Pre-marital sex is sexual activity practiced by persons who are unmarried. Historically considered taboo in many cultures and considered a sin in numerous religions, it has become more commonly accepted by large portions of populaces in developed countries within the last few decades. A 2014 Pew study on global morality found that premarital sex was considered particularly unacceptable in "predominantly Muslim nations" such as Indonesia, Jordan, Pakistan and Egypt, each having over 90% disapproval, whilst many people within Western European nations were the most accepting, with Spain, Germany and France having less than 10% disapproval.
Until the 1950s, the term "pre-marital sex" referred to sexual relations between two people prior to marrying each other. During that period, Western societies expected that men and women marry by the age of 21 or 22; as such, there were no considerations that one who had sex would not marry. The term was used instead of fornication, due to the negative connotations of the latter.
The meaning has since shifted, referring to all sexual relations a person has prior to marriage; this removes emphasis on who the relations are with. The definition has a degree of ambiguity. It is not clear whether sex between individuals legally forbidden from marrying, or the sexual relations of one uninterested in marrying could be considered premarital.
Alternative terms for pre-marital sex have been suggested, including non-marital sex (which overlaps with adultery), youthful sex, adolescent sex, and young-adult sex. These terms also suffer from a degree of ambiguity, as the definition of having sex differs from person to person.
In some cultures, for example in many modern-day Western cultures, many people do not hold value in sexual abstinence before marriage. However, in some cultures, and to some people in the aforementioned cultures, sexual abstinence is discouraged or frowned upon.
Historically, at least a significant portion of people have engaged in premarital sex, although the number willing to admit to having done so was not always high. In a study conducted in the United States, 61 percent of men and 12 percent of women born prior to 1910 admitted to having premarital sex; the gender disparity may have been caused by cultural double standards regarding the admission of sexual activity or by men frequenting prostitutes.
Starting in the 1920s, and especially after World War II, premarital sex became more common; this was especially prevalent among women. By the end of the 20th century, between 75 and 80 percent of Americans had vaginal intercourse before the age of 19. This has been attributed to numerous causes, including the increasing median age at marriage and the widespread availability of efficient contraceptives.
According to a 2001 UNICEF survey, in 10 out of 12 developed nations with available data, more than two thirds of young people have had sexual intercourse while still in their teens. In Denmark, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States, the proportion is over 80%. In Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States, approximately 25% of 15 year olds and 50% of 17 year olds have had sex. In a 2005 Kaiser Family Foundation study of US teenagers, 29% of teens reported feeling pressure to have sex, 33% of sexually active teens reported "being in a relationship where they felt things were moving too fast sexually", and 24% had "done something sexual they didn’t really want to do". Several polls have indicated peer pressure as a factor in encouraging both girls and boys to have sex.
Safe sex practices
People who have premarital sex are recommended by health professionals to take precautions to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as HIV/AIDS. There is also a risk of an unplanned pregnancy in heterosexual relationships. Around the world, sex education programs are run to teach school students about reproductive health, safer sex practices, sexual abstinence and birth control.
Sexual activity among unmarried people who do not have access to information about reproductive health and birth control can increase the rate of teenage pregnancies and contraction of sexually transmitted infections. The rates of teenage pregnancy vary and range from 143 per 1000 girls in some sub-Saharan African countries to 2.9 per 1000 in South Korea. The rate for the United States is 52.1 per 1000, the highest in the developed world – and about four times the European Union average. The teenage pregnancy rates between countries must take into account the level of general sex education available and access to contraceptive options.
The cultural acceptability of premarital sex varies between individuals, cultures and time periods. Western cultures have traditionally been disapproving of it, on occasions forbidding it. In other cultures, such as the Muria people of Madhya Pradesh, sexuality prior to marriage is accepted and at times expected.
Individual views within a given society can vary greatly, with expectations ranging from total abstinence to frequent casual sex. These views are dependent on the holders' value system, as formed by his or her parents, religion, friends, experiences, and in many cases the media.
Sex before the public marriage ceremony was normal in the Anglican Church until the Hardwicke Marriage Act of 1753, which for the first time required all marriages in England and Wales occur in their parish church. (The law also applied to Catholics, but Jews and Quakers were exempt.) Before its enactment couples lived and slept together after their betrothal or "the spousals", considered a legal marriage. Until the mid-1700s it was normal and acceptable for the bride to be pregnant at the nuptials, the later public ceremony for the marriage. The Marriage Act combined the spousals and nuptials, and by the start of the 19th century social convention prescribed that brides be virgins at marriage. Illegitimacy became more socially discouraged, with first pregnancies outside of marriage declining from 40% to 20% during the Victorian era, but returning to 40% by the start of the 21st century. In Britain in 2014, only 13% of the population found premarital sex unacceptable
During the colonial period, premarital sex was publicly frowned upon but privately condoned to an extent. Unmarried teenagers were often allowed to spend the night in bed together, though some measures such as bundling were sometimes attempted to prevent sexual intercourse. Even though premarital sex was somewhat condoned, having a child outside of wedlock was not. If a pregnancy resulted from premarital sex, the young couple were expected to marry. Marriage and birth records from the late 1700s reveal that between 30 to 40 percent of New England brides were pregnant before marriage.
The growing popularity of the automobile, and corresponding changes in dating practices, caused premarital sex to become more prevalent. Alfred Kinsey found that American women who became sexually mature during the 1920s were much less likely to be virgins at marriage than those who became mature before World War I. A majority of women during the 1920s under the age of 30 were nonetheless virgins at marriage, however, and half of those who were not only had sex with their fiancés. A 1938 survey of American college students found that 52% of men and 24% of women had had sex. 37% of women were virgins but believed sex outside marriage was acceptable. Prior to the middle of the 20th century, sexuality was generally constrained. Sexual interactions between people without plans to marry was considered unacceptable, with betrothal slightly lessening the stigma. However, premarital sex was still frowned upon.
Beginning in the 1950s, as premarital sex became more common, the stigma attached to it lessened for many people. Love began to become enough for a reason to practice sex, instead of marriage or engagement in the eyes of many. By 2000, roughly a third of couples in the United States had lived together prior to marriage. It should be noted, however, that premarital sex was still considered unacceptable by 30% of the population in a 2014 study, while 29% found it acceptable and 36% considered it not a moral issue.  As such, it should not be assumed that any given individual is either for or against premarital sexual relations.
- Trial marriage
- Free love
- Religion and sexuality
- Shotgun wedding
- Single parent
- "Global Views on Morality - Premarital Sex". PewResearch Global Attitudes Project. 15 Apr 2014.
- Sex and Society 663-666.
- Regnerus, Uecker & 2011 Introduction.
- UNICEF. (2001). PDF (888 KB). Retrieved July 7, 2006.
- PDF (147 KB) Kaiser Family Foundation, January 2005. Retrieved 23 Jan 2007
- The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. (1997). What the Polling Data Tell Us: A Summary of Past Surveys on Teen Pregnancy. Retrieved July 13, 2006.
- Allen, Colin. (May 22, 2003). "Peer Pressure and Teen Sex." Psychology Today.'.' Retrieved July 14, 2006.
- Center for Disease Control.
- Speidel, Harper, and Shields; 2008.
- Treffers PE (November 2003). "[Teenage pregnancy, a worldwide problem]". Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd (in Dutch; Flemish) 147 (47): 2320–5. PMID 14669537.
- "The no-sex 'myth'". BBC News. 2002-10-03. Retrieved May 24, 2012.
- Ling, Peter (November 1989). "Sex and the Automobile in the Jazz Age". History Today 39 (11).
- ""Youth and Sex": 1,300 boys and girls answer questions". Life. 1938-06-06. p. 66. Retrieved December 9, 2011.
- "Condoms". Planned Parenthood. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Dr. John Dean and Dr. David Delvin. "Anal sex". Netdoctor.co.uk. Retrieved April 29, 2010.
- J. Joseph Speidel, Cynthia C. Harper, and Wayne C. Shields (September 2008). "The Potential of Long-acting Reversible Contraception to Decrease Unintended Pregnancy". Contraception. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.06.001.
- "Premarital Sex". Sex and Society 3. New York: Marshall Cavendish. 2010. pp. 663–666. ISBN 978-0-7614-7908-6.
- Regnerus, Mark; Uecker, Jeremy (2011). Premarital Sex in America : How Young Americans Meet, Mate, and Think about Marrying. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-974328-5.
- "Sexual Intercourse". health.discovery.com. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- "Sexually Transmitted Diseases". Center for Disease Control. Retrieved 19 August 2011.