12][13] Unlike the ancient civilisations which could source plant materials internationally, prehistoric societies would have been restricted to localised areas, though nomadic tribes may have had a greater variety of plant materials at their disposal than more stationary societies.

The effects of different plant materials could have been found through trial and error.[14] Dispensal and gathering of plant materials was in most cultures handled by women, who cared for the health of their family.[15] Plant materials were an important cure for diseases throughout history.[16] As they would not have been able to record the effects of different herbs, knowledge of them would have been passed down orally through the generations, or lost.

There has been suggestion that the Piptoporus betulinus, which are commonly found in alpine environments, could have been used as a basic laxative by prehistoric peoples living in those areas (Northern Europe), since it is known to bring on short bouts of diarrhoea when ingested,[17] and was found among the possessions of a mummified man.

The use of earth and clays[edit]

Earths and clays may have provided prehistoric peoples with some of their first medicines. This is related to geophagy, which is extremely widespread among animals in the wild as well as among domesticated animals. In particular, geophagy is widespread among contemporary non-human primates.[18] Also, early humans could have learned about the use of various healing clays by observing animal behaviour. Such clay is used both internally and externally, such as for treating wounds, and after surgery (see below).[citation needed] Geophagy, and the external use of clay are both still quite widespread among aboriginal peoples around the world, as well as among pre-industrial populations.

Surgery[edit]

Trepanning (sometimes Trephining) was a basic surgical operation carried out, predominantly by medicine men, in prehistoric societies across the world,[19][20] although evidence shows a concentration of the practice in Peru.[16][19][21] Several theories question the reasoning behind trepanning; it could have been used to cure certain conditions such as headaches and epilepsy.[22][23] These might have been considered effects of an evil spirit trapped within a person. Despite it being medically inappropriate in the vast majority of cases, and very dangerous procedure to carry out[24] there is evidence of bone tissue surrounding the surgical hole partially grown back, therefore survival of the procedure did occur.[16]

The plate of skull bone, sometimes as large as 5 cm (2 in) in diameter, would have been kept with the person until their death, serving as a charm or in some spiritual or religious capacity; burial of this bone plate was thought to return the body to its full state for the afterlife.[citation needed] Trepanning is amongst few surgical operations to be carried out in prehistoric times;[citation needed] other surgery was rarely undertaken; medicine men had neither the training or the specialised equipment required to do surgery on the internal body. The procedure would have taken around 60 minutes in a single session, and if done in several sessions, it could have taken up to 12 days to complete.

Many prehistoric peoples,[which?] where applicable (geographically and technologically), were able to set broken or fractured bones using clay materials. An injured area was covered in clay, which then set hard so that the bone could heal properly without interference.[25] Also, primarily in the Americas, the pincers of certain ant species were used to close up wounds from infection; the ant was held above the wound until it bit, where its head would be removed allowing the pincers to remain and hold closed the wound.[26]

Magic and medicine men[edit]

Yup'ik shaman exorcising evil spirits from a sick boy.[27]
Main articles: Medicine man and Shamanism

Medicine men (also witch-doctors, shamans) maintained the health of their tribe by gathering and distributing herbs, performing minor surgical procedures,[28] providing medical advice, and supernatural treatments such as charms, spells, and amulets to ward off evil spirits.[29] In Apache society, as would likely have been the case in many others, the medicine men initiate a ceremony over the patient, which is attended by family and friends. It consists of magic formulas, prayers, and drumming. The medicine man then, from patients' recalling of their past and possible offenses against their religion or tribal rules, reveals the nature of the disease and how to treat it.

They were believed by the tribe to be able to contact spirits or gods and use their supernatural powers to cure the patient, and, in the process, remove evil spirits. If neither this method nor trepanning worked, the spirit was considered too powerful to be driven out of the person.[citation needed] Medicine men would likely have been central figures in the tribal system, because of their medical knowledge and because they could seemingly contact the gods. Their religious and medical training were, necessarily, passed down orally.[30]

Dentistry[edit]

Archaeologists in Mehrgarh in Balochistan province in the present day Pakistan discovered that the people of Indus Valley Civilization from the early Harappan periods (c. 3300 BC) had knowledge of medicine and dentistry. The physical anthropologist who carried out the examinations, Professor Andrea Cucina from the University of Missouri, made the discovery when he was cleaning the teeth from one of the men. Later research in the same area found evidence of teeth having been drilled, dating back 9,000 years.[31]

The problem of evidence[edit]

The definition of "prehistoric" dictates that there is no written evidence which can be used for investigation into this period of history. Historians must use other sources such as human remains and anthropological studies of societies living under similar conditions. A variety of problems arise when the aforementioned sources are used.

Human remains from this period are rare and many have undoubtedly been destroyed by burial rituals or made useless by damage.[32][33] The most informative archaeological evidence are mummies, remains which have been preserved by either freezing or in peat bogs;[34][35] no evidence exists to suggest that prehistoric people mummified the dead for religious reasons, as Ancient Egyptians did. These bodies can provide scientists with subjects' (at the time of death): weight, illnesses, height, diet, age, and bone conditions,[36] which grant vital indications of how developed prehistoric medicine was.

Not technically classed as 'written evidence', prehistoric people left many kinds of paintings, using paints made of minerals such as lime, clay & charcoal and brushes made from feathers, animal fur or twigs, on the walls caves. Although many of these paintings are thought to have a spiritual or religious purpose,[37] there have been some, such as a man with antlers (thought to be a medicine man), which have revealed some part of prehistoric medicine. Many cave paintings of human hands have shown missing fingers (none have been shown without thumbs), which suggests that these were cut off for sacrificial or practical purposes, as is the case among the Pygmies and Khoikhoi.[38]

The writings of certain cultures (such as the Romans) can be used as evidence in discovering how their contemporary prehistoric cultures practiced medicine. People who live a similar nomadic existence today have been used as a source of evidence too, but obviously there are distinct differences in the environments in which nomadic people lived; prehistoric people who once lived in Britain for example, cannot be effectively compared to aboriginal peoples in Australia, because of the geographical differences.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kelly, Nigel; Bob Rees; Paul Shuter (2003). Medicine Through Time. Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-435-30841-4. 
  2. ^ "Traditional Medicine". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2009-02-18. 
  3. ^ "The History of Medicine, Pre-history". St. Boniface's College. Retrieved 2009-02-19. 
  4. ^ "Babylon to Birmingham, A short journey through medicine to the end of the 18th Century". Revolutionary Players. Retrieved 2009-02-19. 
  5. ^ SHP: Medicine & Health Through Time
  6. ^ "Prehistoric Medicine". Health Guidance. Retrieved 2009-02-19. 
  7. ^ Browning, Marie (1999). Natural Soapmaking. Sterling Publishing Company. p. 128. ISBN 0-8069-6289-5. 
  8. ^ "Aboriginal Uses of Native Plants". Australian Government, Australian National Botanic Gardens. Retrieved 2009-02-19. 
  9. ^ "Medical use of Spices". UCLA Library, History and Special collections. Retrieved 2009-02-19. 
  10. ^ "Use Of Spices As Medicines". UCLA Library, History and Special collections. Retrieved 2009-02-19. Use of Spices for Medical Purposes] Mentions spices being used by some prehistoric cultures
  11. ^ Compiled by Robin Lock (2002). Plants of the Humid Tropics Biome. Eden Project books. p. 128. 
  12. ^ Moerman, Daniel E. (2009). Native American Medicinal Plants: an ethnobotanical dictionary. Portland, OR / London: Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-987-5.  ISBN 9780881929874.
  13. ^ "Native American Herbal Remedies". Cherokee Messenger. 1996. Retrieved 2009-02-19. 
  14. ^ BBC - GCSE Bitesize, Prehistoric Civilisation 'They have done this through a process of trial and error and natural selection..'
  15. ^ Outline/Overview of the History of Herbalism 'In.. herbalism, women prepared food and healing potions--women generally practiced herbalism on a day to day basis, as well as took care of the ills of other members of the family or tribal unit' Source: ibid
  16. ^ a b c Primitive Medicine
  17. ^ Lessons in Iceman's Prehistoric Medicine Kit
  18. ^ Krishnamani R, Mahaney WC (2000). "Geophagy among primates: Adaptive significance and ecological consequences". Animal Behaviour 59: 899–915. doi:10.1006/anbe.1999.1376. 
  19. ^ a b Trepanning "Pre-Columbian Trephination". Cyber Museum of Neurosurgery. Retrieved 2009-02-19. 
  20. ^ Piek J, Lidke G, Terberger T, von Smekal U, Gaab MR (July 1999). "Stone age skull surgery in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern: a systematic study". Neurosurgery 45 (1): 147–51; discussion 151. doi:10.1097/00006123-199907000-00033. PMID 10414577.  A small but informative text
  21. ^ Trephination, An Ancient Surgery 'In Peruvian practice there is considerable evidence that many of the operations were performed for the naturalistic purpose of removing a bone fragment..' '..and trephination undertaken as a supernatural curative procedure by shamans (sancoyoc) with little technical ability as surgeons.'
  22. ^ History of Brain Surgery
  23. ^ Evolution of Modern Medicine See the section on Trephining, from Lucas-Championnière
  24. ^ h2g2 - Trepanation 'The disadvantages of drilling holes in the head include possible damage to the cerebral membrane or complete, and unexpected, lobotomy. Death is also a high risk.'
  25. ^ Heinemann: Medicine Through Time
  26. ^ Gudger, E. W. (1925). "Stitching Wounds With the Mandibles of Ants and Beetles". J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 84: 1861–4. 
  27. ^ Fienup-Riordan, Ann (1994). Boundaries and Passages: Rule and Ritual in Yup'ik Eskimo Oral Tradition. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-585-12190-7. 
  28. ^ Mysteries of Africa - Article on Medicine Men Stories of Medicine Men in Africa
  29. ^ Short History of Medicine by Erwin Heinz Ackerknecht
  30. ^ Healing Secrets of Aboriginal Bush Medicine 'Trained from an early age by their elders and initiated into the deepest of tribal secrets...'
  31. ^ "Stone age man used dentist drill". BBC News. 2006-04-06. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  32. ^ The History of Health - Prehistoric Kent 'It is a matter of luck because only some skeletons survive'
  33. ^ Wikipedia's Ötzi the Iceman Article '..three or four of his right ribs had been squashed when he had been lying face down after death, or where the ice had crushed his body.'
  34. ^ Mystery of the Mummies, Five Documentary
  35. ^ Megabites: Mummies, and the Secrets of Ancient Egypt
  36. ^ Wikipedia's Article on the Mummy Juanita
  37. ^ Parragon, World History Encyclopedia
  38. ^ Janssens PA (October 1957). "MEDICAL VIEWS ON PREHISTORIC REPRESENTATIONS OF HUMAN HANDS". Med Hist 1 (4): 318–22. PMC 1034309. PMID 13476920.  Pages 318–21 are of particular interest in this subject
  39. ^ Medicine in Prehistoric Times

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