President of Romania

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President of Romania
Preşedintele României
Flag of the President of Romania.svg
Traian Băsescu (13564726433).jpg
Incumbent
Traian Băsescu

since 20 December 2004
Residence Cotroceni Palace
Appointer Popular vote
Term length Five years
renewable once
Inaugural holder Nicolae Ceaușescu
Formation Constitution of Romania
Salary €1,800 per month[1]
Website Preşedintele României
Coat of arms of Romania
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Romania

The President of Romania is the head of state of Romania. The President is directly elected by a two-round system for a five-year term (since 2004, after the Constitution was modified in 2003). An individual may serve two terms. During his/her term in office, the President may not be a member of any political party. The President of Romania names the Prime Minister after consulting the political parties in the Parliament; if his proposal is turned down by the Parliament twice in 60 days, the President can dissolve the Parliament and call for early elections, unless he is in the final 6 months of his term. The President only names the Prime Minister and cannot dismiss him from office, but can refuse naming of members of the cabinet once.

The current President of Romania is Traian Băsescu, since 20 December 2004. On 20 April 2007 he was suspended. He re-assumed the office on 23 May 2007 after the Referendum held on 19 May 2007. He was re-elected on 6 December 2009 for a second 5-year term that started on 21 December 2009, and suspended again on 6 July 2012, with President of the Senate Crin Antonescu assuming acting presidency. The referendum on Traian Basescu's dismissal was held on 29 July, but declared invalid by the Constitutional Court.[2]

Oath of office[edit]

After the Constitutional Court acknowledges the legality of the election, the Houses of Parliament meet in a joint session. The elected President takes the following oath of office, specified by article 82 of the Constitution:

Romanian: Jur să-mi dăruiesc toată puterea şi priceperea pentru propăşirea spirituală şi materială a poporului român, să respect Constituţia şi legile ţării, să apăr democraţia, drepturile şi libertăţile fundamentale ale cetăţenilor, suveranitatea, independenţa, unitatea şi integritatea teritorială a României. Aşa să-mi ajute Dumnezeu!

English: I solemnly swear that I will dedicate all my strength and the best of my ability for the spiritual and material welfare of the Romanian people, to abide by the Constitution and laws of the country, to defend democracy, the fundamental rights and freedoms of my fellow-citizens, Romania's sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity. So help me God! [3]

Impeachment[edit]

An incumbent President who severely violates the Constitution may be suspended by the Parliament in joint session. If the suspension motion passes, there is a call for a referendum of impeachment within no more than 30 days from the suspension.

If the Senate and Chamber of Deputies, in joint session, accuse the President of high treason, the President is suspended from powers and duties by right. The accusations are judged by the High Court of Cassation and Justice. The incumbent President is dismissed by right if found guilty of high treason.

History[edit]

The suspension and impeachment procedure has been implemented three times. The first time regarded President Ion Iliescu, following a statement regarding the returning of the illegally confiscated properties during the years of the Socialist Republic of Romania to the rightful owners. This first attempt in 1995 did not pass the vote in Parliament.

The second attempt was successful, with the person suspended being Traian Băsescu, in office as of April 2007. He became the first president to successfully be suspended and also the first to face an impeachment vote before the people, regarding issues with supposed unconstitutional acts. The impeachment plebiscite was held on 19 May 2007, and Băsescu survived the impeachment attempt. The result was the rejection of the proposal by 24.94% in favor to 75.06% opposed.

The third attempt lead to a second successful suspension in July 2012, again against Traian Băsescu. The referendum was held on 29 July 2012, and the results were 88.7% in favor and 11.3% opposed, with voter turnout calculated to be 46.24%; below the 50% + one vote threshold required at the time the referendum was held. The Constitutional Court did not give a verdict on the validation of the referendum at the time, citing irregularities in the permanent electoral lists. On 21 August, the Court deemed the referendum invalid, and again Băsescu prevailed from being ousted.[2]

Succession[edit]

Should the office of the President become vacant due to resignation, impeachment, permanent inability to perform the duties of office, or death,[4] the President of the Senate or the President of the Chamber of Deputies, in that order, step in as Ad Interim President of Romania[5] (Romanian: Preşedinte Interimar al României). Neither relinquish their position as President of their respective Legislative House for the duration of the Ad Interim term. An Ad Interim President cannot address the Parliament, dissolve the Parliament, nor call for a referendum (the impeachment referendum after a motion of suspension is called by Parliament). The vacancy of the office cannot be longer than three months.[6] The office vacancy cannot be longer than 30 days (while the President is suspended the office is not considered vacant).

List of Presidents[edit]

# Name Term begin Term end
1 Nicolae Ceauşescu 28 March 1974 22 December 1989
2 Ion Iliescu 6 February 1990 29 November 1996
3 Emil Constantinescu 29 November 1996 20 December 2000
2 Ion Iliescu 20 December 2000 20 December 2004
4 Traian Băsescu 20 December 2004 20 April 2007
(1) Nicolae Văcăroiu 20 April 2007 23 May 2007
4 Traian Băsescu 23 May 2007 20 December 2009
4 Traian Băsescu 20 December 2009 10 July 2012
(2) Crin Antonescu 10 July 2012 27 August 2012
4 Traian Băsescu 27 August 2012 Incumbent

Latest election[edit]

e • d Summary of the 22 November and 6 December 2009 Romanian presidential election results
Candidates First round Runoff
Candidate Sustaining Party Votes % Votes %
Traian Băsescu Democratic Liberal Party
(Partidul Democrat Liberal)
3,153,640 32.44 5,275,808 50.33
Mircea Geoană Social Democratic Party + Conservative Party
(Alianța Electoralǎ Partidul Social Democrat + Partidul Conservator)
3,027,838 31.15 5,205,760 49.66
Crin Antonescu National Liberal Party
(Partidul Național Liberal)
1,945,831 20.02
Corneliu Vadim Tudor Greater Romania Party
(Partidul România Mare)
540,380 5.56
Hunor Kelemen Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania
(Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România)
372,761 3.83
Sorin Oprescu Independent 309,764 3.18
George Becali New Generation Party
(Partidul Noua Generație – Creștin Democrat)
186,390 1.91
Remus Cernea Green Party
(Partidul Verde)
60,539 0.62
Constantin Rotaru Socialist Alliance Party
(Partidul Alianța Socialistă)
43,684 0.45
Gheorghe-Eduard Manole Independent 34,189 0.35
Ovidiu-Cristian Iane Ecologist Party of Romania
(Partidul Ecologist Român)
22,515 0.23
Constantin-Ninel Potîrcă Independent 21,306 0.21
Total valid votes 9,718,840 100 % 10,481,568 100 %
Source: Biroul Electoral Central


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Băsescu are cel mai mic salariu dintre şefii de stat ai UE. Vezi cât câştigă şi restul preşedinţilor". www.antena3.ro. June 7, 2011.  (Romanian)
  2. ^ a b "Curtea Constitutionala a invalidat referendumul cu scorul 6-3. Traian Basescu revine la Cotroceni". Retrieved 2012-08-21. 
  3. ^ Constitution of 1991, as revised in 2003 "Article 82: Validation of mandate and oath-taking", retrieved on 7 July 2012
  4. ^ Constitution of 1991, as revised in 2003 "Article 97: Vacancy of office", retrieved on 11 April 2010
  5. ^ Constitution of 1991, as revised in 2003 "Article 98: Interim of office", retrieved on 11 April 2010
  6. ^ Constitution of 1991, as revised in 2003 "Article 97: Vacancy of office; paragraph (2)", retrieved on 22 August 2012

External links[edit]