Nicolas Sarkozy

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Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy - Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire - 151014.jpg
Sarkozy in October 2014
President of the UMP
Incumbent
Assumed office
29 November 2014
Preceded by Jean-François Copé
President of France
In office
16 May 2007 – 15 May 2012
Prime Minister François Fillon
Preceded by Jacques Chirac
Succeeded by François Hollande
Co-Prince of Andorra
In office
16 May 2007 – 15 May 2012
Served with Joan Enric Vives Sicília
Prime Minister
Representative
Preceded by Jacques Chirac
Succeeded by François Hollande
Minister of the Interior
In office
2 June 2005 – 26 March 2007
Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin
Preceded by Dominique de Villepin
Succeeded by François Baroin
In office
7 May 2002 – 30 March 2004
Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin
Preceded by Daniel Vaillant
Succeeded by Dominique de Villepin
President of the Union for a Popular Movement
In office
28 November 2004 – 14 May 2007
Vice President Jean-Claude Gaudin
Preceded by Jean-Claude Gaudin (Acting)
Succeeded by Jean-Claude Gaudin (Acting)
President of the General Council of Hauts-de-Seine
In office
1 April 2004 – 14 May 2007
Preceded by Charles Pasqua
Succeeded by Patrick Devedjian
Minister of Finance
In office
31 March 2004 – 29 November 2004
Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin
Preceded by Francis Mer
Succeeded by Hervé Gaymard
Minister of the Budget
In office
30 March 1993 – 11 May 1995
Prime Minister Édouard Balladur
Preceded by Michel Charasse
Succeeded by François d'Aubert
Mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine
In office
14 April 1983 – 7 May 2002
Preceded by Achille Peretti
Succeeded by Louis-Charles Bary
Personal details
Born Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sárközy de Nagy-Bocsa
(1955-01-28) 28 January 1955 (age 59)
Paris, France
Political party RPR (Before 2002)
UMP (2002–present)
Spouse(s) Marie-Dominique Culioli (1982–1996)
Cécilia Ciganer-Albéniz (1996–2007)
Carla Bruni (2008–present)
Children Pierre (by Culioli)
Jean (by Culioli)
Louis (by Ciganer-Albéniz)
Giulia (by Bruni)
Alma mater Paris West University Nanterre La Défense
Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris (no graduate)
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature
Website Official website

Nicolas Sarkozy (French: [ni.kɔ.la saʁ.kɔ.zi] ( ); born Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa; 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as the 23rd President of France from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.

Before his presidency, he was the leader of the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP). Under Jacques Chirac's presidency he served as Minister of the Interior in Jean-Pierre Raffarin's (UMP) first two governments (from May 2002 to March 2004), then was appointed Minister of Finances in Raffarin's last government (March 2004 to May 2005) and again Minister of the Interior in Dominique de Villepin's government (2005–2007).

Sarkozy was also president of the General council of the Hauts-de-Seine department from 2004 to 2007 and mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine, one of the wealthiest communes of France, from 1983 to 2002. He was Minister of the Budget in the government of Édouard Balladur (RPR, predecessor of the UMP) during François Mitterrand's last term.

In foreign affairs, he promised a strengthening of the entente cordiale with the United Kingdom[1] and closer cooperation with the United States.[2] During his term, he faced the late-2000s financial crisis (followed by the recession and the debt crisis caused by it) and the Arab Spring (especially in Tunisia, Libya, and Syria). He married Italian-French singer-songwriter Carla Bruni on 2 February 2008 at the Élysée Palace in Paris.

On 6 May 2012, Sarkozy was defeated in the 2012 election by Socialist François Hollande by a margin of 3.2 percentage points, or 1,139,983 votes.[3] After leaving the office, Sarkozy retired from political life.[4] As a former president, Sarkozy is entitled to ex officio membership in the Constitutional Council.

On 2 July 2014, Sarkozy was criminally charged with corruption by French prosecutors.[5][6]

Personal life[edit]

Family background[edit]

Sarkozy is the son of Pál István Ernő Sárközy de Nagy-Bócsa[7] (Hungarian: nagybócsai Sárközy Pál [nɒɟ͡ʝboːt͡ʃɒi ʃaːrkøzi paːl] ( ); in some sources Nagy-Bócsay Sárközy Pál István Ernő),[8] a Hungarian aristocrat, and Andrée Jeanne "Dadu" Mallah (b. Paris, 12 October 1925), whose Greek Jewish father converted to Catholicism to marry Sarkozy's French Catholic maternal grandmother.[9][10] They were married in the Saint-François-de-Sales church, 17th arrondissement of Paris, on 8 February 1950 and divorced in 1959.[11]

Early life[edit]

During Sarkozy's childhood, his father founded his own advertising agency and became wealthy. The family lived in a mansion owned by Sarkozy's maternal grandfather, Benedict Mallah, in the 17th Arrondissement of Paris. The family later moved to Neuilly-sur-Seine, one of the wealthiest communes of the Île-de-France région immediately west of the 17th Arrondissement just outside of Paris. According to Sarkozy, his staunchly Gaullist grandfather was more of an influence on him than his father, whom he rarely saw. Sarkozy was, accordingly, raised Catholic.[9]

Sarkozy said that being abandoned by his father shaped much of who he is today. He also has said that, in his early years, he felt inferior in relation to his wealthier and taller classmates.[12] "What made me who I am now is the sum of all the humiliations suffered during childhood", he said later.[12]

Education[edit]

Sarkozy was enrolled in the Lycée Chaptal, a well regarded public middle and high school in Paris's 8th arrondissement, where he failed his sixième. His family then sent him to the Cours Saint-Louis de Monceau, a private Catholic school in the 17th arrondissement, where he was reportedly a mediocre student,[13] but where he nonetheless obtained his baccalauréat in 1973.

Sarkozy enrolled at the Université Paris X Nanterre, where he graduated with an M.A. in private law and, later, with a D.E.A. degree in business law. Paris X Nanterre had been the starting place for the May '68 student movement and was still a stronghold of leftist students. Described as a quiet student, Sarkozy soon joined the right-wing student organization, in which he was very active.[why?][citation needed] He completed his military service as a part-time Air Force cleaner.[14]

After graduating from university, Sarkozy entered the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris, better known as Sciences Po and where he studied[why?] between 1979 and 1981, but failed to graduate[15] due to an insufficient command of the English language.[16]

After passing the bar, Sarkozy became a lawyer specializing in business and family law[16] and was one of Silvio Berlusconi's top French lawyers.[17][18][19]

Marriages[edit]

Marie-Dominique Culioli[edit]

Sarkozy married his first wife, Marie-Dominique Culioli, on 23 September 1982; her father was a pharmacist from Vico (a village north of Ajaccio, Corsica), her uncle was Achille Peretti, the mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine from 1947–1983 and Sarkozy's political mentor. They had two sons, Pierre (born in 1985), now a hip-hop producer,[20] and Jean (born in 1986) now a local politician in the city of Neuilly-sur-Seine where Sarkozy started his own political career. Sarkozy's best man was the prominent right-wing politician Charles Pasqua, later to become a political opponent.[21] Sarkozy divorced Culioli in 1996, after they had been separated for several years.

Cécilia Ciganer-Albéniz[edit]

As mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine, Sarkozy met former fashion model and public relations executive Cécilia Ciganer-Albéniz (great-granddaughter of composer Isaac Albéniz and daughter of a Moldovan father), when he officiated at her wedding[22] to television host Jacques Martin. In 1988, she left her husband for Sarkozy, and divorced Martin one year later. Sarkozy married her in October 1996, with witnesses Martin Bouygues and Bernard Arnault.[23] They have one son, Louis, born 23 April 1997.

Between 2002 and 2005, the couple often appeared together on public occasions, with Cécilia Sarkozy acting as the chief aide for her husband.[24] On 25 May 2005, however, the Swiss newspaper Le Matin revealed that she had left Sarkozy for French-Moroccan national Richard Attias, head of Publicis in New York.[25] There were other accusations of a private nature in Le Matin, which led to Sarkozy suing the paper.[26] In the meantime, he was said to have had an affair with a journalist of Le Figaro, Anne Fulda.[27]

Sarkozy and Cécilia ultimately divorced on 15 October 2007, soon after his election as President.[28]

Carla Bruni[edit]

Sarkozy and his wife Carla Bruni greet President Barack Obama at the G8 Summit dinner in Deauville, France, 26 May 2011.

Less than a month after separating from Cécilia, Sarkozy met Italian-born singer, song-writer and former fashion model Carla Bruni at a dinner party, and soon entered a relationship with her.[29] They married on 2 February 2008 at the Élysée Palace in Paris.[30]

The couple has a daughter, Giulia, born on 19 October 2011.[31] It is the first time a French president has had a child while in office.[32]

Personal wealth[edit]

Sarkozy declared to the Constitutional Council a net worth of €2 million, most of the assets being in the form of life insurance policies.[33] As the French President, one of his first actions was to give himself a pay raise: his yearly salary went from €101,000 to €240,000 (to match his European/French peers).[34] He is also entitled to a mayoral pension as a former mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine.

Member of National Assembly[edit]

Sarkozy is recognised by both the right and left's French parties as a skilled politician and striking orator.[35] His supporters within France emphasize his charisma, political innovation and willingness to "make a dramatic break" amid mounting disaffection against "politics as usual". Overall, he is considered more pro-United States and pro-Israeli than most French politicians.

Since November 2004, Sarkozy has been president of the Union pour un Mouvement Populaire (UMP), France's major right-wing political party, and he was Minister of the Interior in the government of Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin, with the honorific title of Minister of State, making him effectively the number three official in the French State after President Jacques Chirac and Villepin. His ministerial responsibilities included law enforcement and working to co-ordinate relationships between the national and local governments, as well as Minister of Worship (in this role he created the CFCM, French Council of Muslim Faith). Previously, he was a deputy to the French National Assembly. He was forced to resign this position in order to accept his ministerial appointment. He previously also held several ministerial posts, including Finance Minister.

In government[edit]

Sarkozy's political career began when he was 23, when he became a city councillor in Neuilly-sur-Seine. A member of the Neo-Gaullist party RPR, he went on to be elected mayor of that town, after the death of the incumbent mayor Achille Peretti. Sarkozy had been close to Peretti, as his mother was Peretti's secretary. The senior RPR politician at the time, Charles Pasqua, wanted to become mayor, and asked Sarkozy to organize his campaign. Instead Sarkozy profited from Pasqua's short illness to propel himself into the office of mayor.[36] He was the youngest mayor of any town in France with a population of over 50,000. He served from 1983 to 2002. In 1988, he became a deputy in the National Assembly.

In 1993, Sarkozy was in the national news for personally negotiating with the "Human Bomb", a man who had taken small children hostage in a kindergarten in Neuilly.[37] The "Human Bomb" was killed after two days of talks by policemen of the RAID, who entered the school stealthily while the attacker was resting.

At the same time, from 1993 to 1995, he was Minister for the Budget and spokesman for the executive in the cabinet of Prime Minister Édouard Balladur. Throughout most of his early career, Sarkozy had been seen as a protégé of Jacques Chirac. During his tenure, he increased France's public debt more than any other French Budget Minister, by the equivalent of €200 billion (USD260 billion) (FY 1994–1996). The first two budgets he submitted to the parliament (budgets for FY1994 and FY1995) assumed a yearly budget deficit equivalent to six percent of GDP.[38] According to the Maastricht Treaty, the French yearly budget deficit may not exceed three percent of France's GDP.

In 1995, he spurned Chirac and backed Édouard Balladur for President of France. After Chirac won the election, Sarkozy lost his position as Minister for the Budget, and found himself outside the circles of power.

However, he returned after the right-wing defeat at the 1997 parliamentary election, as the number two candidate of the RPR. When the party leader Philippe Séguin resigned, in 1999, he took the leadership of the Neo-Gaullist party. But it obtained its worst result at the 1999 European Parliament election, winning 12.7% of the votes, less than the dissident Rally for France of Charles Pasqua. Sarkozy lost the RPR leadership.

Nicolas Sarkozy speaking at the congress of his party, 28 November 2004

In 2002, however, after his re-election as President of the French Republic (see French presidential election, 2002), Chirac appointed Sarkozy as French Minister of the Interior in the cabinet of Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin, despite Sarkozy's support of Edouard Balladur for French President in 1995.[39] Following Chirac's 14 July keynote speech on road safety, Sarkozy as interior minister pushed through new legislation leading to the mass purchase of speed cameras and a campaign to increase the awareness of dangers on the roads.

In the cabinet reshuffle of 30 April 2004, Sarkozy became Finance Minister. Tensions continued to build between Sarkozy and Chirac and within the UMP party, as Sarkozy's intentions of becoming head of the party after the resignation of Alain Juppé became clear.

In party elections of 10 November 2004, Sarkozy became leader of the UMP with 85% of the vote. In accordance with an agreement with Chirac, he resigned as Finance Minister. Sarkozy's ascent was marked by the division of UMP between sarkozystes, such as Sarkozy's "first lieutenant", Brice Hortefeux, and Chirac loyalists, such as Jean-Louis Debré.

Sarkozy was made Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur (Knight of the Legion of Honour) by President Chirac in February 2005. He was re-elected on 13 March 2005 to the National Assembly (as required by the constitution,[40] he had to resign as a deputy when he became minister in 2002).

On 31 May 2005 the main French news radio station France Info reported a rumour that Sarkozy was to be reappointed Minister of the Interior in the government of Dominique de Villepin without resigning from the UMP leadership. This was confirmed on 2 June 2005, when the members of the government were officially announced.

First term as Minister of the Interior[edit]

Towards the end of his first term as Minister of the Interior, in 2004, Sarkozy was the most divisive conservative politician in France, according to polls conducted at the beginning of 2004.

Sarkozy has sought to ease the sometimes tense relationships between the general French population and the Muslim community. Unlike the Catholic Church in France with their official leaders or Protestants with their umbrella organisations, the French Muslim community had a lack of structure with no group that could legitimately deal with the French government on their behalf. Sarkozy supported the foundation in May 2003 of the private non-profit Conseil français du culte musulman ("French Council of the Muslim Faith"), an organisation meant to be representative of French Muslims.[41] In addition, Sarkozy has suggested amending the 1905 law on the separation of Church and State, mostly in order to be able to finance mosques and other Muslim institutions with public funds[42] so that they are less reliant on money from outside of France. It was not followed by any concrete measure.

Minister of Finance[edit]

During his short appointment as Minister of Finance, Sarkozy was responsible for introducing a number of policies. The degree to which this reflected libéralisme (a hands-off approach to running the economy) or more traditional French state dirigisme (intervention) is controversial. He resigned the day following his election as president of the UMP.

  • In September 2004, Sarkozy oversaw the reduction of the government ownership stake in France Télécom from 50.4 percent to 41 percent.[43]
  • Sarkozy backed a partial nationalisation of the large engineering company Alstom decided by his predecessor when the company was exposed to bankruptcy in 2003.[44]
  • In June 2004, Sarkozy reached an agreement with the major retail chains in France to concertedly lower prices on household goods by an average of two percent; the success of this measure is disputed, with studies suggesting that the decrease was close to one percent in September.[45]
  • Taxes: Sarkozy avoided taking a position on the ISF (solidarity tax on wealth). This is considered an ideological symbol by many on the left and right. Some in the business world and on the liberal right, such as Alain Madelin, wanted it abolished. For Sarkozy, that would have risked being categorised by the left as a gift to the richest classes of society at a time of economic difficulties.[46]

Villepin government[edit]

Second term as Minister of the Interior[edit]

Sarkozy as Minister of the Interior with then U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, after their bilateral meeting in Washington, D.C., 12 September 2006

During his second term at the Ministry of the Interior, Sarkozy was initially more discreet about his ministerial activities: instead of focusing on his own topic of law and order, many of his declarations addressed wider issues, since he was expressing his opinions as head of the UMP party.

However, the civil unrest in autumn 2005 put law enforcement in the spotlight again. Sarkozy was accused of having provoked the unrest by calling young delinquents from housing projects a "rabble" ("racaille") in Argenteuil near Paris, and controversially suggested cleansing the minority suburbs with a Kärcher. After the accidental death of two youths, which sparked the riots, Sarkozy first blamed it on "hoodlums" and gangsters. These remarks were sharply criticised by many on the left wing and by a member of his own government, Delegate Minister for Equal Opportunities Azouz Begag.[47]

After the rioting, he made a number of announcements on future policy: selection of immigrants, greater tracking of immigrants, and a reform on the 1945 ordinance government justice measures for young delinquents.

UMP leader[edit]

Before he was elected President of France, Sarkozy was president of UMP, the French conservative party, elected with 85 percent of the vote. During his presidency, the number of members has significantly increased. In 2005, he supported a "yes" vote in the French referendum on the European Constitution, but the "No" vote won.

Nicolas Sarkozy in 2006 with Cypriot opposition leader Nicos Anastasiades

Throughout 2005, Sarkozy called for radical changes in France's economic and social policies. These calls culminated in an interview with Le Monde on 8 September 2005, during which he claimed that the French had been misled for 30 years by false promises.[48] Among other issues:

  • he called for a simplified and "fairer" taxation system, with fewer loopholes and a maximum taxation rate (all direct taxes combined) at 50 percent of revenue;
  • he approved measures reducing or denying social support to unemployed workers who refuse work offered to them;
  • he pressed for a reduction in the budget deficit, claiming that the French state has been living off credit for some time.

Such policies are what are called in France libéral (that is, in favour of laissez-faire economic policies) or, with a pejorative undertone, ultra-libéral. Sarkozy rejects this label of libéral and prefers to call himself a pragmatist.

Sarkozy opened another avenue of controversy by declaring that he wanted a reform of the immigration system, with quotas designed to admit the skilled workers needed by the French economy. He also wants to reform the current French system for foreign students, saying that it enables foreign students to take open-ended curricula in order to obtain residency in France; instead, he wants to select the best students to the best curricula in France.

In early 2006, the French parliament adopted a controversial bill known as DADVSI, which reforms French copyright law. Since his party was divided on the issue, Sarkozy stepped in and organised meetings between various parties involved. Later, groups such as the Odebi League and EUCD.info alleged that Sarkozy personally and unofficially supported certain amendments to the law, which enacted strong penalties against designers of peer-to-peer systems.

Presidential campaigns[edit]

2007 presidential campaign[edit]

Ségolène Royal was Sarkozy's final opponent during the second (last) round of the 2007 presidential election.

Sarkozy was a likely candidate for the presidency in 2007; in an oft-repeated comment made on television channel France 2, when asked by a journalist whether he thought about the presidential election when he shaved in the morning, Sarkozy commented, "Not just when I shave".[49]

Harper and Sarkozy

In the 2007 and 2008, French President Nicolas Sarkozy,[50] Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, and Quebec Premier Jean Charest[51] all spoke in favour of a Canada - EU free trade agreement. In October 2008, Sarkozy became the first French President to address the National Assembly of Quebec. In his speech he spoke out against Quebec separatism, but recognized Quebec as a nation within Canada. He said that, to France, Canada was a friend, and Quebec was family.[50]

On 14 January 2007, Sarkozy was chosen by the UMP to be its candidate in the 2007 presidential election. Sarkozy, who was running unopposed, won 98 percent of the votes. Of the 327,000 UMP members who could vote, 69 percent participated in the online ballot.[52]

In February 2007, Sarkozy appeared on a televised debate on TF1 where he expressed his support for affirmative action and the freedom to work overtime. Despite his opposition to same-sex marriage, he advocated civil unions and the possibility for same-sex partners to inherit under the same regime as married couples. The law was voted in July 2007.[53]

Meeting in Toulouse for the 2007 French Presidential election.

On 7 February, Sarkozy decided in favour of a projected second, non-nuclear, aircraft carrier for the national Navy (adding to the nuclear Charles de Gaulle), during an official visit in Toulon with Defence Minister Michèle Alliot-Marie. "This would allow permanently having an operational ship, taking into account the constraints of maintenance", he explained.[54]

Demonstrations, Paris, 6 May 2007, following the election of Nicolas Sarkozy to the presidency of the French republic.

On 21 March, President Jacques Chirac announced his support for Sarkozy. Chirac pointed out that Sarkozy had been chosen as presidential candidate for the ruling UMP party, and said: "So it is totally natural that I give him my vote and my support." To focus on his campaign, Sarkozy stepped down as interior minister on 26 March.[55]

During the campaign, rival candidates had accused Sarkozy of being a "candidate for brutality" and of presenting hard-line views about France's future.[56] Opponents also accused him of courting conservative voters in policy-making in a bid to capitalise on right-wing sentiments among some communities. However, his popularity was sufficient to see him polling as the frontrunner throughout the later campaign period, consistently ahead of rival Socialist candidate, Ségolène Royal.

The first round of the presidential election was held on 22 April 2007. Sarkozy came in first with 31.18 percent of the votes, ahead of Ségolène Royal of the Socialists with 25.87 percent. In the second round, Sarkozy came out on top to win the election with 53.06 percent of the votes ahead of Ségolène Royal with 46.94 percent.[57] In his speech immediately following the announcement of the election results, Sarkozy stressed the need for France's modernisation, but also called for national unity, mentioning that Royal was in his thoughts. In that speech, he claimed "The French have chosen to break with the ideas, habits and behaviour of the past. I will restore the value of work, authority, merit and respect for the nation."

2012 presidential campaign[edit]

Sarkozy was one of ten candidates who qualified for the first round of voting.[58] François Hollande, the Socialist Party candidate, received the most votes in the first round held on 22 April election, with Sarkozy coming second, meaning that both progressed to the second round of voting on 5–6 May 2012.[59] Sarkozy lost in the runoff and conceded to Hollande. He received an estimated 48.38% compared to Hollande's 51.62%.[60]

Political career[edit]

Governmental functions

  • Minister of Budget and government's spokesman : 1993–1995.
  • Minister of Communication and government's spokesman : 1994–1995.
  • Minister of State, minister of Interior, of the Internal Security and Local Freedoms : 2002–2004.
  • Minister of State, minister of Economy, Finance and Industry : March–November 2004 (resignation).
  • Minister of State, minister of Interior and Land Planning : 2005–2007 (resignation).

Electoral mandates

European Parliament

  • Member of the European Parliament : July–September 1999 (Resignation). Elected in 1999.

National Assembly of France

  • Member of the National Assembly of France for Hauts-de-Seine (6th constituency) : 1988–1993 (became minister in 1993) / 1995–2002 (became minister in 2002) / March–June 2005 (became minister in June 2005). Elected in 1988, reelected in 1993, 1995, 1997, 2002, 2005.

Regional Council

  • Regional councillor of Île-de-France : 1983–1988 (Resignation). Elected in 1986.

General Council

  • President of the General Council of Hauts-de-Seine : 2004–2007 (Resignation, became President of the French Republic in 2007).
  • Vice-president of the General Council of Hauts-de-Seine : 1986–1988 (Resignation).
  • General councillor of Hauts-de-Seine, elected in the canton of Neuilly-sur-Seine-Nord : 1985–1988 / 2004–2007 (Resignation, became President of the French Republic in 2007).

Municipal Council

  • Mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine : 1983–2002 (Resignation). Reelected in 1989, 1995, and 2001.
  • Deputy-mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine : 2002–2005 (Resignation).
  • Municipal councillor of Neuilly-sur-Seine : 1977–2005 (Resignation). Reelected in 1983, 1989, 1995, and 2001.

Political functions

President of France, 2007-2012[edit]

On 6 May 2007, Nicolas Sarkozy became the sixth person to be elected President of the fifth Republic (which was established in 1958), and the 23rd president in French history.

The official transfer of power from Chirac to Sarkozy took place on 16 May at 11:00 am (9:00 UTC) at the Élysée Palace, where he was given the authorization codes of the French nuclear arsenal.[61] In the afternoon, the new President flew to Berlin to meet with German Chancellor Angela Merkel.

Sarkozy greets US first lady Laura Bush in Germany, June 2007

Under Sarkozy's government, François Fillon replaced Dominique de Villepin as Prime Minister.[62] Sarkozy appointed Bernard Kouchner, the left-wing founder of Médecins Sans Frontières, as his foreign minister, leading to Kouchner's expulsion from the Socialist Party. In addition to Kouchner, three more Sarkozy ministers are from the left, including Eric Besson, who served as Ségolène Royal's economic adviser at the beginning of her campaign. Sarkozy also appointed seven women to form a total cabinet of 15; one, Justice Minister Rachida Dati, is the first woman of Northern African origin to serve in a French cabinet. Of the 15, two attended the elite École nationale d'administration (ENA).[63] The ministers were reorganised, with the controversial creation of a 'Ministry of Immigration, Integration, National Identity and Co-Development'—given to his right-hand man Brice Hortefeux—and of a 'Ministry of Budget, Public Accounts and Civil Administration'—handed out to Éric Wœrth, supposed to prepare the replacement of only a third of all civil servants who retire. However, after the 17 June parliamentary elections, the Cabinet has been adjusted to 15 ministers and 16 deputy ministers, totalling 31 officials.

Nicolas Sarkozy and General Jean-Louis Georgelin, Chief of the Defence Staff, reviewing troops during the Bastille Day 2008 military parade on the Champs-Élysées, Paris

Shortly after taking office, Sarkozy began negotiations with Colombian president Álvaro Uribe and the left-wing guerrilla FARC, regarding the release of hostages held by the rebel group, especially Franco-Colombian politician Ingrid Betancourt. According to some sources, Sarkozy himself asked for Uribe to release FARC's "chancellor" Rodrigo Granda.[64] Furthermore, he announced on 24 July 2007, that French and European representatives had obtained the extradition of the Bulgarian nurses detained in Libya to their country. In exchange, he signed with Muammar Gaddafi security, health care and immigration pacts—and a $230 million (168 million euros) MILAN antitank missile sale.[65] The contract was the first made by Libya since 2004, and was negotiated with MBDA, a subsidiary of EADS. Another 128 millions euros contract would have been signed, according to Tripoli, with EADS for a TETRA radio system. The Socialist Party (PS) and the Communist Party (PCF) criticised a "state affair" and a "barter" with a "Rogue state".[66] The leader of the PS, François Hollande, requested the opening of a parliamentary investigation.[65]

On 8 June 2007, during the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm, Sarkozy set a goal of reducing French CO2 emissions by 50 percent by 2050 in order to prevent global warming. He then pushed forward Socialist Dominique Strauss-Kahn as European nominee to the International Monetary Fund (IMF).[67] Critics alleged that Sarkozy proposed to nominate Strauss-Kahn as managing director of the IMF to deprive the Socialist Party of one of its more popular figures.[68]

In 2010, a study of Yale and Columbia universities ranked France the most respectful country of the G20 concerning the environment.[69]

The Union for a Popular Movement (UMP), Sarkozy's party, won a majority at the June 2007 legislative election, although by less than expected. In July, the UMP majority, seconded by the Nouveau Centre, ratified one of Sarkozy's electoral promises, which was to partially revoke the inheritance tax.[70][71] The inheritance tax formerly brought eight billion euros into state coffers.[72]

Sarkozy (at left) attending the G-8 Summit in 2009

Sarkozy's UMP majority prepared a budget that reduced taxes, in particular for upper middle-class people, allegedly in an effort to boost GDP growth, but did not reduce state expenditures. He was criticised by the European Commission for doing so.

Sarkozy broke with the custom of amnestying traffic tickets and of releasing thousands of prisoners from overcrowded jails on Bastille Day, a tradition that Napoleon had started in 1802 to commemorate the storming of the Bastille during the French Revolution.[65]

Sarkozy's government issued a decree on 7 August 2007 to generalise a voluntary biometric profiling program of travellers in airports. The program, called 'Parafes', was to use fingerprints. The new database would be interconnected with the Schengen Information System (SIS) as well as with a national database of wanted persons (FPR). The Commission nationale de l'informatique et des libertés (CNIL) protested against this new decree, opposing itself to the recording of fingerprints and to the interconnection between the SIS and the FPR.[73]

On 21 July 2008, the French parliament passed constitutional reforms which Sarkozy had made one of the key pledges of his presidential campaign. The vote was 539 to 357, one vote over the three-fifths majority required; the changes are not yet finalized. They would introduce a two-term limit for the presidency, and end the president's right of collective pardon. They would allow the president to address parliament in-session, and parliament, to set its own agenda. They would give parliament a veto over some presidential appointments, while ending government control over parliament's committee system. He has claimed that these reforms strengthen parliament, while some opposition socialist lawmakers have described it as a "consolidation of a monocracy".[74]

On 23 July 2008, parliament voted the "loi de modernisation de l'économie" (Modernization of the Economy Law) which loosened restrictions on retail prices and reduced limitations on the creation of businesses. The Government has also made changes to long-standing French work-hour regulations, allowing employers to negotiate overtime with employees and making all hours worked past the traditional French 35-hour week tax-free.[75]

However, as a result of the global financial crisis that came to a head in September 2008, Sarkozy has returned to the state interventionism of his predecessors, declaring that "laissez-faire capitalism is over" and denouncing the "dictatorship of the market". Confronted with the suggestion that he had become a socialist, he responded: "Have I become socialist? Perhaps." He has also pledged to create 100,000 state-subsidised jobs.[76] This reversion to dirigisme is seen as an attempt to stem the growing popularity of revolutionary socialist leader Olivier Besancenot.[77]

President Nicolas Sarkozy with President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff

Sarkozy wielded special international power when France held the rotating EU Council Presidency from July 2008 through December 2008. Sarkozy has publicly stated his intention to attain EU approval of a progressive energy package before the end of his EU Presidency. This energy package would clearly define climate change objectives for the EU and hold members to specific reductions in emissions. In further support of his collaborative outlook on climate change, Sarkozy has led the EU into a partnership with China.[78] On 6 December 2008, Nicolas Sarkozy, as part of France's then presidency of the Council of the EU, met the Dalai Lama in Poland and outraged China, which has announced that it would postpone the China-EU summit indefinitely.[79] On 3 April 2009, at the NATO Summit in Strasbourg, Sarkozy announced that France would offer asylum to a former Guantanamo captive.[80][81] "We are on the path to failure if we continue to act as we have", French President Nicolas Sarkozy cautioned at the U.N. Climate Summit on 22 September 2009.[82]

Popularity polls

On 27 February 2011, Sarkozy did for the 10th time of his presidency a government reshuffle.[83]

On 29 June 2011, he did an 11th government reshuffle, after the resignation of Christine Lagarde, who was appointed to head the International Monetary Fund. Five new ministers were appointed.

Middle East[edit]

On 5 January 2009, Sarkozy called for a ceasefire plan for the Gaza Strip Conflict.[84] The plan, which was jointly proposed by Sarkozy and Egyptian ex-President Hosni Mubarak envisions the continuation of the delivery of aid to Gaza and talks with Israel on border security, a key issue for Israel as it says Hamas smuggles its rockets into Gaza through the Egyptian border. Welcoming the proposal, US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice called for a "ceasefire that can endure and that can bring real security".[85]

Libya[edit]

Nicolas Sarkozy address the E-G8 Forum in Paris in 2011

Muammar Gaddafi's official visit to Nicolas Sarkozy in December 2007 has triggered a strong wave of protests against the President in France.[86] In March 2011, after having been criticized for his unwillingness to support the Egyptian and Tunisian revolutions, and persuaded by the philosopher Bernard-Henri Levy to have France actively engage against the forces of the Libyan leader, Muammar Gaddafi, Nicolas Sarkozy was amongst the first Heads of State to demand the resignation of Gaddafi and his government, which was then fighting a civil war in Libya. On 10 March 2011, Nicolas Sarkozy welcomed to the Elysee Palace, three emissaries from the Libyan National Transitional Council (NTC), brought to him by Bernard-Henri Levy who mediated at the meeting. Nicolas Sarkozy promised them a no-fly zone would be imposed on Gaddafi's aeroplanes. He also promised them French military assistance. On 17 March 2011, at the behest of France, resolution 1973 was adopted by the Security Council of the United Nations, permitting the creation of a "no fly" zone over Libya, and for the undertaking of "necessary measures" for the protection of the country's civilian population. On 19 March 2011, Nicolas Sarkozy officially announced the beginning of a military intervention in Libya, with France's participation. These actions of Nicolas Sarkozy were favorably received by the majority of the French political class and public opinion.[87][88][89]

Post-Presidency[edit]

After his defeat at the 2012 election, Nicolas Sarkozy asked his followers to respect Hollande's victory. He invited his successor to attend his last 8 May Victory in Europe Day commemoration in office. His last day as President of the French Republic was 15 May.

On 19 September 2014, Sarkozy announced that he was returning to politics and would run for chairman of the UMP party. [90] and was elected to the post on 29 November 2014.[91]

Public image[edit]

Sarkozy was named the 68th best-dressed person in the world by Vanity Fair, alongside David Beckham and Brad Pitt.[92] However, Sarkozy has also been named as the third worst-dressed person in the world by GQ,[93] a listing that has been disputed.[94] Beside publicizing, at times, and at others, refusing to publicise his ex-wife Cécilia Ciganer-Albéniz's image,[95] Sarkozy takes care of his own personal image, sometimes to the point of censorship—such as in the Paris Match affair, when he allegedly forced its director to resign following an article on his ex-wife and her affair with Publicis executive Richard Attias, or pressures exercised on the Journal du dimanche, which was preparing to publish an article concerning Ciganer-Albéniz's decision not to vote in the second round of the 2007 presidential election.[96] In its 9 August 2007 edition, Paris Match retouched a photo of Sarkozy in order to erase a love handle.[97][98][99] His official portrait destined for all French town halls was done by Sipa Press photographer Philippe Warrin, better known for his paparazzi work.[100]

Former Daily Telegraph journalist Colin Randall has highlighted Sarkozy's tighter control of his image and frequent interventions in the media: "he censors a book, or fires the chief editor of a weekly."[100] Sarkozy is reported by Reuters to be sensitive about his height (believed to be 165 cm (5 ft 5 in)).[101] The French media have pointed out that Carla Bruni frequently wears flats when in public with him. In 2009, a worker at a factory where Sarkozy gave a speech said she was asked to stand next to him because she was of a similar height to Sarkozy. (this story was corroborated by some trade union officials). This was the subject of a political row: the president's office called the accusation "completely absurd and grotesque", while the Socialist Party mocked his fastidious preparation.[102]

Sarkozy lost a suit against a manufacturer of Sarkozy voodoo dolls, in which he claimed that he had a right to his own image.[103]

La Conquête[edit]

The biopic La Conquête is a 2011 film that dramatizes Sarkozy's rise to power, with candid portrayals of Sarkozy himself, Chirac and Villepin. It was shown at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival.[104]

Controversies[edit]

Sarkozy is generally disliked by the left and has been criticised by some on the right, most vocally by supporters of Jacques Chirac and Dominique de Villepin.[105][106]

Marianne, a leftist magazine, accused Sarkozy of changing his opinion regarding Airbus.[clarification needed][107] The communist-leaning magazine L'Humanité accused Sarkozy of populism.[108]

Many on the left distrust Sarkozy; specific "anti-Sarko" movements have been started

In 2004 Sarkozy co-authored a book, La République, les religions, l'espérance (The Republic, Religions, and Hope),[109] in which he argued that the young should not be brought up solely on secular or republican values. He advocated reducing the separation of church and state, arguing for the government subsidies for mosques to encourage Islamic integration into French society.[110] He opposes financing of religious institutions with funds from outside France. After meeting with Tom Cruise, Sarkozy was criticised by some for meeting with a member of the Church of Scientology, which is seen as a cult (see Parliamentary Commission on Cults in France).[111] Sarkozy claimed "the roots of France are essentially Christian" at December 2007 speech in Rome. He called Islam "one of the greatest and most beautiful civilizations the world has known" at a speech in Riyadh in January 2008. Both comments[why?] drew criticism from Christians.[112]

In the midst of a tense period and following the accidental death of an 11-year-old boy in the Paris suburb of La Courneuve in June 2005, Sarkozy quoted a local resident and vowed to clean the area out "with a Kärcher" (nettoyer la cité au Kärcher, referring to a well-known German brand of pressure-cleaning equipment). Two days before the 2005 Paris riots he referred to young criminals of nearby housing projects as "voyous" ("thugs") and "racaille", a slang term which can be translated into English as "rabble", "scum" or "riff-raff", in answer to resident who addressed Sarkozy with "Quand nous débarrassez-vous de cette racaille?" ("When will you rid us of these dregs?")[113] The French Communist Party publication, L'Humanité, branded this language as inappropriate.[114] Following Sarkozy's use of the word racaille many people in the banlieues identified him as a politician of the far right. His period as Interior Minister saw the use of police as shock troops in the "banlieues", and a police "raid" on the suburb of Clichy-sous-Bois in October 2005 led to two boys being electrocuted in a power sub-station. The riots began that night.[115]

In September 2005 Sarkozy was accused of pushing for a hasty inquiry into an arson attack on a police station in Pau, of which the alleged perpetrators were acquitted for lack of proof.[116] On 22 June 2005 Sarkozy told law enforcement officials that he had questioned the Minister of Justice about the future of "the judge" who had freed a man on parole who had later committed a murder.[117]

Sarkozy opposed the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq. However, he was critical of the way Chirac and his foreign minister Dominique de Villepin expressed France's opposition to the war. Talking at the French-American Foundation in Washington, D.C. on 12 September 2006, he denounced what he called the "French arrogance" and said: "It is bad manners to embarrass one's allies or sound like one is taking delight in their troubles."[118] He added: "We must never again turn our disagreements into a crisis." Chirac reportedly said in private that Sarkozy's speech was "appalling" and "a shameful act".[118]

Although his former foreign minister Bernard Kouchner (excluded from the Socialist party after his inclusion in François Fillon's government) was one of the few supporters in France of the removal of Saddam Hussein from power, Sarkozy's stance on the war has not changed.[citation needed]

A few weeks before the first round of the 2007 presidential elections, Sarkozy had an interview with philosopher Michel Onfray.[119] Sarkozy stated that disorders such as paedophilia and depression have a genetic as well as social basis, saying "... I'd be inclined to think that one is born a paedophile, and it is actually a problem that we do not know how to cure this disease"; he claimed that suicides among youth were linked to genetic predispositions by stating, "I don't want to give parents a complex. It's not exclusively the parents' fault every time a youngster commits suicide." These statements were criticised by some scientists, including controversial geneticist Axel Kahn.[120][121] Sarkozy later added, "What part is innate and what part is acquired? At least let's debate it, let's not close the door to all debate."[122]

On 27 July 2007, Sarkozy delivered a speech in Senegal, written by Henri Guaino, in which he made reference to "African peasants".[123][124] The controversial remarks were widely condemned by Africans, with some viewing them as racist.[124][125][126] South African president Thabo Mbeki praised Sarkozy's speech, which raised criticism by some in the South African media.[124][126]

On 23 February 2008, Sarkozy was filmed by a reporter for French newspaper Le Parisien having the following exchange while visiting the Paris International Agricultural Show:[127]

While quickly crossing the hall Saturday morning, in the middle of the crowd, Sarkozy encounters a recalcitrant visitor who refuses to shake his hand. "Ah no, don't touch me!", said the man. The president retorted immediately: "Get lost, then." "You're making me dirty", yelled the man. With a frozen smile, Sarkozy says, his teeth glistening, a refined "Get lost, then, poor dumb-ass, go."[128]

It should be noted that a precise translation into English has many possible variations.[129][130][131]

On 28 August 2008, Hervé Eon, from Laval came to an anti-Sarkozy demonstration with a sign bearing the words Casse-toi pov' con, the exact words Sarkozy had uttered. Eon was arrested for causing offence to the presidential function and the prosecutor, who in France indirectly reports to the president, requested a fine of €1000.[132][133] The court eventually imposed a symbolic €30 suspended fine, which has generally been interpreted as a defeat for the prosecution side.[134] This incident was widely reported on, in particular as Sarkozy, as president of the Republic, is immune from prosecution, notably restricting Eon's rights to sue Sarkozy for defamation.[135]

On 8 November 2009, Sarkozy posted on his Facebook page a picture supposedly showing him chipping away at the Berlin Wall during its fall. However, the dates were inconsistent and the picture was proven to be fake – and later archived footage confirmed this. This news of forgery spread in France, and later evolved into a meme, "Sarkozy Was There", where Sarkozy is photoshopped into historical events.[citation needed]

On 5 July 2010, following its investigations on the Bettencourt affair, online newspaper Mediapart ran an article in which Claire Thibout, an former accountant of billionairess Liliane Bettencourt, accused Sarkozy and Eric Woerth of receiving illegal campaign donations in 2007, in cash.[136][137]

On 30 July 2010, Sarkozy suggested a new policy of security, and he proposed "stripping foreign-born French citizens who opted to acquire their nationality at their majority of their citizenship if they are convicted of threatening the life of a police officer or other serious crimes".[138] This policy has been criticized for example by the US newspaper The New York Times,[138] by Sarkozy's political opponents, including the Socialist Party leader Martine Aubry,[139] and by experts of French law, including the ex-member of the Constitutional Council of France, Robert Badinter, who said that such action would be unconstitutional.[140]

In October 2009, Sarkozy was accused of nepotism for helping his son, Jean, try to become head of the public body running France's biggest business district EPAD.[141][142][143] On 3 July 2012, French police raided Sarkozy's residence and office as part of a probe into claims that Sarkozy was involved in illegal political campaign financing.[144]

On 1 July 2014 Sarkozy was detained for questioning by police over claims he had promised a prestigious role in Monaco to a high-ranking judge, Gilbert Azibert, in exchange for information about the investigation into alleged illegal campaign funding. Mr Azibert, one of the most senior judges at the court of appeal, was called in for questioning on 30 June 2014.[145] It is believed to be the first time a former French president has been held in police custody, although his predecessor, Jacques Chirac, was found guilty of embezzlement and breach of trust while he was mayor of Paris and given a suspended prison sentence in 2011.[146] After 15 hours in police custody, Sarkozy was put under official investigation for "active corruption", "misuse of influence" and "obtained through a breach of professional secrecy" on 2 July 2014. [147] Mr Azibert and Sarkozy's lawyer, Thierry Herzog, are also now under official investigation. The two accusations carry sentences of up to 10 years in prison. [148] The developments are seen as a blow to Sarkozy's attempts to challenge for the presidency in 2017.[149][150]

Awards and honours[edit]

French honours[edit]

Other countries[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ David Byers (26 March 2008). "Nicolas Sarkozy calls for 'Franco-British brotherhood' as state visit begins". The Times (UK). Retrieved 26 March 2008. 
  2. ^ Anderson, John Ward and Molly Moore; "Sarkozy Wins, Vows to Restore Pride in France", Washington Post, 7 May 2007
  3. ^ "Results of the French Presidential Election".  – French Ministry of the Interior. Hollande gathered 18,000,668 votes, while Sarkozy obtained 16,860,685 votes.
  4. ^ Allen, Peter (7 May 2012). "'I love life too much to be bitter': Sarkozy confirms he will quit politics for good and says he wants people to 'leave me alone'". Daily Mail. 
  5. ^ https://twitter.com/AFP/status/484130827433803776
  6. ^ "Former French President Sarkozy denies charges of corruption and influence peddling". France News.Net. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 
  7. ^ "Sarkozy" is the westernized, or internationalized, version of his Hungarian name. In Hungarian the given name comes last rather than first. The French aristocratic particle "de" is also used instead of the Hungarian aristocratic ending "-i". This westernization of Hungarian names is frequent, particularly for people with an aristocratic name. For example the leader of Hungary from 1920 to 1944, whose Hungarian name is nagybányai Horthy Miklós, is known in English as Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya. The French name of Pál Sárközy de Nagy-Bócsa changed in 1948 to Paul Étienne Arnaud Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa, when Pál was translated as Paul in French, and the acute accents on the "a" of Sarközy and the "o" of Bocsa were dropped as these letters never carry an acute accent (accent aigu) in French. The trema on the "o" of Sárközy was kept, probably because French typewriters allow this combination, whereas it is impossible to write "a" or "o" with an acute accent using a French typewriter.
  8. ^ Schmemann, Serge (15 May 2007). "The New French President's Roots Are Worth Remembering". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 September 2008. 
  9. ^ a b "Profile: Nicolas Sarkozy". BBC News. 26 July 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  10. ^ "A Greek book on Nicolas Sarkozy". The European Jewish Press. Retrieved 12 April 2008. 
  11. ^ "Ancestry of Nicolas Sarkozy". William Addams Reitwiesner. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  12. ^ a b see Catherine Nay's semi-official biography
  13. ^ Un pouvoir nommé désir, Catherine Nay, 2007
  14. ^ "Le service militaire de Sakozy". Nousnours. 22 February 1999. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  15. ^ Augustin Scalbert, Un soupçon de vantardise sur les CV ministériels, Rue 89, 18 September 2007 (French)
  16. ^ a b See Catherine Nay's semi-official biography
  17. ^ "Berlusconi : le "bon Nicolas Sarkozy" a été mon avocat". Le Nouvel Observateur (in French). 29 June 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  18. ^ "Corfù, il vertice del disgelo "Riparte collaborazione Nato-Russia" Il Cavaliere: "Mandai il mio avvocato Sarkozy da lui per la Georgia..."" (in Italian). la Repubblica. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  19. ^ "Berlusconi al vertice Nato-Russia "Quando mandai l'avvocato Sarkozy"" (in Italian). L'Unione Sarda. 27 June 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
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  29. ^ France begins to grow weary with the Sarkozy soap opera. The Guardian, 13 January 2008
  30. ^ French President Marries Former Model, ABC News, Associated Press, 2 February 2008 
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  36. ^ Le Parisien, 11 January 2007
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  38. ^ Dette publique de la France (French)
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  53. ^ It was included in the paquet fiscal that has been one of the first laws passed in Parliament
  54. ^ Sarkozy pour un deuxième porte-avions français (AFP)
  55. ^ France's Jacques Chirac Backs Nicolas Sarkozy. 21 March 2007.
  56. ^ French confused over the real Sarkozy. 18 April 2007
  57. ^ Élection présidentielle de 2007—résultats définitifs French Ministry of the Interior
  58. ^ Décision du 19 mars 2012 arrêtant la liste des candidats à l’élection présidentielleConseil Constitutionnel
  59. ^ "Résultats de l'élection présidentielle 2012 Sarkozy lost the second round to the socialist candidate François Hollande making Hollande the new President of France.". Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
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  61. ^ Samuel, Henry (17 May 2007). "Radiant Cécilia puts Sarkozy in the shade". The Daily Telegraph (UK). Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  62. ^ Communiqué de la Présidence de la République concernant la nomination du Premier ministre. Élysée Palace, 17 May 2007
  63. ^ France's New Government – A study in perpetual motion, The Economist, 23 June 2007
  64. ^ Llama G8 a FARC contribuir a liberación de rehenes, La Cronica, 8 June 2007 (Spanish)
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  66. ^ Tripoli annonce un contrat d'armement avec la France, l'Elysée dans l'embarras, Le Monde, 2 August 2007 (French)
  67. ^ FMI: Strauss-Kahn candidat officiel de l'Union européenne, Le Figaro, 10 July 2007 (French)
  68. ^ France's Sarkozy wants Strauss-Kahn as IMF head Reuters, 7 July 2007
  69. ^ (French) La France au 7e rang mondial pour l'environnementLe Monde
  70. ^ Les députés votent la quasi-suppression des droits de succession, Le Figaro, 13 July 2007 (French)
  71. ^ Les droits de succession (presque) supprimés, Libération, 13 July 2007 (French)
  72. ^ Droits de succession: pour une minorité de ménages aisés, L'Humanité, 7 June 2007 (French)
  73. ^ Généralisation du fichage biométrique volontaire des voyageurs dans les aéroports français, Le Monde, 8 August 2007 (French)
  74. ^ France backs constitution reform; France backs constitution reform BBC News, 21 July 2008
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  78. ^ New chapter opens in EU-China Climate Change Partnership EUbusiness.com, 29 April 2008
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  93. ^ Gordon Brown tops GQ worst dressed man poll, Daily Mirror, 4 January 2010 (original GQ article no longer available)
  94. ^ GQ and Sarkozy: Wrong, Wrong, Wrong, Edwin's Raisin, 15 January 2010
  95. ^ Frédéric Pagès, "Cécilia, dame d'enfer" in Le Canard enchaîné, 22 August 2007 (French)
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  97. ^ Sarkozy: les poignées de l'amour, L'Express, 22 August 2007 (French)
  98. ^ Un bourrelet relance le débat sur la retouche d'images, Rue 89, 23 August 2007 (French)
  99. ^ Topless Sarkozy's love handles airbrushed away, Foreign Policy blog, 22 August 2007
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  115. ^ The Independent, 17 April 2007, p. 20 "The banlieues prepare to vote: We hate Sarkozy because he hates us."
  116. ^ "Incendie de Pau : les 8 accusés acquittés". Le Nouvel Observateur (in French) (France). Associated Press. 1 October 2005. Archived from the original on 29 May 2008. 
  117. ^ "Nicolas Sarkozy veut faire " payer " un juge pour " sa faute "" (Fee required for full article). Le Monde (in French). 23 June 2005. 
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  122. ^ "Row over Sarkozy's paedophilia comment refuses to go away", The Guardian, 10 April 2007.
  123. ^ News24.com; 28 July 2007; Sarkozy's Africa vision under fire
  124. ^ a b c Chris McGreal;The Guardian (UK) 27 August 2007 Mbeki criticised for praising 'racist' Sarkozy
  125. ^ Michel Agier, l'Afrique en France après le discours de Dakar, Vacarme n°42 (French)
  126. ^ a b Achille Mbembe; Mail and Guardian (South Africa); 27 August 2007; Sacré bleu! Mbeki and Sarkozy?
  127. ^ "Premiers pas mouvementés de Sarkozy au salon de l'agriculture" (SWF). Le Parisien (in French). France. 23 February 2008. 
  128. ^ In French: "Lors de sa traversée éclair du salon samedi matin, en plein bain de foule, Sarkozy croise un visiteur récalcitrant qui refuse sa poignée de main. «Ah non, touche-moi pas», prévient-il. Le chef de l'État rétorque sans détour: «Casse-toi, alors.» «Tu me salis», embraye l'homme. Le sourire se crispe. Sarkozy lâche, desserrant à peine les dents, un raffiné «Casse-toi alors, pauv'con, va.»
  129. ^ Goldhammer, Arthur (25 February 2008). "Found on the web". French Politics. An American observer comments on French politics. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  130. ^ "French supporters defend Sarkozy" Agence France-Presse, 25 February 2008
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  133. ^ Eon (4 September 2008). "" Casse-toi pov'con " : au tribunal pour outrage au Président" (in French). Rue 89. 
  134. ^ "" Casse-toi pov'con" : 30 euros avec sursis pour Hervé Eon". Rue89. 14 November 2008. Retrieved 20 January 2012. 
  135. ^ Raphaëlle Besse Desmoulières (23 October 2008). "Le délit d'outrage est une infraction obsolète". Le Monde (in French). 
  136. ^ "L'ex-comptable des Bettencourt accuse: des enveloppes d'argent à Woerth et à Sarkozy", original report (in French)
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Further reading[edit]

  • Sarkozy, Nicolas (1994). [Georges Mandel] : le moine de la politique. Paris: B. Grasset. ISBN 978-2-246-46301-6. 
  • Ottenheimer, Ghislaine (1994). Les deux Nicolas: la machine Balladur. Paris: Plon. ISBN 2-259-18115-5. 
  • Sarkozy, Nicolas; Denisot, Michel (1995). Au bout de la passion, l'équilibre. Paris: A. Michel. ISBN 2-226-07616-6. , interviews with Michel Denisot
  • Hauser, Anita (1995). Sarkozy: l'ascension d'un jeune homme pressé. Paris: Belfond. ISBN 2-7144-3235-2. , Grand livre du mois 1995
  • Sarkozy, Nicolas (2003). Libre. Paris: Pocket. ISBN 2-266-13303-9. , subject(s): Pratiques politiques—France—1990–, France—Politique et gouvernement—1997–2002
  • Mantoux, Aymeric (2003). Nicolas Sarkozy: l'instinct du pouvoir. Paris: First Éd. ISBN 2-87691-783-1. 
  • Nay, Catherine (2007). Un Pouvoir Nommé Désir. Paris: l'Archipel. ISBN 2-84187-495-8. 
  • Hauser, Anita (2003). Sarkozy: itinéraire d'une ambition. Paris: Grasset. ISBN 978-2-246-68001-7. 
  • Le Canard enchaîné (periodical) (2003). Sarkozy, l'homme (trop) pressé. Paris: "Le Canard enchaîné". ISSN 0292-5354 (series). , series: Les dossiers du "Canard enchaîné" 89
  • Domenach, Nicolas (2004). Sarkozy au fond des yeux. [Paris]: Jacob-Duvernet. ISBN 2-84724-064-0. 
  • Alvarez-Montalvo, Marta (9 July 2004): "¿Quién teme a Nicolas Sarkozy? El ministro de economía francés se postula como próximo candidato a las presidenciales de 2007", in Epoca ([Madrid] : Difusora de Informacion Periodica S.A., DINPESA, 9 July 2004), number 1012, p. 46(2), 3 pages, 829 words, available online"¿Quién teme a Nicolas Sarkozy? El ministro de economía francés se postula como próximo candidato a las presidenciales de 2007.: An article from: Epoca: Marta Alvarez-Montalvo: Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  • Blocier, Antoine (2004). Voyage à Sarkoland. Pantin: le Temps des cerises. ISBN 2-84109-449-9. 
  • Cabu (2004). Sarko circus. Paris: le Cherche Midi. ISBN 2-7491-0277-4. , subject(s): Sarkozy, Nicolas (1955–)—Caricatures et dessins humoristiques
  • Gurrey, Béatrice (2004). Le rebelle et le roi. Paris: A. Michel. ISBN 2-226-15576-7. , Grand Livre du mois 2004, subject(s): Chirac, Jacques (1932–), Sarkozy, Nicolas (1955–), France—Politique et gouvernement—1995–
  • Sarkozy, Nicolas; Verdin, Philippe; Collin, Thibaud (2004). La République, les religions, l'espérance : entretiens avec Thibaud Collin et Philippe Verdin. Paris: les éd. du Cerf. ISBN 2-204-07283-4. , subject(s): Laïcité—France—1990–, Islam—France—1990–
  • Darmon, Michaël (2004). Sarko Star. Paris: Éd. du Seuil. ISBN 2-02-066826-2. 
  • Friedman, Jean-Pierre (2005). Dans la peau de Sarko et de ceux qui veulent sa peau. Paris: Michalon. ISBN 2-84186-270-4. 
  • Noir, Victor (2005). Nicolas Sarkozy, le destin de Brutus. ISBN 2-207-25751-7. 
  • Reinhard, Philippe (2005). Chirac Sarkozy, mortelle randonnée. Paris: First éd. ISBN 2-7540-0003-8. 
  • Sautreau, Serge (2005). Nicoléon, roman. [Paris]: L' Atelier des Brisants. ISBN 2-84623-074-9. 
  • René Dosière, 'L'argent caché de l'Élysée', Seuil, 2007

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