|prekmurščina, prekmürščina, prekmörščina, panonska slovenščina|
|Native to||Slovenia, Hungary and emigrant groups in various countries|
|80,000 (date missing)|
Map of Slovenian dialects. Prekmurje Slovene is in dark yellow at the top right.
|South Slavic languages and dialects|
Prekmurje Slovene, also known as the Pannonian-Slovene, East-Slovene, or Wendish (Slovene: prekmurščina, prekmursko narečje, Hungarian: vend nyelv, muravidéki nyelv, Prekmurje dialect: prekmürski jezik, prekmürščina, prekmörščina, prekmörski jezik, panonska slovenščina) is a supradialectal regional literary language, classified as Slovene. It is used in private communication, in liturgy, and in publications by authors from Prekmurje. It is spoken in the Prekmurje region of Slovenia and by the Hungarian Slovenes in Vas county in western Hungary. It is closely related to the Slovene dialects in neighboring Slovene Styria, as well as to the Kajkavian dialect of Croatian.
Prekmurje Slovene is one of the few Slovene dialects in Slovenia that is still spoken by all strata of the local population. It also had its own written standard and a literary tradition, both of which were largely neglected after World War II. There are divergent opinions regarding the status of Prekmurje Slovene. Some consider Prekmurje Slovene a regional language, without denying that it is part of Slovene.[clarification needed][who?] However, Prekmurje Slovene is not recognized as a language by Slovenia or Hungary, nor does it enjoy any legal protection under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. There is no significant political or cultural movement in Slovenia seeking legal protection for Prekmurje Slovene, although there has been a revival of literature in Prekmurje Slovene since the late 1990s. Some Slovene writers from Prekmurje, most notably Feri Lainšček, regard Prekmurje Slovene as a regional language.
Together with Resian, Prekmurje Slovene is the only Slovene dialect with a literary standard that has had a different historical development from the rest of Slovene ethnic territory. For centuries, it was used as a language of religious education, as well as in the press and mass. The historical Hungarian name for the Slovenes living within the borders of the Kingdom of Hungary (as well as for the Slovenians in general) was Vendek, or the Wends. In the 18th and 19th centuries Prekmurje authors used to designate this dialect as sztári szlovenszki jezik 'old Slovene'. Both then and now, it is also referred to as the "Slovene language between the Mura and Raba" (Slovenščina med Muro in Rabo; Slovenski jezik med Mürov i Rábov),
Prekmurje Slovene is a widely used language in the regional media (Murski Val Radio, Porabje, Slovenski utrinki), films, literature. The younger generation also wrote SMS and web comments in his local tongue. In the Prekmurje and Hungary a few streets, shops, hotels, etc. have Prekmurje Slovene names. In the 2012 protests in Slovenia in Murska Sobota the protesters use Prekmurje Slovene banners. It is the liturgical language in the Evangelical and Pentecostal Church, and in the Catholic Church of Hungarian Slovenes.
- 1 Range
- 2 Status
- 3 Linguistic features
- 4 History
- 5 Examples
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Sources
- 9 External links
The Prekmurje dialect is spoken by approximately 80,000 speakers worldwide. Most of them reside in Prekmurje, the easternmost region of Slovenia, where the dialect is used as the native language by the majority of the population. In Hungary, it is used by the Slovene-speaking minority in Vas county in and around the town of Szentgotthárd. Several speakers of the dialect live in other Hungarian towns, particularly Budapest, Szombathely, Bakony, and Mosonmagyaróvár. Traditionally, the dialect was also used in the Hungarian Slovene colony in Somogy (most notably in the village of Tarany), but it has nearly disappeared in the last two centuries.
There are some speakers in Austria, Germany, the United States, and Argentina, as well as in major towns in Slovenia, especially Maribor and Ljubljana, where significant immigrant communities from Prekmurje have settled.
Although Prekmurje Slovene is not an official language, but tried to restore, as an educated language in the 1990s, primarily in Hungary. Similar claims with regard to the Kajkavian in Croatia. As he worked the counter-propaganda with the revivification of Wends theory, Slovenia rejected the idea. Albeit few Slovene politics, for ex. Janko Dular it is considered that the claim is legitimate about Prekmurje Slovene.
In the opinion of the early 20th century philologist Ágoston Pável, the "Wendish (Prekmurje) language belongs to the group of South Slavic languages. It is in fact a large, autonomous dialect of Slovene, from which it differs mostly in stress, intonation, consonant softness and – due to the lack of a significant language reform – a scarceness of vocabulary of modern terms."
Prekmurje Slovene has its own territory and literature. Some of its speakers maintain that Prekmurje Slovene is a separate language. Prominent writers in Prekmurje Slovene, such as Miklós Küzmics, István Küzmics, Ágoston Pável, József Klekl Senior, József Szakovics, and others maintained that Prekmurje Slovene is a language, not simply a dialect.
|“||Since every person – from any nation, speaking any language – has to know God's truth, which brings salvation through the Holy Bible, and as nobody should be excluded from reaching this cognition, we must not be envious or deny anybody the tool which leads him to it. Instead we should make sure that everybody gets this tool. This is the wish of God… He also encouraged some people from these nation to translate the Holy Bible into their mother tongue. It suffices to focus only on the people of Carniola and Styria, who were – we believe – together with Slovenes in Hungary in the counties Vas, Zala and Somogy the remainders of those Vandals who went to the Vlachian and Spanish states in the 5th century ad from where they sailed to Africa.
Who will disallow those Slovenes who live between the Mura and the Raba the right bank to translate these holy books into the language, in which they understand God talking to them through prophets and apostles' letters? God tells them too read these books in order to get prepared for salvation in the faith of Jesus Christ. But they cannot receive this from Trubar's (Truber), Dalmatin's, Francel's (Frencel), or other translations (versio). The language of our Hungarian Slovenes is different from other languages and unique in its own characteristics. Already in the aforementioned translations there are differences. Therefore, a man had to come who would translate the Bible and bring praise for God and salvation for his nation. God encouraged István Küzmics (Stevan Küzmics) for this work, a priest from Surd, who translated – with the help of the Holy Spirit and with great diligence – the whole New Testament (Nouvi Zákon) from Greek language into the language you are reading and hearing.
—Foreword (Predgovor) of the Nouvi Zákon (1771)
Evald Flisar writer, poet and dramatist from Prekmurje (Goričko) but create in Slovene and English, likewise describe the Prekmurje Slovene in the 21st century:
|“||The homeland regards Prekmurje not as a part of Slovenia but something peculiar within its borders… It is unthinkable for two people from Prekmurje to speak with each other in anything but Prekmurje Slovene. I used to meet the former President of the Republic Milan Kučan at public events quite often. We always spoke Prekmurje Slovene, it would have felt odd to use literary Slovenian, since he is from Prekmurje too. Others joked about us, asking why are we so secretive. When I met a compatriot in Australia, Africa or America, we immediately started to talk in our own language. This is our language.||”|
—Talking of Orsolya Gállos with Evald Flisar, Nagy Világ October 2007.
Ágoston Pável still add to: "When researching the cultural impact of Hungarians on Slovenes, we have to draw a distinct line between two Slovene territories: the one within the borders (usually Prekmurje Slovene) and the one beyond them (this was usually called Austrian Slovene before World War I). The former had been living together with Hungarians within the borders of a culturally united state for a thousand years, thus it goes without saying that living within the same state bound them closely together in all aspects. The people, ruled by Hungarian feudal lords, followed the orders and customs of their lords in everything… Isolation and the lack of possibilities to evolve independently helped to preserve lots of ancient features in the language, traditions and way of life of this small group of people, on the other hand, it also prevented or slowed down the development of circumstances necessary for independent growth."
Marko Jesenšek, professor of the Maribor University also states:
|“||We can safely say that the standardization of literary Slovene in the mid-19th century did not mean the end of Prekmurje Slovene. Although its functionality is limited, it lives on in poetry and journalism, and it is a part of our age.||”|
—Marko Jesenšek: Prekmuriana (2010)
Prekmurje Slovene is considered part of the Pannonian dialect group (Slovene: panonska narečna skupina), also known as the Eastern Slovene Group (vzhodnoslovenska narečna skupina), one of eight dialect groups into which Slovenian is divided. Prekmurje Slovene shares many common features with the dialects of the sub-regions of Haloze, Slovenske Gorice, and Prlekija, with which it is completely mutually intelligible. It is also closely related to the Kajkavian dialect of Croatian, although the pronunciation differences make mutual comprehension difficult. Prekmurje Slovene, especially its more traditional version spoken by Hungarian Slovenes, is not readily understood by speakers from central and western Slovenia, whereas the speakers of eastern Slovenia (Lower Styria) have much less difficulty understanding it.
The dialect includes many archaic words that have disappeared from modern Slovene. Some words still used in Prekmurje Slovene can be found in the Freising manuscripts from the 9th century, the oldest written record in Slovenian. Along with the three dialects spoken in Venetian Slovenia and with the Slovene dialects of eastern Carinthia, Prekmurje Slovene is considered the most conservative of all Slovene dialects with regard to vocabulary. On the other hand, many words in modern Prekmurje Slovene are borrowed from Hungarian and German.
The Prekmurje dialect has a phonology similar to the phonology of other eastern Slovene dialects. The vowels ü and ö (the latter is non-phonemic) are used, which do not appear in standard Slovene (e.g., günac 'ox', ülanca 'clay', vküp/vküper 'together').[needs IPA] The vowels /ü/ and [ö] are particularly prominent in the northern dialects of Vendvidék and in Goričko. Older names of several settlements (e.g., Büdinci 'Budinci, Böltinci 'Beltinci', Törnišče 'Turnišče', and Lömergje 'Lemerje'), surnames (e.g., Küčan, Küplen, Kürnjek, Küzmič, Sükič, Sűnič, and Šömenek), and names of rivers and hills (e.g., Bükovnica, Möra, Müra, and Törnjek) often had these phonemes.
The diphthongs au or ou (unknown in standard Slovene but found in various dialects) are also widespread. Examples include Baug or Boug 'God' (standard Slovene Bog), kaus or kous 'piece' (standard Slovene kos), and paut or pout 'path' (standard Slovene pot).[needs IPA]
The preposition and prefix v 'in' appears as v in Prekmurje Slovene. In some dialects, v alternates with f, as in Kajkavian; for example, in Vendvidék fčará 'yesterday' (Standard Slovene včeraj).
Around 50% of the vocabulary of Prekmurje Slovene differs from that of standard Slovene, although the number of specific Prekmurje Slovene words not found in other Slovene dialects is much lower. intonation, palatalization of consonants, and accentuation are also different. There are dozens of Hungarian and German loanwords. The frequent presence of German loanwords is particularly observable among Hungarian Slovenes and in northern and western Prekmurje.
Inflections are somewhat similar to Croatian. In Prekmurje Slovene, the expression "in Hungary" is v Vogrskoj (cf. Croatian u Ugarskoj, standard Slovenian na Ogrskem). One of the reasons for this closeness to standard Croatian is the long tradition of connections between the two peoples, because before the 18th century, most Prekmurje priests and teachers (both Catholic and Protestant) were educated in Croatia, particularly in Zagreb or Varaždin. In the old Martjanci Hymnal (Sztárá martyanszka peszmarica), the influences of Croatian are clear. The 18th-century Prekmurje writers that created Prekmurje Slovene applied many features of the Kajkavian dialect. In 1833, József Kossics, who was partially of Croatian descent, wrote a grammar emphasizing the Croatian features, with much of the terminology borrowed from Kajkavian, although elements from Styrian Slovene dialects were also included.
Prekmurje Slovene, like Standard Slovene, preserves a dual number along with the singular and plural; for example, müva va 'the two of us are' (cf. Standard Slovene midva sva), vüva ta 'the two of you are' (cf. Standard Slovene vidva sta), njüva ta 'the two of them are' (cf. Standard Slovene onadva sta).
Standard Prekmurje Slovene was not written with the Bohorič alphabet used by Slovenes in Inner Austria, but with a Hungarian-based orthography. János Murkovics's textbook (1871) was the first book to use Gaj's Latin Alphabet.
Prekmurje Slovene subdialects
- The Rába or Vendvidék subdialect (Slovene: Porabsko podnarečje, Prekmurje Slovene: Bákerski/Porábski/Rábski govor), near the Rába River, in the Szentgotthárd district
- The Goričko subdialect (Slovene: Goričko podnarečje, Prekmurje Slovene: Gorički govor) in upper Prekmurje, Grad, north of Cankova)
- The Ravensko subdialect (Slovene: Ravensko podnarečje, Prekmurje Slovene: Ravénski govor west of Cankova and south of Murska Sobota and Rakičan
- The Murska Sobota subdialect (Slovene: Soboško podnarečje, Prekmurje Slovene: Soboški govor) near Murska Sobota
- The Markovsko or Dolinsko subdialect (Slovene: dolinsko (markovsko) podnarečje, Prekmurje Slovene: Dolénski i Markiški govor) south of Rakičan, near the Mura and Ledava rivers.
The Goričko dialect includes the Slaveči subdialect spoken by Miklós and István Küzmics.
The Prekmurje dialect developed from the language of the Carantanian Slavs who settled around Balaton in the 9th century. Due to the political and geographical separation from other Slovene dialects (unlike most of contemporary Slovenia, which was part of the Holy Roman Empire, Prekmurje was under the authority of the Kingdom of Hungary for almost a thousand years), the Prekmurje dialect acquired many specific features. Separated from the cultural development of the remainder of ethnic Slovene territory, the Slovenes in Hungary gradually forged their own specific culture and also their own literary language.
The first book in the Prekmurje dialect appeared in 1715, and was written by the Lutheran pastor Ferenc Temlin. In the 18th and early 19th century, a regional literature written in Prekmurje Slovene flourished. It comprised mostly (although not exclusively) of religious texts, written by both Protestant and Catholic clergymen. The most important authors were the Lutheran pastor István Küzmics and the Roman Catholic priest Miklós Küzmics who settled the standard for the Prekmurje regional standard language in the 18th century. Both of them were born in central Prekmurje, and accordingly the regional literary language was also based on the central sub-dialects of Prekmurje Slovene.
Miklós Küzmics in the 1790s rejected Standard Slovene. The poet, writer, translator, and journalist Imre Augustich made approaches toward standard Slovene, but retained the Hungarian alphabet. The poet Ferenc Sbüll also made motions toward accepting standard Slovene.
By the 16th century, a theory linking the Hungarian Slovenes to the ancient Vandals had become popular.[which?] Accordingly, Prekmurje Slovene was frequently designated in Hungarian Latin documents as the Vandalian language (Latin: lingua vandalica, Hungarian: Vandál nyelv, Prekmurje Slovene: vandalszki jezik or vandalszka vüszta).
With the advent of modernization in the mid-19th century, this kind of literature slowly declined. Nevertheless, the regional standard continued to be used in religious services. In the last decades of the 19th and 20th century, the denomination "Wends" and "Wendish language" was promoted, mostly by pro-Hungarians, in order to emphasize the difference between Hungarian Slovenes and other Slovenes, including attempts to create a separate ethnic identity.
In 1919, most of Prekmurje was assigned to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and Slovene replaced Hungarian as the language of education and administration. Standard Slovene gradually started to replace Prekmurje Slovene in the local Roman Catholic church, while the Lutheran community continued to use the dialect in their religious services. The local press tried to combine the old Prekmurje regional standard with standard Slovene, making it completely intelligible to Slovenes from other regions. In the late 1920s and 1930s, many Slovenes from the Julian March who fled from Fascist Italy settled in Prekmurje, especially in the town of Murska Sobota, which helped spread the use of standard Slovene among the population. The Yugoslav authorities encouraged the settlements of Slovene political immigrants from the Kingdom of Italy in Prekmurje as an attempt to reduce the influence of the Magyar element in the region; besides, the western Slovene dialects were very difficult to understand for the people of Prekmurje, thus the use of standard Slovene became almost indispensable for the mutual understanding.
After World War II, the Lutheran Church also switched to standard Slovene in most of its parishes, and Prekmurje Slovene has since been relegated to an almost exclusively private use. Nevertheless, the Prekmurje dialect is, along with Resian, one of the few Slovene dialects which is still used by the majority of speakers in their respective territories in its original version, with very few influence from standard Slovene. This creates a situation of diglossia, where the dialect is used as the predominant means of communication in the private life, while the standard language is used in schools, the administration and in the media. The situation is different among Hungarian Slovenes, where standard Slovene is still very rarely used.
Standard works of Prekmurje Slovene
- Ferenc Temlin: Mali katechismus (Small Catechism) the first printed book in Prekmurje Slovene, 1715
- Abeczedarium Szlowenszko (Slovene / Prekmurje Slovene ABC book) the first Prekmurje Slovene coursebook, author is unknown, 1725
- Mihály Szever Vanecsai: Réd zvelicsánsztva (Expectant salvation) in 1742
- István Küzmics: Vöre krsztsánszke krátki návuk (Small tenet of the Christian religion) 1754
- István Küzmics: Nouvi Zákon (New Testament) translation of the Bible, 1771
- Miklós Küzmics: Krátka summa velikoga katekizmusa (Small tenets of the great Catechism), the first Catholic catechism, 1780
- Miklós Küzmics: Szlovenszki silabikár (Slovene / Prekmurje Slovene Agenda) 1780
- Miklós Küzmics: Szvéti evangyeliomi (Holy Gospels) 1780
- Miklós Küzmics: Kniga molitvena (Prayerbook) 1783
- Mihály Bakos: Szlovenszki Abecedár (Slovene ABC book) in 1786
- Mihály Bakos: Nouvi Graduvál (New Agenda) in 1789
- Miklós Küzmics: ABC kni'zicza (ABC book) in 1790
- Miklós Küzmics: Sztároga i nouvoga Testamentoma szvéte histórie krátka summa (Small tenets of the holy history of Old and New Testaments) in 1796
- Mihály Bakos: Győrſzki Kátekizmus (Catechism of Raab) in 1796
- István Szijjártó: Mrtvecsne peszmi (Dead Hymns) in 1796
- István Szijjártó: Molitvi na ſztári ſzlovenſzki jezik (Prayers in the old Slovene language) 1797
- István Szijjártó(?): Sztarisinsztvo i zvacsinsztvo, 1807
- Mihály Barla: Diktomszke, verszuske i molitvene kni'zice (Small book of hymns, verses and prayers)
- Mihály Barla: Krscsanszke nôve peszmene knige (New Christian hymnbook), 1823
- József Kossics: Krátki návuk vogrszkoga jezika za zacsetníke (Small tenets of the Hungarian language), 1833
- György Czipott: Dühovni Áldovi (Ghostly Blessing), 1829
- István Lülik: Novi abeczedár (New ABC book), 1833
- János Kardos: D. Luther Martina máli kátekismus (Small catechism of Martin Luther), 1837
- János Kardos: Krátki návuk krsztsansztva (Small tenets of the Christianity), 1837
- János Kardos: Mála historia bibliszka (Small history of Bible), 1840
- József Kossics: Zobriszani Szloven i Szlovenka med Műrov i Rábov (Educated Slovene Man and Women between the Mura and Raba), 1845
- Sándor Terplán: Dvakrat 52 Bibliszke Historie (Twice 52 History from Bible), 1847
- János Kardos: Krsztsanszke czerkvene peszmi (Christian church hymns), 1848
- János Kardos: Krsztsanszke mrtvecsne peszmi (Christian dead hymns), 1848
- Sándor Terplán: Knige 'zoltárszke (Book of Psalms), 1848
- József Kossics: Zgodbe vogerszkoga králesztva (History of the Hungarian Kingdom), 1848
- József Kossics: Sztarine 'Seleznih ino Szalaszkih Szlovencov (Antiques of the Slovenes in Vas and Zala), 1845
- József Kossics: Jezus moje po'selejnye (Jesus my wish), 1851
- János Kardos: Pobo'zne molítvi (Church prayers), 1853
- János Kardos: ABC ali Návuk na píszajôcs-cstenyé (ABC book, or the Tenet of the writing and reading), 1867
- Szlovenszki ABCDAR (Slovene ABC book), 1868
- József Borovnyák: Dühovna hrána (Nutriment), 1868
- János Murkovics: Abecednik za katholičanske vesničke šolé (ABC-book for elementary schools), 1871
- István Szelmár: Zgodbe Sztároga i Nóvoga Zákona (Histories of the Old and New Testaments), 1873
- Imre Augustich: Prijátel (Friend), 1875-1879
- József Borovnyák: Szvéti Angel Csuvár (Holy Guardian Angel), 1875
- Imre Augustich: Návuk vogrszkoga jezika (Tenets of the Hungarian language), 1876
- Imre Augustich: Prirodopis s kepami (Natural history with images), 1878
- József Bagáry: Perve knige – čtenyá za katholičánske vesničke šolê (First book of the reading for the Catholic Elementary Schools), 1886
- József Pusztai–József Borovnjak–József Bagáry: Krscsánszko katholicsánszke cerkvene peszmi (Christian Catholic Hymnal), 1893
- Péter Kollár: Mála biblija z-kejpami (Small Bible with pictures), 1897
- József Szakovics: Katolicsanszki katekizmus z glávnimi zgodbami biblije (Small catechism with the main histories of Bible), 1907
- Iván Bassa: Katolicsanszki katekizmus za solare (Catholic catechism for Schoolchildren), 1909
- József Klekl sg.: Hodi k oltarskomi svestvi (Come on to Eucharist), 1910
- József Klekl sg.: Novine (Tidings), 1913-1941
- Števan Kühar (sl): Mörszka krajina (sl) 1890-1963
A second wave of standardisation began in 1823. Mihály Barla issued a new hymnbook (Krscsanszke nove peszmene knige). József Kossics, a great writer and poet from Ptrekmurje, made contact with the Slovenian linguist Oroslav Caf (sl) and thus get acquainted with the Styrian Slovenian dialect. Kossics first worked in Alsószölnök. The teacher of the village was József Vogrin (Jožef Vogrin) born into the Slovene Styria, and accordingly spoke the Styrian dialect. Kossics's father was of Croatian descent, and accordingly was also raised in the Kajkavian Croatian language. The Krátki návuk vogrszkoga jezika za zacsetníke, a Slovenian-Hungarian grammar book and dictionary let out the standard Prekmurje Slovene. The Zobriszani Szloven i Szlovenszka med Mürov in Rábov ethic-book, formed the ethics- and linguistic-norms. Zgodbe vogerszkoga králesztva and Sztarine Zseleznih ino Szalaszkih Szlovencov are the first Prekmurje Slovene Slovenian history books. Kossics was the first writer to write nonreligious poetry.
In 1820, a teacher named István Lülik wrote a new coursebook (Novi abeczedár), into which was made three issue (1853, 1856, 1863).
Sándor Terplán and János Kardos wrote a psalm book (Knige 'zoltárszke), and a hymnbook (Krsztsanszke czerkvene peszmi), the latter a reprint of Barla's hymn-book.
János Kardos translated numerous verses from Sándor Petőfi, János Arany and few Hungarian poet. In 1870, he worked on a new coursebook, the Nôve knige cstenyá za vesznícski sôl drügi zlôcs. In 1875, Imre Augustich established the first Prekmurje Slovene newspaper Prijátel (The Friend). Later, he wrote a new Hungarian–Prekmurje Slovene grammar (Návuk vogrszkoga jezika, 1876) and translated works from Hungarian poets and writers.
In 1886, József Bagáry wrote second course-book, which apply the Gaj alphabet (Perve knige – čtenyá za katholičánske vesničke šolê).
In 1914-1918, the ethnic governor and later parliamentarian congressman in Beograd József Klekl standardized Prekmurje Slovene, making use of the Croatian and Slovene languages. In 1923, the new prayerbook's Hodi k oltarskomi svesti (Come on to the Eucharist) orthography was written in the Gaj. Items in the newspapers the catholic Novine, Marijin list, Marijin ograček, calendar Kalendar Srca Jezušovoga, the Lutheran Düševni list and Evangeličanski kalendar were written in the Prekmurje Slovene.
József Szakovics took an active part in cultivating the Prekmurje dialect, although not all schools offered education in Prekmurje Slovene. The prominent Prekmurje writer Miško Kranjec also wrote in Slovene.
János Fliszár wrote a Hungarian-Wendish dictionary in 1922. In 1941, the Hungarian Army seized back the Prekmurje area and by 1945 aimed to make an end of the Prekmurje dialect and Slovene by the help of Mikola.[clarification needed]
After 1945, Communist Yugoslavia banned the printing of religious books in the Prekmurje dialects, and only standard Slovene was used in administration and education. In Hungary, the dictator Mátyás Rákosi banned every minority language and deported the Slovenes in the Hungarian Plain.
The question of the Wend or Prekmurje language
|This article or section lacks a single coherent topic. (November 2010)|
The issue of how Prekmurje Slovene came to be a separate tongue has many theories. First, in the 16th century, there was a theory that the Slovenes east of the Mura were descendants of the Vandals, an East Germanic tribe of pre-Roman Empire era antiquity. The Vandal name was used not only as the "scientific" or ethnological term for the Slovenes, but also to acknowledge that the Vandalic people were named the Szlovenci, szlovenszki, szlovenye (Slovenians).
In 1627, was issue the Protestant visitation in the country Tótság, or Slovene Circumscription (this is the historical name of the Prekmurje and Vendvidék, Prekmurje Slovene: Slovenska okroglina).[clarification needed] Herein act a Slavic Bible in Gornji Petrovci, which as a matter of fact the Bible of Primož Trubar. From Carniola and Styria in the 16th and 17th centuries, a few Slovene Protestant pastors fled to Hungary and brought with them Trubar's Bible, which helped set the standard for Slovene. Not known by accident there was work on Prekmurje Slovene.[clarification needed]
According to the Hungarian dissenters, the Wendish (Prekmurje Slovene) language was of Danish, Sorbian, Germanic, Celtic, Eastern Romance or West Slavic extraction. But this was often false, political or exaggerated affirmations.
According to extremist Hungarian groups, the Wends were captured by Turkish and Croatian troops who were later integrated into Hungarian society. Another popular theory created by some Hungarian nationalists was that the speakers of the Wendish language were "in truth" Magyar peoples, and some had merged into the Slavic population of Slovenia over the last 800 years.
In 1920, Hungarian physicist Sándor Mikola (sl) wrote a number of books about Slovene inhabitants of Hungary and the Wendish language: the Wendish-Celtic theory. Accordingly, the Wends (Slovenians in Hungary) were of Celtic extraction, not Slavic. Later Mikola also adopted the belief that the Wends indeed were Slavic-speaking Hungarians. In Hungary, the state's ethnonationalistic program tried to prove his theories. Mikola also thought the Wends, Slovenes, and Croatians alike were all descendants of the Pannonian Romans, therefore they have Latin blood and culture in them as well.
During the Hungarian revolution when Hungarians rebelled against Habsburg rule, the Catholic Slovenes sided with the Catholic Habsburgs. The Lutheran Slovenians, however, supported the rebel Lajos Kossuth siding with Hungary and they pleaded for the separation of Hungary from Habsburg Austria which had its anti-Protestant policy. At that time, the reasoning that the inhabitants of the Rába Region were not Slovenes but Wends and "Wendish-Slovenes" respectively and that, as a consequence, their ancestral Slavic-Wendish language was not to be equated with the other Slovenes living in the Austro-Hungarian Empire was established. In the opinion of the Lutheran-Slovene priest of Hodoš, the only possibility for the Lutheran Slovenes emerging from the Catholic-Slovenian population group to continue was to support Kossuth and his Hungarian culture.[clarification needed] Thereafter, the Lutheran Slovenes used their language in churches and schools in the most traditional way in order to distinguish themselves from the Catholic Slovenes and the Slovene language (i.e., pro-Hungarian or pan-Slavic Slovene literature). The Lutheran priests and believers remained of the conviction that they could only adhere to their Lutheran faith when following the wish of the Hungarians (or the Austrians) and considering themselves "Wendish-Slovenes". If they did not conform to this, then they were in danger of being assimilated into Hungarian culture.
In the years preceding World War I, the Hungarian Slovenes were swept into the ideology of Panslavism, the national unity of all Slavic-speaking peoples of Eastern Europe. The issue was volatile in the fragmented Austro-Hungarian empire, which was defeated in the war. In the 1921 Treaty of Trianon, the southern half (not the whole) of the Prekmurje region was ceded to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
The Hungarian government in Budapest after 1867 tried to assimilate the Prekmurje Slovenes. In Somogy in the 19th century, there was still a ban on using Prekmurje Slovene. József Borovnyák, Ferenc Ivanóczy, and other Slovenian politicians and writers helped safeguard the Prekmurje dialect and identity.
In the late 20th century and today, the new notion for Hungarian Slovenians is to conceive Prekmurje Slovene is in fact the Slovene language, but not dialect.[clarification needed] Their allusions: the Küzmics Gospels, the Old Grammar- and state-run public schools, the typical Prekmurje Slovene and Rába Slovene culture, the few centuries old-long isolation in Prekmurje Slovene and continued self-preservation from the Hungarian majority. Hungarian Slovenes are more interested in being Slovenes. In Communist Yugoslavia, Prekmurje Slovene was looked down upon because numerous writers, such as József Klekl, were anti-communists.
However, pseudoscientic and extremist theories continue to be propagated. Ethnological research has again looked into the "Celtic-Wends, Wendish-Magyars", "Pannonian Roman" and West Slavic theories. Tibor Zsiga, a prominent Hungarian historian in 2001 declared "The Slovene people cannot be declared Wends, neither in Slovenia, neither in Prekmurje." One may mind the Slovene/Slovenski name issue was under Pan-Slavism in the 19th-20th century, the other believes the issue was purely political in nature.
A comparison between the Lord's Prayer in standard Slovene, Standard Prekmurje Slovene, standard Croatian, Kajkavian Croatian (standard language and dialect of Međimurje) and Burgenland Croatian. The Prekmurje Slovene version is taken from an authorized prayer book published in 1942 (Zálozso János Zvér, Molitvena Kniga, Odobrena od cérkvene oblászti, Murska Sobota, 1942, third edition). The Hungarian alphabet, used in the original, has been transliterated into Gaj's Latin alphabet, used in the other three versions, in order to render the comparison easier.
|Standard Slovene||Standard Prekmurje Slovene|
Oče naš, ki si v nebesih,
Oča naš, ki si vu nebésaj!
|Standard Croatian||Standard Prekmurje Slovene|
Oče naš, koji jesi na nebesima,
Oča naš, ki si vu nebésaj!
|Standard Kajkavian||Standard Prekmurje Slovene|
Otec naš, koji jesi v nebesih,
Oča naš, ki si vu nebésaj!
|Kajkavian dialect of Međimurje||Standard Prekmurje Slovene|
Japa naš kteri si f 'nebesih,
|Standard Burgenland Croatian||Standard Prekmurje Slovene|
Oče naš, ki si na nebesi,
Examples of differing words
|Prekmurje Slovene||Standard Slovene||English|
|skrbmeti||paziti||to look after|
|venej, vönej, vüni||zunaj||outside|
|cintor, britof, brütif||pokopališče||cemetery|
Examples of concordant words
|Prekmurje Slovene||Standard Slovene||English|
|skrivnost, skrovnost||skrivnost||secret, mystery|
|stüdenec||studenec, vodnjak||(water) well|
Examples of partially different words
|Prekmurje Slovene||Standard Slovene||English|
|mesou||meso||meat, (fruit) flesh|
|pridrdati||pridrveti||to come rushing|
|prigoditi se||zgoditi se||to happen|
|naprej stati||nastati||to arise|
|poküšati se||preizkušati se||experiment to|
Examples of Hungarian loanwords
|Prekmurje Slovene||Hungarian||Standard Slovene||English|
False friends in Prekmurje Slovene and Slovene
The months in Prekmurje Slovene
|Standard Slovene||Prekmurje Slovene||Standard Croatian||English|
süšec (old sűca)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Prekmurje Slovene.|
- Languages of Slovenia
- List of Slovene writers and poets in Hungary
- Slovene March (Kingdom of Hungary)
- Vandalic language
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- László Göncz: The Hungarians in Prekmurje 1918-1941 (A muravidéki magyarság 1918-1941)
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- Six stories from Prekmurje (1)