^From November 1991 to 1995, Ali Mahdi Muhammad enjoyed recognition as President in the international community following the 1991 Djibouti conference: "at the second Djibouti conference (Aideed boycotted the first) held between 15 and 21 July 1991, Ali Mahdi was elected interim President of Somalia for a period of two years[...] Because of the legitimacy conferred on Ali Mahdi by the Djibouti conference, his government was recognized by several countries, including Djibouti, Egypt, Italy, and Saudi Arabia"; c.f. .
^In the second half of the 1990s, different faction leaders vied for the Presidency, with none receiving international recognition. General Mohamed Farrah Aidid claimed to be President from 15 June 1995 to his death on 1 August 1996, followed by his son Hussein Farrah Aidid from 2 August 1996 to 20 March 1998.
^From 20 August 2012 to 28 August 2012, Muse Hassan Abdulle served as acting Speaker of the Parliament, and as such, as acting President while elections for a new Speaker and President were forthcoming. Per Article 95 of the provisional constitution: "If the Office of the President of the Federal Republic of Somalia falls vacant, the Speaker of the House of the People of the Federal Parliament shall act as President of the Federal Republic until such time as a new President of the Federal Republic is elected, within a maximum of thirty (30) days."; also c.f. Rulers.org – August 2012, .