President's Intelligence Advisory Board
The President's Intelligence Advisory Board (PIAB) is an advisor to the Executive Office of the President of the United States. According to its self-description, it "...provides advice to the President concerning the quality and adequacy of intelligence collection, of analysis and estimates, of counterintelligence, and of other intelligence activities."
The PIAB, through its Intelligence Oversight Board (IOB), also advises the President on the legality of foreign intelligence activities.
The agency, originally known as the President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence Activities (PBCFIA), was created in 1956 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. President John F. Kennedy later renamed it to the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB) on May 4, 1961. Most recently, the agency was renamed yet again by president George W. Bush to its present form on February 29, 2008. The board exists at the pleasure of the President, who can change its size and portfolio. President Jimmy Carter abolished the PFIAB in 1977 but President Ronald Reagan re-established it later.
Intelligence Oversight Board
President Gerald Ford created the IOB following a 1975-76 investigation by the US Congress into domestic spying, assassination operations, and other abuses by intelligence agencies. His executive order doing so went into effect on March 1, 1976. In 1993, the IOB became a committee of the PFIAB, under Executive Order #12863 of President Bill Clinton.
One of the IOB's functions is to examine violations of the laws and directives governing clandestine surveillance. The IOB received quarterly and annual reports from most US intelligence activities. Thirteen cases involving FBI actions between 2002 to 2004 were referred to the IOB for its review.
In an executive order issued on February 29, 2008, President George W. Bush terminated the IOB's authority to oversee the general counsel and inspector general of each U.S. intelligence agency, and erased the requirement that each inspector general file a report with the IOB every three months. The order also removed the IOB's authority to refer a matter to the Justice Department for a criminal investigation, and directed the IOB to notify the president of a problem only if other officials are not already "adequately" addressing that problem.
In August 2013 it was reported that the membership of the IOB had been reduced from 14 to 4 under President Barack Obama, possibly starting in early May at the beginning of the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures by Edward Snowden. The membership had not been increased as of July 2014.
During the administration of George W. Bush, the PIAB had 16 members selected from among distinguished citizens outside the government who were qualified "on the basis of achievement, experience, independence, and integrity." The members were not paid.
PIAB membership is generally considered public information; for example, the Clinton Administration posted the names of the members on a PFIAB web page.
PFIAB Membership under George W. Bush
In August 2002, Randy Deitering, the executive director of PFIAB, confirmed the membership list released by the White House press office in October 2001:
- Brent Scowcroft, the chair
- Pete Wilson, a former governor of California
- Cresencio S. Arcos, Jr., an AT&T executive and former US ambassador
- Jim Barksdale, former head of the internet company Netscape
- Robert Addison Day, chairman of the TWC Group, a money management firm
- Stephen Friedman, past chairman of Goldman Sachs
- Alfred Lerner, chief executive of MBNA
- Ray Lee Hunt, scion of the Texas oil fortune
- Rita Hauser, a prominent lawyer
- David E. Jeremiah, a retired admiral
- Arnold Kanter, a national security official in the George H.W. Bush administration and a founding member of the Scowcroft Group
- James C. Langdon, Jr., a power-lawyer in Texas
- Elisabeth Pate-Cornell, Chair of Management Science and Engineering at Stanford University
- John Harrison Streicker, a real estate magnate
- Philip Zelikow, a National Security Council staffer during the George H.W. Bush administration and later a counselor to Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice
In 2003 there were indications of spying on members of the board by a foreign intelligence asset.
PIAB Membership under Barack Obama
The entire PIAB membership that served under the administration of George W. Bush resigned as part of an agreed-upon move in the presidential transition of Barack Obama.
The following other members were appointed to the board under President Obama:
- Roel Campos
- Richard Danzig appointed on December 1, 2010
- Lee H. Hamilton
- Rita Hauser
- Paul G. Kaminski
- Ellen Laipson, president and CEO of the Henry L. Stimson Center
- Les Lyles
- Daniel Meltzer appointed on December 1, 2010
- Jami Miscik appointed December 23, 2009
- Mona Sutphen appointed on September 6, 2011
- Philip Zelikow appointed on September 6, 2011
- Thomas E. Wheeler appointed on April 27, 2011
- Richard Danzig
- Daniel Meltzer
- Judith Miscik
- Mona Sutphen
PIAB chairpersons have been:
- 1956–1963: Dr. James Killian
- 1963–1968: Mr. Clark Clifford
- 1968–1970: Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor, USA (Ret.)
- 1970–1976: Adm. George Whelan Anderson Jr, USN (Ret.)
- 1976–1977: Mr. Leo Cherne
- 1982–1990: Amb. Anne Armstrong
- 1990–1991: Hon. John Tower
- 1991–1993: Adm. Bobby Inman, USN (Ret.) (Acting)
- 1993–1994: Adm. William J. Crowe, Jr., USN (Ret.)
- 1994–1995: Hon. Les Aspin
- 1995–1996: Hon. Warren B. Rudman (Acting)
- 1996–1997: Hon. Thomas S. Foley
- 1997–2001: Hon. Warren B. Rudman
- 2001–2004: Lt. Gen. Brent Scowcroft, USAF (Ret.)
- 2005: James C. Langdon, Jr.
- 2006–2009 Stephen Friedman
- 2009–January 2013: Chuck Hagel and David L. Boren 
- 2013–present: position vacant.
- PIAB Official Website.
- Executive Orders (1956)
- Executive Orders (1961)
- Executive Orders (2008)
- The Issue Wonk. National Policy Facts and Analysis. Issuewonk.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
- Bill Getrz, "Covert board called crucial to presidents", The Washington Times, June 16, 2008, Page A1
- Charlie Savage, "President weakens espionage oversight: Board created by Ford loses most of its power", Boston Globe, March 14, 2008
- Electronic Frontier Foundation
- Dan Eggen, "FBI Papers Indicate Intelligence Violations: Secret Surveillance Lacked Oversight", Washington Post, 23 October 2005
- Gerstein, Josh (15 August 2013). "Obama upends intel panel". Politico.
- David Corn, "Who's On PFIAB?--A New Bush Secret", The Nation (blog), August 14, 2002, retrieved December 31, 2012
- David Corn, "Who's On PFIAB-A Bush Secret...Or Not? UPDATED" The Nation (blog), August 14, 2002, retrieved March 15, 2008
- Texas oilman Ray Hunt is no longer serving as a presidential adviser on intelligence issues
- "Remarks by the President Before Meeting with the President's Intelligence Advisory Board Co-Chairmen and Senior Leadership of the Intelligence Community" (Press release). Office of the Press Secretary. 2009-10-28. Retrieved 2009-12-04.
- "President Obama Announces Members of the President's Intelligence Advisory Board" (Press release). Office of the Press Secretary. 2009-12-23.
- "President Obama Announces More Key Administration Posts" (Press release). Office of the Press Secretary. 2010-12-01. Retrieved 2012-12-31.
- White House Press Secretary, President Obama Announces Members of the President's Intelligence Advisory Board, December 23, 2009
- "President Obama Announces More Key Administration Posts" (Press release). Office of the Press Secretary. 2011-09-06. Retrieved 2012-12-31.
- "President Obama Announces More Key Administration Posts" (Press release). Office of the Press Secretary. 2011-04-27.
- PFIAB Chairpersons, The White House website, retrieved March 14, 2008