Premaxilla

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Premaxilla
Spinosaurus skull en.svg
Skull of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, premaxilla in orange
Gray199.png
Human premaxilla and its sutures
Details
median nasal prominence
Dorlands
/Elsevier
p_32/12664417
Anatomical terminology

The premaxilla (or praemaxilla) is a pair of small cranial bones at the very tip of the upper jaw of many animals, usually, but not always, bearing teeth. In humans, they are fused with the maxilla and the term "premaxilla" can also be used as a synonym for incisive bone.

Human anatomy[edit]

In humans, the premaxilla (or os incisivum) is the part of the maxilla which bears the incisor teeth, and encompasses the anterior nasal spine and alar region. In the nasal cavity, the premaxillary element projects higher than the maxillary element behind. The palatal portion of the premaxilla is a bony plate with a generally transverse orientation. The incisive foramen is bound anteriorly and laterally by the premaxilla and posteriorly by the palatine process of the maxilla. [1]

Embryology[edit]

In the embryo, the nasal region develops from neural crest cells which start their migration down to the face during the fourth week of gestation. A pair of symmetrical nasal placodes (thickenings in the epithelium) are each divided into medial and lateral processes by the nasal pits. The medial processes become the septum, philtrum, and premaxilla.[2]

The first ossification centers in the area of the future premaxilla appear during the seventh week above the germ of the second incisor on the outer surface of the nasal capsule. After eleven weeks an accessory ossification center develops into the alar region of the premaxilla. Then a premaxillary process grow upwards to fuse with the frontal process of the maxilla; and later expands posteriorly to fuse with the alveolar process of the maxilla. The boundary between the premaxilla and the maxilla remains discernible after birth and a suture is often observable up to five years of age. [1]

In bilateral cleft lip and palate, the growth pattern of the premaxilla differs significantly from the normal case; in utero growth is excessive and directed more horizontally, resulting in a protrusive premaxilla at birth.[3]

Evolutionary variation[edit]

Forming the oral edge of the upper jaw in most jawed vertebrates, the premaxillary bones comprise only the central part in more primitive forms. They are fused in blowfishes and absent in cartilaginous fishes such as sturgeons.[4]

Reptiles and most non-mammalian therapsids have a large, paired, intramembranous bone behind the premaxilla called the septomaxilla. Because this bone is vestigial in Acristatherium (a Cretaceous eutherian) this species is believed to be the oldest known therian mammal. Intriguingly the septomaxilla is still present in monotremes.[5][6]

The differences in the size and composition in the premaxilla of various families of bats is used for classification.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lang, Johannes (1995). Clinical anatomy of the masticatory apparatus peripharyngeal spaces. Thieme. ISBN 978-3-13-799101-4. 
  2. ^ "Nasal Anatomy". Medscape. June 2011. Retrieved December 2011. 
  3. ^ Vergervik, Karin (1983). "Growth Characteristics of the Premaxilla and Orthodontic Treatment Principles in Bilateral Cleft Lip and Palate". Cleft Palate Journal 20 (4). Retrieved December 2011. 
  4. ^ "Premaxilla". ZipCodeZoo. Retrieved December 2011. 
  5. ^ Hu, Yaoming; Meng, Jin; Li, Chuankui; Wang, Yuanqing (January 22, 2010). "New basal eutherian mammal from the Early Cretaceous Jehol biota, Liaoning, China". Proc Biol Sci. 277 (1679): 229–236. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0203. PMC 2842663. PMID 19419990. 
  6. ^ Wible, John R.; Miao, Desui; Hopson, James A. (March 1990). "The septomaxilla of fossil and recent synapsids and the problem of the septomaxilla of monotremes and armadillos". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 98 (3): 203–228. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1990.tb01207.x. 
  7. ^ Myers, P.; Espinosa, R.; Parr, C. S.; Jones, T.; Hammond, G. S.; Dewey, T. A. (2006). "Premaxillae of bats". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved December 2011.