President of Romania
|President of Romania
|Term length||Five years
|Inaugural holder||Nicolae Ceaușescu|
|Formation||Constitution of Romania|
|Salary||1,800 euros per month|
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The President of Romania is the head of state of Romania. The President is directly elected by a two-round system for a five-year term (since 2004, after the Constitution was modified in 2003). An individual may serve two terms. During his/her term in office, the President may not be a member of any political party. The President of Romania names the Prime Minister after consulting the political parties in the Parliament; if his proposal is turned down by the Parliament twice in 60 days, the President can dissolve the Parliament and call for early elections, unless he is in the final 6 months of his term. The President only names the Prime Minister and cannot dismiss him from office, but can refuse naming of members of the cabinet once.
The current President of Romania is Traian Băsescu, since 20 December 2004. On 20 April 2007 he was suspended. He re-assumed the office on 23 May 2007 after the Referendum held on 19 May 2007. He was re-elected on 6 December 2009 for a second 5-year term that started on 21 December 2009, and suspended again on 6 July 2012, with President of the Senate Crin Antonescu assuming acting presidency. The referendum on Traian Basescu's dismissal was held on 29 July, but declared invalid by the Constitutional Court.
Oath of office
After the Constitutional Court acknowledges the legality of the election, the Houses of Parliament meet in a joint session. The elected President takes the following oath of office, specified by article 82 of the Constitution:
Romanian: Jur să-mi dăruiesc toată puterea şi priceperea pentru propăşirea spirituală şi materială a poporului român, să respect Constituţia şi legile ţării, să apăr democraţia, drepturile şi libertăţile fundamentale ale cetăţenilor, suveranitatea, independenţa, unitatea şi integritatea teritorială a României. Aşa să-mi ajute Dumnezeu!
English: I solemnly swear that I will dedicate all my strength and the best of my ability for the spiritual and material welfare of the Romanian people, to abide by the Constitution and laws of the country, to defend democracy, the fundamental rights and freedoms of my fellow-citizens, Romania's sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity. So help me God! 
An incumbent President who severely violates the Constitution may be suspended by the Parliament in joint session. If the suspension motion passes, there is a call for a referendum of impeachment within no more than 30 days from the suspension.
If the Senate and Chamber of Deputies, in joint session, accuse the President of high treason, the President is suspended from powers and duties by right. The accusations are judged by the High Court of Cassation and Justice. The incumbent President is dismissed by right if found guilty of high treason.
The suspension and impeachment procedure has been implemented three times. The first time regarded President Ion Iliescu, following a statement regarding the returning of the illegally confiscated properties during the years of the Socialist Republic of Romania to the rightful owners. This first attempt in 1995 did not pass the vote in Parliament.
The second attempt was successful, with the person suspended being Traian Băsescu, in office as of April 2007. He became the first president to successfully be suspended and also the first to face an impeachment vote before the people, regarding issues with supposed unconstitutional acts. The impeachment plebiscite was held on 19 May 2007, and Băsescu survived the impeachment attempt. The result was the rejection of the proposal by 24.94% in favor to 75.06% opposed.
The third attempt lead to a second successful suspension in July 2012, again against Traian Băsescu. The referendum was held on 29 July 2012, and the results were 88.7% in favor and 11.3% opposed, with voter turnout calculated to be 46.24%; below the 50% + one vote threshold required at the time the referendum was held. The Constitutional Court did not give a verdict on the validation of the referendum at the time, citing irregularities in the permanent electoral lists. On 21 August, the Court deemed the referendum invalid, and again Băsescu prevailed from being ousted.
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Orders of succession
Should the office of the President become vacant due to resignation, impeachment, permanent inability to perform the duties of office, or death, the President of the Senate or the President of the Chamber of Deputies, in that order, step in as Ad Interim President of Romania (Romanian: Preşedinte Interimar al României). Neither relinquish their position as President of their respective Legislative House for the duration of the Ad Interim term. An Ad Interim President cannot address the Parliament, dissolve the Parliament, nor call for a referendum (the impeachment referendum after a motion of suspension is called by Parliament). The vacancy of the office cannot be longer than three months. The office vacancy cannot be longer than 30 days (while the President is suspended the office is not considered vacant).
List of Presidents
|#||Name||Term begin||Term end|
|1||Nicolae Ceauşescu||28 March 1974||22 December 1989|
|2||Ion Iliescu||6 February 1990||29 November 1996|
|3||Emil Constantinescu||29 November 1996||20 December 2000|
|2||Ion Iliescu||20 December 2000||20 December 2004|
|4||Traian Băsescu||20 December 2004||20 April 2007|
|(1)||Nicolae Văcăroiu||20 April 2007||23 May 2007|
|4||Traian Băsescu||23 May 2007||20 December 2009|
|4||Traian Băsescu||20 December 2009||10 July 2012|
|(2)||Crin Antonescu||10 July 2012||27 August 2012|
|4||Traian Băsescu||27 August 2012||Incumbent|
|Traian Băsescu||Democratic Liberal Party
(Partidul Democrat Liberal)
|Mircea Geoană||Social Democratic Party + Conservative Party
(Alianţa Electoralǎ Partidul Social Democrat + Partidul Conservator)
|Crin Antonescu||National Liberal Party
(Partidul Naţional Liberal)
|Corneliu Vadim Tudor||Greater Romania Party
(Partidul România Mare)
|Hunor Kelemen||Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania
(Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România)
|George Becali||New Generation Party
(Partidul Noua Generaţie – Creştin Democrat)
|Remus Cernea||Green Party
|Constantin Rotaru||Socialist Alliance Party
(Partidul Alianţa Socialistă)
|Ovidiu-Cristian Iane||Ecologist Party of Romania
(Partidul Ecologist Român)
|Total valid votes||9,718,840||100 %||10,481,568||100 %|
|Source: Biroul Electoral Central|
- List of heads of state of Romania
- List of Presidents of Romania by time in office
- Prime Minister of Romania
- "Băsescu are cel mai mic salariu dintre şefii de stat ai UE. Vezi cât câştigă şi restul preşedinţilor". www.antena3.ro. June 7, 2011. (Romanian)
- "Curtea Constitutionala a invalidat referendumul cu scorul 6-3. Traian Basescu revine la Cotroceni". Retrieved 2012-08-21.
- Constitution of 1991, as revised in 2003 "Article 82: Validation of mandate and oath-taking", retrieved on 7 July 2012
- Constitution of 1991, as revised in 2003 "Article 97: Vacancy of office", retrieved on 11 April 2010
- Constitution of 1991, as revised in 2003 "Article 98: Interim of office", retrieved on 11 April 2010
- Constitution of 1991, as revised in 2003 "Article 97: Vacancy of office; paragraph (2)", retrieved on 22 August 2012