List of heads of state of Sudan

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President of the Republic of Sudan
جمهورية السودان
Standard of the President of Sudan.svg
Omar al-Bashir, 12th AU Summit, 090202-N-0506A-137.jpg
Omar al-Bashir

since 30 June 1989
Residence Republican Palace
Khartoum, Sudan
Term length 5 years (no term limits)
Inaugural holder Five-member Sovereignty Council (collective presidency)
Formation 1 January 1956
Deputy Vice President of Sudan
Emblem of Sudan.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of

This is a list of heads of state of Sudan, from the independence of the country in 1956 to the present day.

History of the office[edit]

Since the country's independence on 1 January 1956, six individuals (and three multi-member sovereignty councils) have served as head of state of Sudan, currently under the title President of the Republic of Sudan. Prior to independence, Sudan was governed as a condominium by Egypt and the United Kingdom, under the name Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. As such, executive power was vested in a dyarchy consisting of both countries' heads of state – at the time of independence, the Queen of the United Kingdom (Elizabeth II) and the Egyptian Revolutionary Command Council (headed by Gamal Abdel Nasser). Immediately following independence, the role of head of state was filled by a five-member Sovereignty Council, with rival nationalist factions unable to agree on a single candidate. In November 1958, General Ibrahim Abboud led a military coup d'état, assuming the role of head of state as Chairman of the Supreme Council. Assuming the title of president in 1964, he resigned later that year due to general discontent around the rule of the military regime. Abboud was succeeded by a senior civil servant, Sirr Al-Khatim Al-Khalifa, who served as acting president for 18 days before transferring executive authority to a Committee of Sovereignty.

Ismail al-Azhari, the leader of the National Unionist Party, was made president in July 1965, and ruled with limited power until he was deposed in 1969. The military officers responsible for the coup established the National Revolutionary Command Council, chaired by Gaafar Nimeiry. Nimeiry, the leader of the newly formed Sudanese Socialist Union, assumed the position of president in 1971, and subsequently established a single-party state, which existed until 1985, when a group of military officers overthrew his government and established the Transitional Military Council, led by Lieutenant-General Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab. Ahmed al-Mirghani succeeded to the relatively powerless position of Chairman of the Supreme Council in 1986, after multi-party elections held that year. He was deposed in a 1989 military coup led by Lieutenant-General Omar al-Bashir. Al-Bashir has served as head of state since the coup, under the title of Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation to 1993 and as president from 1993 onwards (and from 1996 as the leader of the National Congress Party).

Titles of the head of state[edit]

Although currently accorded the title of president, Sudan's heads of state have been given a number of titles throughout the country's history, often relating to the chairmanship of various executive councils:

  • 1956–1958: Chairman of the Sovereignty Council
  • 1958–1964: Chairman of the Supreme Council
  • 1964: President of the Republic of Sudan
  • 1964–1965: Chairman of the Committee of Sovereignty
  • 1965–1969: Chairman of the Sovereignty Council
  • 1969–1971: Chairman of the National Revolutionary Command Council
  • 1971–1985: President of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan
  • 1985–1986: Chairman of the Transitional Military Council
  • 1986–1989: Chairman of the Supreme Council
  • 1989–1993: Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation
  • 1993–: President of the Republic of Sudan

List of heads of state of Sudan[edit]

No. Name
Picture Took office Left office Political party
Republic of the Sudan
1 Sovereignty Council[1] 1 January 1956 17 November 1958
2 Ibrahim Abboud
AABOUD.jpg 18 November 1958 16 November 1964[2] Military
Sirr Al-Khatim Al-Khalifa
No image.png 16 November 1964 3 December 1964 National Umma Party
3 First Committee of Sovereignty[3] 3 December 1964 10 June 1965
4 Second Committee of Sovereignty[4] 10 June 1965 8 July 1965
5 Ismail al-Azhari
Ismail al-Azahri.jpg 8 July 1965 25 May 1969[5] Democratic Unionist Party
Democratic Republic of the Sudan
6 Gaafar Nimeiry
Gaafar Nimeiry exhib.jpg 25 May 1969 6 April 1985[7] Military
Sudanese Socialist Union
7 Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab
(1934– )
No image.png 6 April 1985 15 December 1985 Military
Republic of the Sudan
7 Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab
(1934– )
No image.png 15 December 1985 6 May 1986 Military
8 Ahmed al-Mirghani
No image.png 6 May 1986 30 June 1989[8] Democratic Unionist Party
9 Omar al-Bashir
(1944– )
Omar al-Bashir, 12th AU Summit, 090202-N-0506A-137.jpg 30 June 1989 Incumbent Military
National Congress

Latest election[edit]

e • d Summary of the 11–15 April 2010 Sudanese presidential election results
Candidate Party Votes %
Omar Hassan al-Bashir National Congress 6,901,694 68.24%
Yasir Arman SPLM 2,193,82 21.69%
Abdullah Deng Nhial Popular Congress Party 396,139 3.92%
Hatim Al-Sir Democratic Unionist Party 195,668 1.93%
Sadiq al-Mahdi Umma Party 96,868 0.96%
Kamil Idriss Independent 77,132 0.76%
Mahmood Ahmed Jeha Independent 71,708 0.71%
Mubarak al-Fadil Umma Reform and Renewal Party 49,402 0.49%
Munir Sheikh El-din Jallab New National Democratic Party 40,277 0.40%
Abdel-Aziz Khalid Sudanese National Alliance 34,592 0.34%
Fatima Abdel-Mahmood Sudanese Socialist Democratic Union 30,562 0.30%
Mohamed Ibrahim Nugud Sudanese Communist Party 26,442 0.26%
Total 10,114,310 100.00%
Sources: Sudan Tribune

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Members of the Sovereignty Council were Abdel Fattah Muhammad al-Maghrabi, Muhammad Ahmad Yasin, Ahmad Muhammad Salih, Muhammad Othman al-Dardiri and Siricio Iro Wani
  2. ^ Resigned after mass protests
  3. ^ Members of the First Committee of Sovereignty were Abdel Halim Muhammad, Tijani al-Mahi, Mubarak Shaddad, Ibrahim Yusuf Sulayman and Luigi Adwok Bong Gicomeho
  4. ^ Members of the Second Committee of Sovereignty were Ismail al-Azhari, Abdullah al-Fadil al-Mahdi, Luigi Adwok Bong Gicomeho, Abdel Halim Muhammad and Khidr Hamad
  5. ^ Deposed in the 1969 coup d'état
  6. ^ Briefly interrupted during the 19-22 July 1971 coup d'état
  7. ^ Deposed in the 1985 coup d'état
  8. ^ Deposed in the 1989 coup d'état

External links[edit]