President of Georgia
|President of Georgia
|Appointer||Direct popular vote|
|Term length||Five years, renewable once, consecutively|
|Inaugural holder||Zviad Gamsakhurdia|
|Formation||April 14, 1991|
|This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
The President of Georgia (Georgian: საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი, sakartvelos prezidenti) is the head of state, supreme commander-in-chief and holder of the highest office within the Government of Georgia. Executive power is split between the President and the Prime Minister, who is the head of government. The office was first introduced by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia on April 14, 1991, 5 days after Georgia's declaration of independence from the Soviet Union. The President serves a five-year term. The incumbent is Mikheil Saakashvili.
Constitutional powers and duties 
The President of Georgia is Head of State and the head of executive power. The President directs and implements domestic and foreign policy, ensures the unity and territorial integrity of the country, and supervises the activities of state bodies in accordance, with the Constitution. The President is the supreme representative of Georgia in foreign relations.
The President of Georgia is elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot, for a period of five years. The President may not be elected for more than two consecutive terms. Any citizen of Georgia who has the right to vote and who has attained the age of 35 years and lived in Georgia for no less than 15 years, is eligible to be elected President. The President of Georgia shall not have the right to hold any other position except for a party position, engage in entrepreneurial activity, receive salary or another permanent remuneration for any other activity.
The President of Georgia concludes international treaties and agreements and conducts negotiations with foreign states; with the consent of Parliament, appoints and dismisses Georgian ambassadors and other diplomatic representatives; receives the credentials of ambassadors and other diplomatic representatives of foreign states and international organizations; with the consent of Parliament, appoints Prime Minister and members of the Government; is empowered to remove ministers from their posts; submits to Parliament the draft state budget, after agreeing upon its basic content with parliamentary committees; declares a martial law and state of emergency; with the consent of Parliament has the right to halt the activities of representative bodies of self-government or territorial units as well as of state bodies; signs and promulgates laws; has the right to dissolve Parliament under certain conditions set by the Constitution; decides questions of citizenship and the granting of political asylum; grants pardons; schedules elections to Parliament and other representative bodies; has the right to revoke acts of subordinate executive bodies; is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces; and appoints members of the National Security Council, chairs its meetings, and appoints and dismisses military commanders.
The President enjoys immunity. During his/her period in office, he/she may not arrested, and no criminal proceedings may be instigated against him/her. In the event that the President violates the Constitution, betrays the state or commits other crimes, Parliament may remove him/her from office with the approval of the Constitutional Court or the Supreme Court. Security of the President of Georgia is provided by the Special State Protection Service.
Oath of office 
|“||მე საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი, ღვთისა და ერის წინაშე ვაცხადებ, რომ დავიცავ საქართველოს კონსტიტუციას, ქვეყნის დამოუკიდებლობას, ერთიანობასა და განუყოფლობას, კეთილსინდისიერად აღვასრულებთ პრეზიდენტის მოვალეობას, ვიზრუნებ ჩემი ქვეყნის მოქალაქეთა უსაფრთხოებისა და კეთილდღეობისათვის, ჩემი ხალხის და მამულის აღორძინებისა და ძლევამოსილებისათვის!||”|
|“||I, the President of Georgia, solemnly pledge before God and my nation to defend the Constitution of Georgia and the independence, unity and inseparability of my country. I will honestly perform the duties of President. I will protect the welfare and security of my people, and will care for the revival and might of my Nation and Fatherland.||”|
|“||me, sakartvelos prezidenti, ghvt'isa da eris tsinashe vats’khadeb, rom davits’av sak’art’velos konstituts’ias, k’veqnis damoukideblobas, ert’ianobasa da ganuq'op’lobas, ket’ilsindisierad aghvasrulebt’ prezidentis movaleobas, vizruneb ch’emi k’veqnis mok’alak’et’a usap’rt’khoebisa da ket’ildgheobisat’vis, ch’emi khalkhis da mamulis aghordzinebisa da dzlevamosilebisat’vis!||”|
The standard is the adapted national flag of Georgia, charged in the center with the Georgian coat of arms. Copies of the standard are used inside his office, at the Chancellary Building, other state agencies, and while the president is traveling in a vehicle inside Georgia.
History of office 
After Georgia formally seceded from the Soviet Union on April 9, 1991, the Supreme Council voted, on April 14, to create the post of executive President, and appointed Zviad Gamsakhurdia to the office pending the holding of direct elections. In the nationwide elections to this post, on May 26, 1991, Gamsakhurdia won a landslide victory, becoming the first President of the Republic of Georgia. Gamsakhurdia was ousted in a military coup d’etat in January 1992. He continued to function as a president-in-exile until his death in a failed attempt to regain power in December 1993.
In the post-coup absence of legitimate power, a position of the Head of State was introduced for Georgia's new leader Eduard Shevardnadze on March 10, 1992. After the adoption of a new Constitution on August 24, 1995, the post of President was restored. Shevardnadze was elected to presidency on November 5, 1995, and reelected on April 9, 2000. He resigned under pressure of mass demonstrations known as Rose Revolution on November 23, 2003. After Nino Burjanadze’s brief tenure as an Acting President, Mikheil Saakashvili was elected on January 4, 2004. He did not serve his full first term, but voluntarily resigned to defuse tensions in the aftermath of the 2007 Georgian demonstrations and brought the presidential elections forward from the original date in autumn 2008. He was reelected on January 5, 2008.
List of Presidents of Georgia 
- For leaders before independence, see List of leaders of Georgia
|#||Name||Picture||Term||Took office||Left office||Political Party|
|1||Zviad Gamsakhurdia||1||14 April 1991
26 May 1991
|6 January 1992
|Round Table — Free Georgia|
|2||Eduard Shevardnadze||1||26 November 1995
|30 April 2000||Union of Citizens of Georgia|
|2||30 April 2000
|23 November 2003
|Nino Burjanadze (acting)||23 November 2003||25 January 2004||United National Movement|
|3||Mikheil Saakashvili||1||25 January 2004
|25 November 2007|
|Nino Burjanadze (acting)||25 November 2007||20 January 2008|
|3||Mikheil Saakashvili||2||20 January 2008
End of term: 2013
See also 
- (Georgian) (Russian) The Law of the Republic of Georgia on the Introduction of the Post of President of the Republic of Georgia. The Parliament of Georgia Archive. Accessed on April 17, 2011
- Constitution of Georgia. Chapter 4. Articles 69-77. Parliament of Georgia. Retrieved on June 14, 2009
- History. Special State Protection Service of Georgia. Accessed on April 24, 2011