Premiers of the Australian states

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Premier (Australia))
Jump to: navigation, search
Coat of Arms of Australia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Australia

The Premiers of the Australian states are the de facto heads of the executive governments in the six states of the Commonwealth of Australia. They perform the same function at the state level as the Prime Minister of Australia performs at the national level. The territory equivalents to the Premiers are the Chief Ministers of the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory. The Queen of Australia and the State Governors are the formal repositories of executive power, however, in practice they act only on the advice of State Premiers and Ministers.

Background[edit]

Each of the Australian states is governed under the Westminster system of parliamentary government. Each state has an elected legislature. Following a General Election, the State Governor appoints as Premier the Member of the lower house of the State legislature who can command a simple majority of votes on the floor of the house. The Governor is the head of Government, but in practice acts only on the advice of the Premier. The Premier must resign his or her commission to the Governor if he or she loses the confidence of the Legislative Assembly, either because his or her party is defeated at a General Election or because he or she loses a vote of confidence in the house. (Premiers may also resign for other reasons, such as losing the confidence of their own party).

The Australian states were originally founded as British colonies, and executive power was held by a Governor (or sometimes a Lieutenant-Governor) appointed by the British Government (see Governors of the Australian states). From the 1820s the power of the Governors was gradually transferred to legislative bodies, at first appointed, later partly elected, and finally fully elected. Victoria gained full responsible parliamentary government in 1855, New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania in 1856, Queensland in 1859 and Western Australia (owing to its much smaller population) in 1890.

Until the rise of the Australian Labor Party in the 1890s, the Australian colonies did not have formal party systems, although many colonial politicians called themselves Liberals or Conservatives. Ministries were usually formed on the basis of personal or factional loyalties, and rose and fell with great frequency as loyalties changed. Colonial politics were commonly regarded as parochial, corrupt and cynical, and in many cases they were. Victorian Premier James Munro, for example, fled the colony to escape his creditors in 1890, and Queensland Premier Sir Thomas McIlwraith was notoriously corrupt.

The rise of Labor forced the colonies to move towards a two-party system of Labor versus non-Labor, although state politics remained more personalised and less ideological than national politics for many years. The first minority Labor government was formed by Anderson Dawson in Queensland in 1899, and the first majority Labor government was led by James McGowen in New South Wales in 1910. Since about 1910 state politics have followed much the same party pattern as Australian national politics (see Politics of Australia).

Since 1952, every premier of every state has been a member of the Australian Labor Party, the Liberal Party of Australia, or the National Party of Australia (until 1973, the Liberal Party was known as the Liberal and Country League in South Australia; the Country Liberal Party is the Northern Territory branch of the Liberal and National Parties; and the Liberal National Party has been the Queensland branch of the same two parties since 2008).

Political parties in government from 1945 to 2007.
  Labor
  Liberal
  National/Country
  Other Coalition
  Other
  No government

Although the legislative powers of the states are defined in the Constitution, the real power of the Australian Premiers has been declining steadily ever since Federation in 1901, as the power and responsibility of the national government has expanded at the expense of the states. The most important transfer of power came in 1943, when in the interests of national unity during World War II the states gave up their power to levy their own income taxes to the Commonwealth. Since then the states' finances have essentially been controlled by the Commonwealth.

Relations between the premiers and other levels of government[edit]

For many decades, the Premiers met with each other and the Prime Minister at Premiers' Conferences. Since 1992, such meetings occur as the Council of Australian Governments (COAG), which also includes the Chief Ministers of the territories and a representative of local government.

On 21 July 2006, South Australian Premier Mike Rann was appointed Chairman of a new Council for the Australian Federation, a council which aims to improve state-federal ties.[1]

Female premiers[edit]

With the exception of South Australia, every state of Australia has had a female Premier, all of whom have represented the Australian Labor Party. They are:

All of them succeeded male Premiers of their own party who had resigned mid-term; in three cases (Lawrence, Kirner and Keneally), their predecessors' resignations occurred after losing the support of their parliamentary colleagues. The governments led by Lawrence, Kirner, Keneally and Giddings were defeated at subsequent elections.

Anna Bligh is the only woman who has received a popular mandate as Premier of an Australian state (21 March 2009). However, the Labor Party lost the next Queensland state election (24 March 2012) in the greatest landslide in Australian history; although Bligh retained her own seat, she left politics immediately.

Women have also been elected to the almost-equivalent posts of Chief Ministers of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory (NT). Rosemary Follett (Labor) was elected as the inaugural Chief Minister of the ACT in 1989, nine months before any woman became premier of a state. Kate Carnell (Liberal) and Clare Martin (Labor) also received popular mandates as Chief Ministers of the ACT and the NT respectively. Clare Martin was the only one of these three women to lead a majority government.

Party dominance[edit]

Between 6 March 2002 (when Mike Rann (Labor) succeeded Rob Kerin (Liberal) as Premier of South Australia) and 23 September 2008, when Colin Barnett succeeded Alan Carpenter as Premier of Western Australia, there were Labor Premiers in all six of the Australian states; this was only the second time a party or coalition has ever achieved this. A comparable feat was achieved by the Coalition between 26 May 1969 (when the Liberals' Angus Bethune succeeded Labor's Eric Reece as Premier of Tasmania) and 2 June 1970 (when the Liberals' Steele Hall was succeeded by Labor's Don Dunstan as Premier of South Australia).

From the swearing in of the First Rudd Ministry on 3 December 2007, following the 2007 Australian federal election, to the end of the Carpenter Government in Western Australia on 23 September 2008, the Labor Party was in power in every state, both territories, and federally. This was a first for any party or coalition, although in 1969 a coalition government was in power both federally and in every state but not the territories as they had not yet attained self-government. Currently South Australia and the Australian Capital Territory are the two states and territories that are run by Labor governments.



Current state Premiers[edit]

Name Image State Term Party Title
Colin Barnett Colin Barnett (formal) crop.jpg Western Australia 23 September 2008 (2008-09-23)
5 years, 302 days
Liberal Party Premier of Western Australia
Jay Weatherill Jay Weatherill.jpg South Australia 21 October 2011 (2011-10-21)
2 years, 274 days
Labor Party Premier of South Australia
Campbell Newman Campbell Newman being interviewed (cropped).jpg Queensland 26 March 2012 (2012-03-26)
2 years, 119 days
Liberal National Party Premier of Queensland
Denis Napthine Premier Denis Napthine.jpg Victoria 6 March 2013 (2013-03-06)
1 year, 138 days
Liberal Party Premier of Victoria
Will Hodgman Will Hodgman.jpg Tasmania 31 March 2014 (2014-03-31)
113 days
Liberal Party Premier of Tasmania
Mike Baird Mike Baird.jpg New South Wales 17 April 2014 (2014-04-17)
0 years, 96 days
Liberal Party Premier of New South Wales

Current Chief Ministers of the self-governing territories[edit]

Name Image Territory Term Party Title
Katy Gallagher Katy Gallagher.jpg Australian Capital Territory 16 May 2011 (2011-05-16)
3 years, 67 days
Australian Labor Party Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory
Adam Giles Northern Territory 13 March 2013 (2013-03-13)
1 year, 131 days
Country Liberal Party Chief Minister of the Northern Territory

References[edit]

  1. ^ "About Us". Council for the Australian Federation. Retrieved 14 June 2013.