Prekmurje Slovene

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Prekmurian
prekmurščina, prekmürščina, prekmörščina, panonska slovenščina
Native to Slovenia, Hungary and emigrant groups in various countries
Native speakers
80,000  (date missing)[citation needed]
Indo-European
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Linguist list
slv-pre
{{{mapalt}}}
Map of Slovenian dialects. Prekmurian is in dark yellow at the top right.

Prekmurian, also known as the Pannonian-Slovene, East-Slovene, or Wendish (Slovene: prekmurščina, prekmursko narečje, Hungarian: vend nyelv, muravidéki nyelv, Prekmurian: prekmürski jezik, prekmürščina, prekmörščina, prekmörski jezik, panonska slovenščina) is a supradialectal regional literary language,[1] classified as Slovene.[2] It is used in private communication, in liturgy, and in publications by authors from Prekmurje.[1] It is spoken in the Prekmurje region of Slovenia and by the Hungarian Slovenes in Vas county in western Hungary. It is closely related to the Slovene dialects in neighboring Slovene Styria, as well as to the Kajkavian dialect of Croatian.

Prekmurian is one of the few Slovene dialects in Slovenia that is still spoken by all strata of the local population.[3] It also had its own written standard and a literary tradition, both of which were largely neglected after World War II. There are divergent opinions regarding the status of Prekmurian. Some consider Prekmurian a regional language, without denying that it is part of Slovene.[clarification needed][who?] However, Prekmurian is not recognized as a language by Slovenia or Hungary, nor does it enjoy any legal protection under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. There is no significant political or cultural movement in Slovenia seeking legal protection for Prekmurian, although there has been a revival of literature in Prekmurian since the late 1990s. Some Slovene writers from Prekmurje, most notably Feri Lainšček, regard Prekmurian as a regional language.

Together with Resian, Prekmurian language is the only Slovene dialect with a literary standard that has had a different historical development from the rest of Slovene ethnic territory. For centuries, it was used as a language of religious education, as well as in the press and mass.[4] The historical Hungarian name for the Slovenes living within the borders of the Kingdom of Hungary (as well as for the Slovenians in general) was Vendek, or the Wends. In the 18th and 19th centuries Prekmurian authors used to designate this dialect as sztári szlovenszki jezik 'old Slovene'. Both then and now, it is also referred to as the "Slovene language between the Mura and Raba" (Slovenščina med Muro in Rabo; Slovenski jezik med Mürov i Rábov),

The Prekmurian is widely used language in the regional media (Murski Val Radio, Porabje, Slovenski utrinki), films,[5] literature. The younger generation also wrote SMS and web comments in his local tongue. In the Prekmurje and Hungary few streets, shops, hotels, etc. have Prekmurian name.[6][7] In the 2012 protests in Slovenia in Murska Sobota the protesters use Prekmurian transparents.[8] Its is liturgical language in the Evangelical and Pentecostal Church, and in the Catholic Church of Hungarian Slovenes.

Range[edit]

The Prekmurian dialect is spoken by approximately 80,000 speakers worldwide.[citation needed] Most of them reside in Prekmurje, the easternmost region of Slovenia, where the dialect is used as the native language by the majority of the population. In Hungary, it is used by the Slovene-speaking minority in Vas county in and around the town of Szentgotthárd. Several speakers of the dialect live in other Hungarian towns, particularly Budapest, Szombathely, Bakony, and Mosonmagyaróvár. Traditionally, the dialect was also used in the Hungarian Slovene colony in Somogy (most notably in the village of Tarany), but it has nearly disappeared in the last two centuries.

There are some speakers in Austria, Germany, the United States, and Argentina, as well as in major towns in Slovenia, especially Maribor and Ljubljana, where significant immigrant communities from Prekmurje have settled.

Status[edit]

Although the Prekmurian is not official language, but tried to restore, as an educated language in 1990s, primarily in Hungary.[9] Similar claims with regard to the Kajkavian in Croatia.[10] As he worked the counter-propaganda with the revivification of Wends theory, Slovenia rejected the idea. Albeit few Slovene politics, for ex. Janko Dular it is considered that the claim is legitimate about the Prekmurian.[11]

Linguistic features[edit]

In the opinion of the early 20th century philologist Ágoston Pável, the "Wendish (Prekmurian) language belongs to the group of South Slavic languages. It is in fact a large, autonomous dialect of Slovene, from which it differs mostly in stress, intonation, consonant softness and – due to the lack of a significant language reform – a scarceness of vocabulary of modern terms."
Prekmurian has its own territory and literature. Some of its speakers maintain that Prekmurian is a separate language. Prominent writers in Prekmurian, such as Miklós Küzmics,[12] István Küzmics, Ágoston Pável, József Klekl Senior,[13] József Szakovics, and others maintained that Prekmurian is a language, not simply a dialect.

Since every person – from any nation, speaking any language – has to know God's truth, which brings salvation through the Holy Bible, and as nobody should be excluded from reaching this cognition, we must not be envious or deny anybody the tool which leads him to it. Instead we should make sure that everybody gets this tool. This is the wish of God… He also encouraged some people from these nation[14] to translate the Holy Bible into their mother tongue. It suffices to focus only on the people of Carniola and Styria, who were – we believe – together with Slovenes in Hungary in the counties Vas, Zala and Somogy the remainders of those Vandals who went to the Vlachian and Spanish states in the 5th century ad from where they sailed to Africa.

Who will disallow those Slovenes who live between the Mura and the Raba the right bank to translate these holy books into the language, in which they understand God talking to them through prophets and apostles' letters? God tells them too read these books in order to get prepared for salvation in the faith of Jesus Christ. But they cannot receive this from Trubar's (Truber), Dalmatin's, Francel's (Frencel), or other translations (versio). The language of our Hungarian Slovenes is different from other languages and unique in its own characteristics. Already in the aforementioned translations there are differences. Therefore, a man had to come who would translate the Bible and bring praise for God and salvation for his nation. God encouraged István Küzmics (Stevan Küzmics) for this work, a priest from Surd, who translated – with the help of the Holy Spirit and with great diligence – the whole New Testament (Nouvi Zákon) from Greek language into the language you are reading and hearing.[15]

—Foreword (Predgovor) of the Nouvi Zákon (1771)[16]

Evald Flisar writer, poet and dramatist from Prekmurje (Goričko) but create in Slovene and English, likewise describe the Prekmurian language in the 21st century:

The homeland regards Prekmurje not as a part of Slovenia but something peculiar within its borders… It is unthinkable for two Prekmurians to speak with each other in anything but Prekmurian. I used to meet the former President of the Republic Milan Kučan at public events quite often. We always spoke Prekmurian, it would have felt odd to use literary Slovenian, since he is from Prekmurje too. Others joked about us, asking why are we so secretive. When I met a compatriot in Australia, Africa or America, we immediately started to talk in our own language. This is our language.

—Talking of Orsolya Gállos with Evald Flisar, Nagy Világ October 2007.[17]

The Novine on May 15, 1932 – the Prekmurian weekly between the two world wars renewed the standard Prekmurian language. In 1941 the Hungarian invaders banned Novine.

Ágoston Pável still add to: "When researching the cultural impact of Hungarians on Slovenes, we have to draw a distinct line between two Slovene territories: the one within the borders (usually Prekmurian) and the one beyond them (this was usually called Austrian Slovene before World War I). The former had been living together with Hungarians within the borders of a culturally united state for a thousand years, thus it goes without saying that living within the same state bound them closely together in all aspects. The people, ruled by Hungarian feudal lords, followed the orders and customs of their lords in everything… Isolation and the lack of possibilities to evolve independently helped to preserve lots of ancient features in the language, traditions and way of life of this small group of people, on the other hand, it also prevented or slowed down the development of circumstances necessary for independent growth."

Marko Jesenšek, professor of the Maribor University also states:

We can safely say that the standardization of literary Slovene in the mid-19th century did not mean the end of literary Prekmurian. Although its functionality is limited, it lives on in poetry and journalism, and it is a part of our age.

—Marko Jesenšek: Prekmuriana (2010)[18]

Prekmurian is considered part of the Pannonian dialect group (Slovene: panonska narečna skupina), also known as the Eastern Slovene Group (vzhodnoslovenska narečna skupina), one of eight dialect groups into which Slovenian is divided. Prekmurian shares many common features with the dialects of the sub-regions of Haloze, Slovenske Gorice, and Prlekija, with which it is completely mutually intelligible. It is also closely related to the Kajkavian dialect of Croatian, although the pronunciation differences make mutual comprehension difficult. Prekmurian language, especially its more traditional version spoken by Hungarian Slovenes, is not readily understood by speakers from central and western Slovenia, whereas the speakers of eastern Slovenia (Lower Styria) have much less difficulty understanding it.

The dialect includes many archaic words that have disappeared from modern Slovene. Some words still used in Prekmurian can be found in the Freising manuscripts from the 9th century, the oldest written record in Slovenian. Along with the three dialects spoken in Venetian Slovenia and with the Slovene dialects of eastern Carinthia, Prekmurian is considered the most conservative of all Slovene dialects with regard to vocabulary. On the other hand, many words in modern Prekmurian are borrowed from Hungarian and German.

Phonology[edit]

The Prekmurian dialect has a specific phonology that is similar to the phonology of other dialects of the Eastern Slovene group. The vowels ü and ö (the latter is non-phonemic) are used, which do not appear in standard Slovene. For example, the people of Prekmurje would say günac 'ox' (Slovene vol), ülanca 'clay' (standard Slovenian glin(ic)a, and vküp/vküper 'together' (standard Slovenian skupaj).[needs IPA] The vowels /ü/ and [ö] are particularly prominent in the northern dialects of Vendvidék and in Goričko. Older names of several settlements — (Budinci (Büdinci), Beltinci (Böltinci), Turnišče (Törnišče), and Lemerje (Lömergje) — surnames (Küzmič, Šömenek, Sükič, Kürnjek, Küplen, Sűnič, and Küčan), and names of rivers and hills (Müra, Möra, Bükovnica, Törnjek) often had these phonemes.

The use of the diphthongs au or ou, unknown in standard Slovenian, is also widespread. Prekmurian speakers would thus say Baug or Boug 'God' (standard Slovene Bog), kaus or kous 'piece' (standard Slovene kos), and paut or pout 'path' (standard Slovene pot).[needs IPA]

The preposition v 'in' appears as v in Prekmurje Slovene. The v form in some dialects alternates with f as in Kajkavian. In Vendvidék 'yesterday' is fčará (Slovene: včeraj).

Lexicon[edit]

Around 50% of the vocabulary of Prekmurian differs from that of standard Slovene, although the number of specific Prekmurian words not found in other Slovene dialects is much lower. intonation, palatalization of consonants, and accentuation are also different. There are dozens of Hungarian and German loanwords. The frequent presence of German loanwords is particularly observable among Hungarian Slovenes and in northern and western Prekmurje.

Morphology[edit]

Inflections are somewhat similar to Croatian. In Prekmurian, the expression "in Hungary" is v Vogrskoj (cf. Croatian u Ugarskoj, standard Slovenian na Ogrskem). One of the reasons for this closeness to standard Croatian is the long tradition of connections between the two peoples, because before the 18th century, most Prekmurian priests and teachers (both Catholic and Protestant) were educated in Croatia, particularly in Zagreb or Varaždin. In the old Martjanci Hymnal (Sztárá martyanszka peszmarica), the influences of Croatian are clear. The 18th-century Prekmurian writers that created the Prekmurian standard language applied many features of the Kajkavian dialect. In 1833, József Kossics, who was partially of Croatian descent, wrote a grammar emphasizing the Croatian features, with much of the terminology borrowed from Kajkavian, although elements from Styrian Slovene dialects were also included.

The first printed book in Prekmurian: Mali cathecismus (Small Catechism), by Ferenc Temlin.

Prekmurian language, like Standard Slovene, preserves a dual number along with the singular and plural; for example, müva va 'the two of us are' (cf. Standard Slovene midva sva), vüva ta 'the two of you are' (cf. Standard Slovene vidva sta), njüva ta 'the two of them are' (cf. Standard Slovene onadva sta).

Orthography[edit]

Standard Prekmurian was not written with the Bohorič alphabet used by Slovenes in Inner Austria, but with a Hungarian-based orthography. János Murkovics's textbook (1871) was the first book to use Gaj's Latin Alphabet.

Before 1914[edit]

Aa, Áá, Bb, Cc, Cscs, Dd, Ee, Éé, Êê, Ff, Gg, Gygy, Hh, Ii, Jj, Kk, Ll, Lyly, Mm, Nn, Nyny, Oo, Ôô, Öö, Őő, Pp, Rr, Szsz, Ss, Tt, Uu, Üü, Űű, Vv, Zz, Zszs

After 1914[edit]

Aa, Áá, Bb, Cc, Čč, Dd, Ee, Éé, Êê, Ff, Gg, Gjgj, Hh, Ii, Jj, Kk, Ll, Ljlj, Mm, Nn, Njnj, Oo, Ôô, Öö, Pp, Rr, Ss, Šš, Tt, Uu, Üü, Vv, Zz, Žž

Prekmurian subdialects[edit]

  • The Rába or Vendvidék subdialect (Slovene: Porabsko podnarečje, Prekmurian: Bákerski/Porábski/Rábski govor), near the Rába River, in the Szentgotthárd district
  • The Goričko subdialect (Slovene: Goričko podnarečje, Prekmurian: Gorički govor) in upper Prekmurje, Grad, north of Cankova)
  • The Ravensko subdialect (Slovene: Ravensko podnarečje, Prekmurian: Ravénski govor west of Cankova and south of Murska Sobota and Rakičan
  • The Murska Sobota subdialect (Slovene: Soboško podnarečje, Prekmurian: Soboški govor) near Murska Sobota
  • The Markovsko or Dolinsko subdialect (Slovene: dolinsko (markovsko) podnarečje, Prekmurian: Dolénski i Markiški govor) south of Rakičan, near the Mura and Ledava rivers.

The Goričko dialect includes the Slaveči subdialect spoken by Miklós and István Küzmics.

History[edit]

The Prekmurian dialect developed from the language of the Carantanian Slavs who settled around Balaton in the 9th century. Due to the political and geographical separation from other Slovene dialects (unlike most of contemporary Slovenia, which was part of the Holy Roman Empire, Prekmurje was under the authority of the Kingdom of Hungary for almost a thousand years), the Prekmurian dialect acquired many specific features. Separated from the cultural development of the remainder of ethnic Slovene territory, the Slovenes in Hungary gradually forged their own specific culture and also their own literary language.

In the end of the 16th century some Slovene Protestant pastor supported breaking away from Hungary. The pastors brought along the Bible of Primož Trubar and used it in Gornji Petrovci.

The ABC-book of Miklós Küzmics. This is also the first Hungarian-Slovenian Dictionary.

The first book in the Prekmurian dialect appeared in 1715, and was written by the Lutheran pastor Ferenc Temlin. In the 18th and early 19th century, a regional literature written in Prekmurian language flourished. It comprised mostly (although not exclusively) of religious texts, written by both Protestant and Catholic clergymen. The most important authors were the Lutheran pastor István Küzmics and the Roman Catholic priest Miklós Küzmics who settled the standard for the Prekmurian regional standard language in the 18th century. Both of them were born in central Prekmurje, and accordingly the regional literary language was also based on the central sub-dialects of Prekmurian language.

Miklós Küzmics in the 1790s rejected Standard Slovene. The poet, writer, translator, and journalist Imre Augustich made approaches toward standard Slovene,[19][20] but retained the Hungarian alphabet. The poet Ferenc Sbüll also made motions toward accepting standard Slovene.

By the 16th century, a theory linking the Hungarian Slovenes to the ancient Vandals had become popular.[which?] Accordingly, Prekmurian language was frequently designated in Hungarian Latin documents as the Vandalian language (Latin: lingua vandalica, Hungarian: Vandál nyelv, Prekmurian: vandalszki jezik or vandalszka vüszta).

With the advent of modernization in mid-19th century, this kind of literature slowly declined. Nevertheless, the regional standard continued to be used in religious services. In the last decades of the 19th and 20th century, the denomination "Wends" and "Wendish language" was promoted, mostly by pro-Hungarians, in order to emphasize the difference between Hungarian Slovenes and other Slovenes, including attempts to create a separate ethnic identity.

József Kossics: Small Grammar of the Hungarian language and Vandalic language. The work of Kossics was farther form to the Prekmurian standard language.

In 1919, most of Prekmurje was assigned to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and Slovene replaced Hungarian as the language of education and administration. Standard Slovene gradually started to replace Prekmurian in the local Roman Catholic church, while the Lutheran community continued to use the dialect in their religious services. The local press tried to combine the old Prekmurian regional standard with standard Slovene, making it completely intelligible to Slovenes from other regions. In the late 1920s and 1930s, many Slovenes from the Julian March who fled from Fascist Italy settled in Prekmurje, especially in the town of Murska Sobota, which helped spread the use of standard Slovene among the population. The Yugoslav authorities encouraged the settlements of Slovene political immigrants from the Kingdom of Italy in Prekmurje as an attempt to reduce the influence of the Magyar element in the region; besides, the western Slovene dialects were very difficult to understand for the people of Prekmurje, thus the use of standard Slovene became almost indispensable for the mutual understaning.[21]

After World War II, the Lutheran Church also switched to standard Slovene in most of its parishes, and Prekmurian has since been relegated to an almost exclusively private use. Nevertheless, the Prekmurian dialect is, along with Resian, one of the few Slovene dialects which is still used by the majority of speakers in their respective territories in its original version, with very few influence from standard Slovene. This creates a situation of diglossia, where the dialect is used as the predominant means of communication in the private life, while the standard language is used in schools, the administration and in the media. The situation is different among Hungarian Slovenes, where standard Slovene is still very rarely used.

Standard works of Prekmurian[edit]

P literature.svg This literature-related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
  • Ferenc Temlin: Mali katechismus (Small Catechism) the first printed book in Prekmurian, 1715
  • Abeczedarium Szlowenszko (Slovene/Prekmurian ABC book) the first Prekmurian coursebook, author is unknown, 1725
  • Mihály Szever Vanecsai: Réd zvelicsánsztva (Expectant salvation) in 1742
  • István Küzmics: Vöre krsztsánszke krátki návuk (Small tenet of the Christian religion) 1754
  • István Küzmics: Nouvi Zákon (New Testament) translation of the Bible, 1771
  • Miklós Küzmics: Krátka summa velikoga katekizmusa (Small tenets of the great Catechism), the first Catholic catechism, 1780
  • Miklós Küzmics: Szlovenszki silabikár (Slovene/Prekmurian Agenda) 1780
  • Miklós Küzmics: Szvéti evangyeliomi (Holy Gospels) 1780
  • Miklós Küzmics: Kniga molitvena (Prayerbook) 1783
  • Mihály Bakos: Szlovenszki Abecedár (Slovene ABC book) in 1786
  • Mihály Bakos: Nouvi Graduvál (New Agenda) in 1789
  • Miklós Küzmics: ABC kni'zicza (ABC book) in 1790
  • Miklós Küzmics: Sztároga i nouvoga Testamentoma szvéte histórie krátka summa (Small tenets of the holy history of Old and New Testaments) in 1796
  • Mihály Bakos: Győrſzki Kátekizmus (Catechism of Raab) in 1796
  • István Szijjártó: Mrtvecsne peszmi (Dead Hymns) in 1796
  • István Szijjártó: Molitvi na ſztári ſzlovenſzki jezik (Prayers in the old Slovene language) 1797
  • István Szijjártó(?): Sztarisinsztvo i zvacsinsztvo, 1807
  • Mihály Barla: Diktomszke, verszuske i molitvene kni'zice (Small book of hymns, verses and prayers)
  • Mihály Barla: Krscsanszke nôve peszmene knige (New Christian hymnbook), 1823
  • József Kossics: Krátki návuk vogrszkoga jezika za zacsetníke (Small tenets of the Hungarian language), 1833
  • György Czipott: Dühovni Áldovi (Ghostly Blessing), 1829
  • István Lülik: Novi abeczedár (New ABC book), 1833
  • János Kardos: D. Luther Martina máli kátekismus (Small catechism of Martin Luther), 1837
  • János Kardos: Krátki návuk krsztsansztva (Small tenets of the Christianity), 1837
  • János Kardos: Mála historia bibliszka (Small history of Bible), 1840
  • József Kossics: Zobriszani Szloven i Szlovenka med Műrov i Rábov (Educated Slovene Man and Women between the Mura and Raba), 1845
  • Sándor Terplán: Dvakrat 52 Bibliszke Historie (Twice 52 History from Bible), 1847
  • János Kardos: Krsztsanszke czerkvene peszmi (Christian church hymns), 1848
  • János Kardos: Krsztsanszke mrtvecsne peszmi (Christian dead hymns), 1848
  • Sándor Terplán: Knige 'zoltárszke (Book of Psalms), 1848
  • József Kossics: Zgodbe vogerszkoga králesztva (History of the Hungarian Kingdom), 1848
  • József Kossics: Sztarine 'Seleznih ino Szalaszkih Szlovencov (Antiques of the Slovenes in Vas and Zala), 1845
  • József Kossics: Jezus moje po'selejnye (Jesus my wish), 1851
  • János Kardos: Pobo'zne molítvi (Church prayers), 1853
  • János Kardos: ABC ali Návuk na píszajôcs-cstenyé (ABC book, or the Tenet of the writing and reading), 1867
  • Szlovenszki ABCDAR (Slovene ABC book), 1868
  • József Borovnyák: Dühovna hrána (Nutriment), 1868
  • János Murkovics: Abecednik za katholičanske vesničke šolé (ABC-book for elementary schools), 1871
  • István Szelmár: Zgodbe Sztároga i Nóvoga Zákona (Histories of the Old and New Testaments), 1873
  • Imre Augustich: Prijátel (Friend), 1875-1879
  • József Borovnyák: Szvéti Angel Csuvár (Holy Guardian Angel), 1875
  • Imre Augustich: Návuk vogrszkoga jezika (Tenets of the Hungarian language), 1876
  • Imre Augustich: Prirodopis s kepami (Natural history with images), 1878
  • József Bagáry: Perve knige – čtenyá za katholičánske vesničke šolê (First book of the reading for the Catholic Elementary Schools), 1886
  • József Pusztai–József Borovnjak–József Bagáry: Krscsánszko katholicsánszke cerkvene peszmi (Christian Catholic Hymnal), 1893
  • Péter Kollár: Mála biblija z-kejpami (Small Bible with pictures), 1897
  • József Szakovics: Katolicsanszki katekizmus z glávnimi zgodbami biblije (Small catechism with the main histories of Bible), 1907
  • Iván Bassa: Katolicsanszki katekizmus za solare (Catholic catechism for Schoolchildren), 1909
  • József Klekl sg.: Hodi k oltarskomi svestvi (Come on to Eucharist), 1910
  • József Klekl sg.: Novine (Tidings), 1913-1941
  • Števan Kühar (sl): Mörszka krajina (sl) 1890-1963

1823-1848[edit]

The famous Prekmurian prayer-book, the Kniga molitvena from 1855.

A second wave of standardisation began in 1823. Mihály Barla issued a new hymnbook (Krscsanszke nove peszmene knige). József Kossics, a great writer and poet from Ptrekmurje, made contact with the Slovenian linguist Oroslav Caf (sl) and thus get acquainted with the Styrian Slovenian dialect. Kossics first worked in Alsószölnök. The teacher of the village was József Vogrin (Jožef Vogrin) born into the Slovene Styria, and accordingly spoke the Styrian dialect. Kossics's father was of Croatian descent, and accordingly was also raised in the Kajkavian Croatian language. The Krátki návuk vogrszkoga jezika za zacsetníke, a Slovenian-Hungarian grammar book and dictionary let out the standard Prekmurian. The Zobriszani Szloven i Szlovenszka med Mürov in Rábov ethic-book, formed the ethics- and linguistic-norms. Zgodbe vogerszkoga králesztva and Sztarine Zseleznih ino Szalaszkih Szlovencov are the first Prekmurian Slovenian history books. Kossics was the first writer to write nonreligious poetry.

In 1820, a teacher named István Lülik wrote a new coursebook (Novi abeczedár), into which was made three issue (1853, 1856, 1863).
Sándor Terplán and János Kardos wrote a psalm book (Knige 'zoltárszke), and a hymnbook (Krsztsanszke czerkvene peszmi), the latter a reprint of Barla's hymn-book.

1870-1886[edit]

János Kardos translated numerous verses from Sándor Petőfi, János Arany and few Hungarian poet. In 1870, he worked on a new coursebook, the Nôve knige cstenyá za vesznícski sôl drügi zlôcs. In 1875, Imre Augustich established the first Prekmurian newspaper Prijátel (The Friend). Later, he wrote a new Hungarian-Prekmurian grammar (Návuk vogrszkoga jezika, 1876) and translated works from Hungarian poets and writers.

In 1886, József Bagáry wrote second course-book, which apply the Gaj alphabet (Perve knige – čtenyá za katholičánske vesničke šolê).

1914-1945[edit]

In 1914-1918, the ethnic governor and later parliamentarian congressman in Beograd József Klekl standardized Prekmurian,[22] making use of the Croatian and Slovene languages. In 1923, the new prayerbook's Hodi k oltarskomi svesti (Come on to the Eucharist) orthography was written in the Gaj. Items in the newspapers the catholic Novine, Marijin list, Marijin ograček, calendar Kalendar Srca Jezušovoga, the Lutheran Düševni list and Evangeličanski kalendar were written in the Prekmurian language.[23]
József Szakovics took an active part in cultivating the Prekmurje dialect, although not all schools offered education in Prekmurian. The prominent Prekmurian writer Miško Kranjec also wrote in Slovene.

János Fliszár wrote a Hungarian-Wendish dictionary in 1922. In 1941, the Hungarian Army seized back the Prekmurje area and by 1945 aimed to make an end of the Prekmurian dialect and Slovene by the help of Mikola.[clarification needed]

After 1945, Communist Yugoslavia banned the printing of religious books in the Prekmurian dialects, and only standard Slovene was used in administration and education. In Hungary, the dictator Mátyás Rákosi banned every minority language and deported the Slovenes in the Hungarian Plain.

The question of the Wend or Prekmurian language[edit]

The issue of how Prekmurian came to be a separate tongue has many theories. First, in the 16th century, there was a theory that the Slovenes east of the Mura were descendants of the Vandals, an East Germanic tribe of pre-Roman Empire era antiquity. The Vandal name was used not only as the "scientific" or ethnological term for the Slovenes, but also to acknowledge that the Vandalic people were named the Szlovenci, szlovenszki, szlovenye (Slovenians).

In 1627, was issue the Protestant visitation in the country Tótság, or Slovene Circumscription (this is the historical name of the Prekmurje and Vendvidék, Prekmurian: Slovenska okroglina).[clarification needed] Herein act a Slavic Bible in Gornji Petrovci, which as a matter of fact the Bible of Primož Trubar. From Carniola and Styria in the 16th and 17th centuries, a few Slovene Protestant pastors fled to Hungary and brought with them Trubar's Bible, which helped set the standard for Slovene. Not known by accident there was work on Prekmurian.[clarification needed]

According to the Hungarian dissenters, the Wendish (Prekmurian) language was of Danish, Sorbian, Germanic, Celtic, Eastern Romance or West Slavic extraction.[citation needed] But this was often false, political or exaggerated affirmations.

According to extremist Hungarian groups, the Wends were captured by Turkish and Croatian troops who were later integrated into Hungarian society. Another popular theory created by some Hungarian nationalists was that the speakers of the Wendish language were "in truth" Magyar peoples, and some had merged into the Slavic population of Slovenia over the last 800 years.

The prayer-book of József Szakovics in 1931. Print was János Zvér (sl) in Murska Sobota.

In 1920, Hungarian physicist Sándor Mikola (sl) wrote a number of books about Slovene inhabitants of Hungary and the Wendish language: the Wendish-Celtic theory. Accordingly, the Wends (Slovenians in Hungary) were of Celtic extraction, not Slavic. Later Mikola also adopted the belief that the Wends indeed were Slavic-speaking Hungarians. In Hungary, the state's ethnonationalistic program tried to prove his theories. Mikola also thought the Wends, Slovenes, and Croatians alike were all descendants of the Pannonian Romans, therefore they have Latin blood and culture in them as well.

Pray my brothers! Prayer-book of József Szakovics in 1936. His script was written in the Slovene alphabet.

During the Hungarian revolution when Hungarians rebelled against Habsburg rule, the Catholic Slovenes sided with the Catholic Habsburgs. The Lutheran Slovenians, however, supported the rebel Lajos Kossuth siding with Hungary and they pleaded for the separation of Hungary from Habsburg Austria which had its anti-Protestant policy. At that time, the reasoning that the inhabitants of the Rába Region were not Slovenes but Wends and "Wendish-Slovenes" respectively and that, as a consequence, their ancestral Slavic-Wendish language was not to be equated with the other Slovenes living in the Austro-Hungarian Empire was established. In the opinion of the Lutheran-Slovene priest of Hodoš, the only possibility for the Lutheran Slovenes emerging from the Catholic-Slovenian population group to continue was to support Kossuth and his Hungarian culture.[clarification needed] Thereafter, the Lutheran Slovenes used their language in churches and schools in the most traditional way in order to distinguish themselves from the Catholic Slovenes and the Slovene language (i.e., pro-Hungarian or pan-Slavic Slovene literature). The Lutheran priests and believers remained of the conviction that they could only adhere to their Lutheran faith when following the wish of the Hungarians (or the Austrians) and considering themselves "Wendish-Slovenes". If they did not conform to this, then they were in danger of being assimilated into Hungarian culture.

In the years preceding World War I, the Hungarian Slovenes were swept into the ideology of Panslavism, the national unity of all Slavic-speaking peoples of Eastern Europe. The issue was volatile in the fragmented Austro-Hungarian empire, which was defeated in the war. In the 1921 Treaty of Trianon, the southern half (not the whole) of the Prekmurje region was ceded to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

The Hungarian government in Budapest after 1867 tried to assimilate the Prekmurians. In Somogy in the 19th century, there was still a ban on using the Prekmurian language. József Borovnyák, Ferenc Ivanóczy, and other Slovenian politicians and writers helped safeguard the Prekmurian dialect and identity.

Sándor Terplán: Dvakrat 52 Bibliszke Historie (Twice 52 historie from Bible) in 1847.
Kalendar Srca Jezušovoga (Jesus's Heart Calendar) was Prekmurian catholic calendar between 1904 and 1944.
The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden – the picture of Mála biblia z-kejpami (Small Bible with pictures) of Péter Kollár (1897).

In the late 20th century and today, the new notion for Hungarian Slovenians is to conceive Prekmurian is in fact the Slovene language, but not dialect.[clarification needed] Their allusions: the Küzmics Gospels, the Old Grammar- and state-run public schools, the typical Prekmurian and Rába Slovene culture, the few centuries old-long isolation in Prekmurian and continued self-preservation from the Hungarian majority. Hungarian Slovenes are more interested in being Slovenes.[citation needed] In Communist Yugoslavia, Prekmurian was looked down upon because numerous writers, such as József Klekl, were anti-communists.[24][25]

However, pseudoscientic and extremist theories continue to be propagated. Ethnological research has again looked into the "Celtic-Wends, Wendish-Magyars", "Pannonian Roman" and West Slavic theories. Tibor Zsiga, a prominent Hungarian historian in 2001 declared "The Slovene people cannot be declared Wends, neither in Slovenia, neither in Prekmurje." One may mind the Slovene/Slovenski name issue was under Pan-Slavism in the 19th-20th century, the other believes the issue was purely political in nature.

Examples[edit]

A comparison between the Lord's Prayer in standard Slovene, Standard Prekmurian, standard Croatian, Kajkavian Croatian (standard language and dialect of Međimurje) and Burgenland Croatian. The Prekmurian version is taken from an authorized prayer book published in 1942 (Zálozso János Zvér, Molitvena Kniga, Odobrena od cérkvene oblászti, Murska Sobota, 1942, third edition). The Hungarian alphabet, used in the original, has been transliterated into Gaj's Latin alphabet, used in the other three versions, in order to render the comparison easier.

Standard Slovene Standard Prekmurian

Oče naš, ki si v nebesih,
posvečeno bodi tvoje ime,
pridi k nam tvoje kraljestvo,
zgodi se tvoja volja
kakor v nebesih tako na zemlji.
Daj nam danes naš vsakdanji kruh
in odpusti nam naše dolge,
kakor tudi mi odpuščamo svojim dolžnikom,
in ne vpelji nas v skušnjavo,
temveč reši nas hudega.
Amen.

Oča naš, ki si vu nebésaj!
Svéti se Ime tvoje.
Pridi králestvo tvoje.
Bojdi vola tvoja,
kak na nébi, tak i na zemli.
Krüha našega vsakdanéšnjega daj nam
ga dnes.
I odpüsti nam duge naše,
kak i mi odpüščamo dužnikom našim.
I ne vpelaj nas vu sküšávanje.
Nego odslobodi nas od hüdoga.
Amen.

Standard Croatian Standard Prekmurian

Oče naš, koji jesi na nebesima,
sveti se ime tvoje,
dođi kraljevstvo tvoje,
budi volja tvoja,
kako na nebu tako i na zemlji.
Kruh naš svagdanji daj
nam danas
i otpusti nam duge naše,
kako i mi otpuštamo dužnicima našim,
i ne uvedi nas u napast,
nego izbavi nas od zla.
Amen.

Oča naš, ki si vu nebésaj!
Svéti se Ime tvoje.
Pridi králestvo tvoje.
Bojdi vola tvoja,
kak na nébi, tak i na zemli.
Krüha našega vsakdanéšnjega daj nam
ga dnes.
I odpüsti nam duge naše,
kak i mi odpüščamo dužnikom našim.
I ne vpelaj nas vu sküšávanje.
Nego odslobodi nas od hüdoga.
Amen.

Standard Kajkavian Standard Prekmurian

Otec naš, koji jesi v nebesih,
sveti se ime tvoje,
dojdi kralevstvo tvoje,
budi volja tvoja,
kak na nebu tak i na zemli.
Kruh naš svakdašni daj
nam denes
i otpusti nam duge naše,
kak i mi otpuščamo dužnikom našim,
i ne uvedi nas v napast,
nek izbavi nas od zla.
Amen.

Oča naš, ki si vu nebésaj!
Svéti se Ime tvoje.
Pridi králestvo tvoje.
Bojdi vola tvoja,
kak na nébi, tak i na zemli.
Krüha našega vsakdanéšnjega daj nam
ga dnes.
I odpüsti nam duge naše,
kak i mi odpüščamo dužnikom našim.
I ne vpelaj nas vu sküšávanje.
Nego odslobodi nas od hüdoga.
Amen.

Kajkavian dialect of Međimurje Standard Prekmurian

Japa naš kteri si f 'nebesih,
nek sesvete ime Tvoje,
nek prihaja cesarstvo Tvoje,
nek bu volja Tvoja,
kakti na nebe tak pa na zemle.
Kruhek naš sakdajni nam
daj denes
ter odpuščaj nam dugi naše,
kakti mi odpuščamo dužnikom našim,
ter naj nas fpelati vu skušnje,
nek nas zbavi od sekih hudobah.
Amen.

Oča naš, ki si vu nebésaj!
Svéti se Ime tvoje.
Pridi králestvo tvoje.
Bojdi vola tvoja,
kak na nébi, tak i na zemli.
Krüha našega vsakdanéšnjega daj nam
ga dnes.
I odpüsti nam duge naše,
kak i mi odpüščamo dužnikom našim.
I ne vpelaj nas vu sküšávanje.
Nego odslobodi nas od hüdoga.
Amen.

Standard Burgenland Croatian Standard Prekmurian

Oče naš, ki si na nebesi,
sveti se ime tvoje,
pridi kraljevstvo tvoje,
budi volja tvoja,
kako na nebu tako i na zemlji.
Kruh naš svakidanji daj
nam danas,
i otpusti nam duge naše,
kako i mi otpušćamo dužnikom našim,
i ne zapeljaj nas u skušavanje,
nego oslobodi nas od zla.
Amen.

Oča naš, ki si vu nebésaj!
Svéti se Ime tvoje.
Pridi králestvo tvoje.
Bojdi vola tvoja,
kak na nébi, tak i na zemli.
Krüha našega vsakdanéšnjega daj nam
ga dnes.
I odpüsti nam duge naše,
kak i mi odpüščamo dužnikom našim.
I ne vpelaj nas vu sküšávanje.
Nego odslobodi nas od hüdoga.
Amen.

The tomb of the young Vince Talabér from Permise (Kétvölgy) in the cemetery of Apátistvánfalva with Prekmurian inscription.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Herbert Hoover presidents of the USA in the Novine (November 27, 1932).

Examples of differing words[edit]

Prekmurian Standard Slovene English
pránje umivanje, pomivanje washing
skrbmeti paziti to look after
vogrski madžarski Hungarian
iža hiša house
lűšnost veselje joy
venej, vönej, vüni zunaj outside
níndrik ponekod anywhere
vilica ulica street
cintor, britof, brütif pokopališče cemetery
sfalíti zmanjkati run out

Examples of concordant words[edit]

Prekmurian Standard Slovene English
nepokornost nepokornost disobedience
kűščar kuščar lizard
korouna korona corona
nastlati nastlati to litter
čipka čipka lace
skrivnost, skrovnost skrivnost secret, mystery
zdrávje zdravje health
stüdenec studenec, vodnjak (water) well
mesečen mesečen monthly
süšiti sušiti to dry

Examples of partially different words[edit]

Prekmurian Standard Slovene English
mesou meso meat, (fruit) flesh
pridrdati pridrveti to come rushing
prigoditi se zgoditi se to happen
naprej stati nastati to arise
poküšati se preizkušati se experiment to
nágoča nagota nudity
lače hlače trousers
ládarstvo vladarstvo governance
kradlivi kradljiv sampling tube
závec zajec rabbit

Examples of Hungarian loanwords[edit]

Prekmurian Hungarian Standard Slovene English
roság ország država state
čikoš csikós konjski pastir wrangler
pajdáš pajtás tovariš buddy
lampaš lámpás svetilka small lamp
čizma csizma škorenj boot
šapká sapka kapa cap
šator sátor šotor tent
tanáč tanács svet advice
váraš város mesto town
vámoš vámos cestninar toll-keeper

False friends in the Prekmurian and Slovene[edit]

Prekmurian Meaning Slovene Meaning
günec ox junec bull's veal
graj bean grah pea
glejv, lejv piggery hlev equerry
šteti, čteti read šteti count
stoul table stol chair

The months in Prekmurian[edit]

Standard Slovene Prekmurian Standard Croatian English
januar/prosinec
februar/svečan
marec/sušec
april/mali traven
maj/veliki traven
junij/rožnik
julij/mali srpan
avgust/veliki srpan
september/kimavec
oktober/vinotok
november/listopad
december/gruden
sečén
süšec (old sűca)
mali tráven
velki tráven
risáošček
ivánšček
jakopšček
méšnjek
miháošček
vsesvéšček
andrejšček
prosinec
siječanj
veljača
ožujak
travanj
svibanj
lipanj
srpanj
kolovoz
rujan
listopad
studeni
prosinac
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Zapostavljeni spomin pokrajine - Prekmurska zgodovina kot primer spregleda lokalne zgodovine v učnem načrtu osnovnih in srednjih šol [Neglected memory of a region - history of Prekmurje as an example of overlooked local history in curriculum of primary and secondary schools] (in Slovene). Javna agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije [Slovenian Research Agency] (AARS). 2008. 
  2. ^ Jesenšek, Marko (2008). "Trubarjeva in Küzmičeva različica slovenskega knjižnega jezika" [Trubar's and Küzmič's Variants of the Slovene Literary Language]. Slavistična revija [Journal of Slavic Linguistics (in Slovene, with an abstract in English) 56 (4). COBISS 16738056. 
  3. ^ Nagy Világ →Szíjártó Imre: Muravidéki szlovén irodalom; A Muravidék történelmi útja
  4. ^ F. Just: Med verzuško in pesmijo →„Poslünte, da esi prosim vas, gospoda, ka bom vam jas pravo od toga naroda” 10. 12. 14. page
  5. ^ Prekmurski film Oča se danes predstavlja svetovni javnosti (pomurec.com)
  6. ^ MITNJEK VESNA S.P. ČARNA BAUTA
  7. ^ Lovenjakov Dvor - Hotel Štrk
  8. ^ Protesti v Murski Soboti (pomurec.com)
  9. ^ Slovenski koledar (1992) ISNN 0237-1480, 98. p.
  10. ^ Zagorci žele kajkavski u školama (nacional.hr)
  11. ^ Zapis 34. posveta predstavnikov verskih skupnosti, ki so prijavile svojo ustanovitev v Republiki Sloveniji
  12. ^ Nagy Világ →Szíjártó Imre: A Muravidék történelmi útja
  13. ^ F. Just: Med verzuško in pesmijo →Prekmurska jezikovna vojna, 73. page
  14. ^ Russians, Bohemians, Hungarians, Bulgarian, Bosnians, Styrians, and etc.
  15. ^ The author of the Nouvi Zákon's Foreword partway István Küzmics, partway József Torkos Hungarian theologian. Küzmics wrote the national texts of the Foreword, as long as Torkos the theological bearing.
  16. ^ Predgovor, Nouvi Zákon, Murska Sobota 2008. English translation: Peter Lamovec
  17. ^ nagyvilag-folyoirat.hu
  18. ^ Marko Jesenšek: Prekmuriana, Cathedra Philologiae Slavicae, Balassi Kiadó, Budapest 2010. ISBN 978-963-506-846-3 45. p.
  19. ^ F. Just: Med verzuško in pesmijo →„Poslünte, da esi prosim vas, gospoda ka bom vam jas pravo od toga naroda,” 19. page
  20. ^ Nagy Világ →A Muravidék történelmi útja
  21. ^ László Göncz: The Hungarians in Prekmurje 1918-1941 (A muravidéki magyarság 1918-1941)
  22. ^ Nagy Világ →A Muravidék történelmi útja
  23. ^ F. Just: Med verzuško in pesmijo →„Pride čas, i ne je daleč, gda bomo vu našem maternom jeziki čteli dobra, čedna, poštena, düši i teli hasnovita dela.” 26.-53. page
  24. ^ Janez Votek: Raznarodovanje rodilo srečne sadove, Vestnik 49./21. Murska Sobota (22.05.1997), 8. p.
  25. ^ Stanislav Zver: Jožef Klekl prekmurski Čedermac, Ognjišče 2001. ISBN 961-6308-62-9 111.-112. p.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]