President of Ukraine

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President of Ukraine
Президент України
Штандарт Президента Украины.svg
Oleksandr Turchynov March 2014 (cropped).jpg
Oleksandr Turchynov

since February 23, 2014
Residence Mariyinsky Palace (ceremonial)
13 other available for use
Appointer Parliament
Term length Five years, renewable once
Inaugural holder Leonid Kravchuk,
December 5, 1991[d]
Formation Law "On the President of the Ukrainian SSR," July 5, 1991[a]
Succession Chairman of Parliament
Lesser Coat of Arms of Ukraine.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of

The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Президент України, Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the Ukrainian head of state. The President represents the nation in international relations, administers the foreign political activity of the state, conducts negotiations and concludes international treaties.

Current acting President is the current Chairman of the Ukrainian Parliament Oleksandr Turchynov after the Ukrainian Parliament ousted Viktor Yanukovych from this office on 21 February 2014.[1] It is unclear if the removal of Yanukovych was legal because Yanukovych had not signed the bills that would restore the Constitution as it was between 2004 and 2010.[2] The constitutional guidelines provide for a review of the case by Ukraine's Constitutional Court and a three-fourths majority vote by parliament (338 MPs).[2] The decisions to remove Yanukovych was supported by 328 MPs.[3] Yanukovych still claims to be "the legitimate head of the Ukrainian state elected in a free vote by Ukrainian citizens".[4]


The President is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Ukrainian Army and heads the National Security and Defense Council, which advises the President, co-ordinates and controls the activity of bodies of executive power in the sphere of national security and defense.[5] According to the Constitution of Ukraine, the president is the guarantor of the state's sovereignty, territorial indivisibility, the observance of the Constitution of Ukraine and human and citizens' rights and freedoms.

As with the separation of powers, the President has checks on the authority of parliament and the judicial system. For instance, any law passed by the parliament can be vetoed by the President; however, parliament can override his veto with a 2/3 constitutional majority vote.

The President has limited authority to disband the Verkhovna Rada (parliament), and nominates candidates for the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Defense in the Ukrainian Cabinet of Ministers. Six out of eighteen of the Constitutional Court judges are appointed by the President. Decisions of the President are subject to review by Ukraine's courts with the Constitutional Court having the sole authority and power to declare decrees of the president unconstitutional. While in office, the president enjoys the right of immunity.

The President's official residence is the Mariyinsky Palace, located in the Pechersk district of the capital Kiev. Other official residences include the House with Chimaeras and the House of the Weeping Widow, which are used for official visits by foreign representatives. The Presidential Administration of Ukraine, unofficially known as "Bankova" in reference to the street it is located on, serves as the Presidential administration, advising the President in the domestic, foreign and legal matters.

The President is directly elected by the citizens of Ukraine for a five-year term of office. A person shall not be the President of Ukraine for more than two consecutive terms.

Since the office's formation on July 5, 1991, there have been five Presidents of Ukraine. Leonid Kravchuk was the inaugural president, serving two and a half years from his official inauguration in 1992 until his resignation in 1994. Leonid Kuchma was the only President to have served two consecutive terms in office, a little over 10 years.

The third President was Viktor Yushchenko, who was elected on December 26, 2004 and inaugurated on January 23, 2005. His term of office expired on February 25, 2010. While he was eligible for re-election at the 2010 presidential election, that took place on January 17, 2010, Viktor Yushchenko's support was rated below 4% in the public opinion polls and he did not make the February 7 run-off vote.[6][7][8] The winner of the February 7 run-off vote was Viktor Yanukovych, whose inaugural ceremony took place on February 25, 2010.

Due to recent political unrest and violence in the country, president Yanukovitch has removed himself from Kiev for the time being. The current interim president as of 23 February 2014 is newly elected Parliamentary Speaker Aleksandr Turchinov, put in the presidential position by the parliament. MPs supporting the move argue that President Yanukovych has de facto resigned his office.[citation needed] This appointment is deemed controversial.[who?]

The President is barred by the Constitution from heading a political party.[9]

Ukrainian Presidents are frequently asked by individual citizens for help in solving their personal problems (sometimes successfully); in 2012, President Yanukovych received about 10,000 to 12,000 letters from people every month.[10] By-passing local governments is an ages-old practice in Ukraine.[10]


First President Mykhailo Hrushevskyi (1917-18).
2nd President Volodymyr Vynnychenko (1918-19).
Third President Symon Petliura (1919-1926).

Prior to the formation of the modern Ukrainian presidency, the previous Ukrainian head of state office was officially established in exile by Andriy Livytskyi. At first the de facto leader of nation was the president of the Central Rada at early years of the Ukrainian People's Republic, while the highest governing body was the General Secretariat headed by its chairman. With the proclamation of the last universal of the UPR dated January 25, 1918 due to a military aggression, the Central Rada (council) of the UPR proclaimed its independence from the Russia. On April 29, 1918, the Rada elected Mykhailo Hrushevskyi as the first President of the Central Rada of the Ukrainian People's Republic,[11] in effect making him the de facto leader of the republic. Although a rather widespread misconception, the state leadership position title varied and none of them had an official "presidential" title.

On April 29, 1918 the Central Rada was arrested and liquidated during a coup d'état initiated by the local German administration to install Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky who barely spoke a word of the Ukrainian language. In November of the same year the Directorate government of the UPR was established as the opposition movement to the Skoropadsky's regime. The Ukrainian People's Republic was soon re-established in December 1918 with Volodymyr Vynnychenko as the Directorate's chairman, serving as the republic's de facto second "President" from December 19, 1918 to February 10, 1919.[12] Although really the Directorate was the temporary governing body until the new Ukrainian Constituent Assembly would elect its president. Symon Petliura assumed the representation of the state after Vynnychenko's resignation on February 11, 1919 and until Petlyura's assassination in Paris on May 25, 1926.

After the Soviet invasion[disambiguation needed] of Ukraine in 1920 and the control of the Ukrainian territory under pro-Soviet forces with the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic, the Ukrainian People's Republic was forced into exile. Upon the assassination of Petliura by the Soviets, the control over the state affairs were transferred to the former Prime Minister Andriy Livytskyi who in 1948 created the office of the President of Ukraine. Livytskyi served as the first President (in exile) until January 1954. Stepan Vytvytskyi served after Livytskyi from January 1954 until his death on October 9, 1965. Following Vytvytskyi's death, Ivan Bahrianyi temporarily carried out the presidential authority until the third President-in-exile Mykola Livytskyi (son of the first President-in-exile) was sworn into office.[13] Livytskyi served from 1967 until his death in December 1989.

Mykola Plaviuk was the last President-in-exile (and the fourth), serving from December 1989 until his resignation on August 22, 1992 when he ceremonially gave in his presidential authority and state symbols to the newly elected Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk at his inauguration ceremony.[14][15] In his declaration, it is stated that the current Ukrainian state is the legal successor following the state traditions of the Ukrainian People's Republic,[13][14] establishing the continuity of the republic.

The modern Ukrainian presidency was established on July 5, 1991 by the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which formed the office of "President of the Ukrainian SSR" (Ukrainian: Президент Української РСР).[16][17] During the transitional period until the presidential elections, the Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada (then held by Leonid Kravchuk) was empowered with a presidential authority. With the proclamation of Ukrainian independence from the Soviet Union, the office's official title was changed to "President of Ukraine" on August 24. In the current Constitution, the Ukrainian presidency is defined in Chapter V, Articles 102-112.

Elections since 1991[edit]

So far, five presidential elections have been conducted. The first election in 1991 was held at the same time as Ukrainians voted to support the Declaration of Independence in the independence referendum. Leonid Kravchuk was elected Ukraine's first president on December 1, 1991. He was elected by a record number of voters with over 19.5 million who wanted him to see as the leader of the state. That number has not been beaten yet. His major opponents were the leader of Rukh Vyacheslav Chornovil and the author of the Declaration of Independence. President Kravchuk's remained in office until he resigned as part of a political compromise. A snap election was held in 1994, which was won by Ukraine's former Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma. Kuchma was re-elected for a second term of office in 1999.

The 2004 presidential election was marked by controversy with allegations of electoral fraud in the conduct of the second round runoff ballot between opposition candidate Viktor Yushchenko and the government-backed candidate and former Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych. After mass nationwide protests, colloquially known as the "Orange Revolution," a new election was held on December 26, 2004 in which Victor Yushchenko was declared the winner with 52% of the vote and was subsequently sworn into office on January 23, 2005.

The last election took place on January 17, 2010 with a run-off on February 7, 2010 due to a May 13 Constitutional Court ruling striking down the October 25 date that the parliament called in April 2009.[18] As a result of this election Viktor Yanukovych was elected the fourth modern president of Ukraine.

Method of election and eligibility[edit]

The Ukrainian president is elected by direct popular vote by Ukrainian citizens who are 18 years and over. The President is elected for a 5-year term of office, limited to two terms consecutively. [b]

Ukraine's electoral law provides for a two-round system electoral system to elect the President; a candidate must win an absolute majority of all votes cast. If no candidate obtains an absolute majority in the first round of voting then the two highest polling candidates contest a run-off second ballot.[19]

According to Chapter V, Article 103 of the Constitution, a candidate in the presidential election a candidate must be a Ukrainian citizen who has attained the age of 35, has the right to vote, has resided in the country for the past 10 years[20] and has full command of the Ukrainian state language. Per the Constitution, regular presidential elections are scheduled to be held on the last Sunday of the last month of the fifth year of the incumbent President's term. If the President's authority has ended pre-term, then the elections must be held within 90 days of the incumbent President's end of term.

Candidates seeking election are required to pay a nomination deposit of 500,000 hryvnias (approx. 80,000 US Dollars) which is refunded only to those candidates that progress to the second round of voting.

The next Ukrainian presidential elections have been set for May 25, 2014.[21][22][23]

Oath and term of office[edit]

According to Article 104 of the Constitution, the President of Ukraine assumes office no later than in thirty days after the official announcement of the election results, from the moment of taking the oath to the people at a ceremonial meeting of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the Ukrainian parliament. If the President is elected following special elections in the event of the previous president's resignation, impeachment or death, the President-elect must take oath of office within five days after the publication of the official election results.

The Chairman of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine administers the oath of office. The President-elect recites the Ukrainian oath of office with his hand on the Constitution and the Peresopnytsia Gospels:[24][c] The Ukrainian text of the oath according to the article 104 is:

Я, (ім'я та прізвище), волею народу обраний Президентом України, заступаючи на цей високий пост, урочисто присягаю на вірність Україні. Зобов'язуюсь усіма своїми справами боронити суверенітет і незалежність України, дбати про благо Вітчизни і добробут Українського народу, обстоювати права і свободи громадян, додержуватися Конституції України і законів України, виконувати свої обов'язки в інтересах усіх співвітчизників, підносити авторитет України у світі.

Official English translation:

I, (name and surname), elected by the will of the people as the President of Ukraine, assuming this high office, do solemnly swear allegiance to Ukraine. I pledge with all my undertakings to protect the sovereignty and independence of Ukraine, to provide for the good of the Motherland and the welfare of the Ukrainian people, to protect the rights and freedoms of citizens, to abide by the Constitution of Ukraine and the laws of Ukraine, to exercise my duties in the interests of all compatriots, and to enhance the prestige of Ukraine in the world.[25]

After conducting the oath, the President signs the text of the oath of office and transfers it over to the Chairman of the Constitutional Court.[24]

Duties and powers[edit]

The building of the Presidential Administration (unofficially called "Bankova") in central Kiev is located on the pedestrian Bankova Street.

According to Article 102 of the Constitution, the President is the guarantor of state sovereignty and territorial indivisibility of Ukraine, the observer of the Constitution and human rights and freedoms. As stated in Article 106, the President ensures state independence, national security and the legal succession of the state. Unlike in other semi-presidential systems of government, the President of Ukraine does not belong to the executive branch of government. The Prime Minister is Ukraine's head of government. Thus, the President serves to represent the country and government as a whole, and not any specific branch of government.[26] The President is obliged by the Constitution to prevent any actions of the executive, legislative and judicial branches from taking effect and interfering with the powers of the Constitution.[26]

The President has the power to submit a proposal for the nomination of the Prime Minister; the Verkhovna Rada, through a constitutional majority, has to support the candidacy.[27] Laws passed by the Verkhovna Rada have to be signed by the President to become officially promulgated.[28] The President also has the authority to create consultative, advisory and other subordinate government bodies for their authority with the use of the state budget. The President may address the nation and the Verkhovna Rada with his annual and special addresses on domestic and foreign issues of Ukraine. They may also call for the conduction of national referendums. The President appoints the heads of local state administrations nominated by the Prime Minister for the period of his presidency.[29]

The President represents the country and government as a whole in international affairs. The President has the authority to conduct negotiations and sign treaties on behalf of the Ukrainian government. The right to recognize foreign nations rests solely with the President. The President may appoint and dismiss heads of diplomatic missions of Ukraine to other states and to international organizations and accept the recall of diplomatic representatives to Ukraine of foreign states. Although the President does not head the executive branch of government, they have the right to nominate their candidates for Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Defence in the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.

Then-President Viktor Yushchenko meeting with then-U.S. President George W. Bush in 2008.

As per the checks and balances system of Ukrainian government, the President can veto laws adopted by the Verkhovna Rada (except constitutional amendments). The President wields high power in the legislative branch of government compared to other European heads of state. They may disband the parliament and call for early elections. This power has only been used twice to date, both times by incumbent President Viktor Yushchenko (in 2007 and 2008). The legislative branches' check on the President includes the right to overturn a presidential veto with a two-thirds majority vote of the parliament.

The President can suspend acts passed by the Cabinet of Ministers if they contradict the intent of the Constitution and challenge such acts with the Constitutional Court, one-third of which can be appointed (and dismissed) by the President. Ukrainian law also allows the President to establish new jurisdictional districts and courts. In addition, the President can select the Prosecutor General and Head of the Security Service of Ukraine with the Verkhovna Rada's consent. One-half of the Council of the National Bank of Ukraine and the National Council of Ukraine on Television and Radio Broadcasting is reserved for the President to select.

In addition to serving as the head of state, the President is the Ukrainian Army's Supreme Commander-in-Chief[30] (Article 106) and the Head of the National Security and Defense Council,[31] which advises the President regarding national security policy on domestic and international matters. The president can submit a declaration of war to the parliament and order the use of the Ukrainian Army and military formations in defense of aggression. Martial law can also be declared on the territory of Ukraine if state independence is deemed in danger. With the confirmation of the Verkhovna Rada, a state of emergency or zones of ecological emergency can also be adopted by the President.

Unconditional pardon is reserved exclusively for the President; however, this right cannot be exercised by an acting president. The President can also confer citizens with state orders such as the Hero of Ukraine or confer high military, diplomatic and other ranks and class orders. Citizenship and political asylum in Ukraine can be granted and revoked by the President of Ukraine and as regulated by law.

The President of Ukraine appoints heads of regional state administrations (oblderzhadministratsia), presidential representatives to the Republic of Crimea, Verkhovna Rada, others. The President does not act as an ex officio head of state of Crimea. The President can revoke any laws passed by the Council of Ministers of Crimea that are deemed to contradict the Ukrainian Constitution and can provide thei presidential consent on a nominee for Prime Minister of Crimea.

Since September 2011 the President of Ukraine is also head of the National Anti-Corruption Committee, while the Justice Minister serves as the secretary of this committee.[32][33] The committee tasks include a systematic analysis of corruption in Ukraine and the development of measures to combat corruption.[33]

List of presidential appointments[edit]

  • Heads of diplomatic missions of Ukraine (ambassadors)
  • Prime Minister of Ukraine (consent of Verkhovna Rada)
  • Procurator General of Ukraine (consent of Verkhovna Rada)
  • Chairman of the Anti-monopoly Committee of Ukraine (consent of Verkhovna Rada)
  • Chairman of the State Property Fund of Ukraine (consent of Verkhovna Rada)
  • Chairman of the State Committee of Ukraine on Television- and Radio-broadcasting (consent of Verkhovna Rada)
  • Members of Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine (submission of Prime-Minister)
  • Members of other central bodies of executive power (submission of Prime-Minister)
  • Heads of local government (submission of Prime Minister)
  • Members of the Council of the National Bank of Ukraine (one-half of the composition)
  • Members of the National Council of Ukraine on Television- and Radio-broadcasting (one-half of the composition)
  • The High Command of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and main military formations
  • Constitutional Court of Ukraine (one-third of the composition)

Supporting agencies[edit]

Advising bodies
Education and research
  • National Institute of Strategic Research
  • National Academy of State Management

Privileges of office[edit]

State Security bodyguards surround Viktor Yushchenko in Gdańsk, 2004.
The ceremonial residence (back side), the Mariyinsky Palace, is located in the Pechersk district.

An election as President of Ukraine garners many privileges of office to an individual. Full legal immunity is granted from all prosecutions and legal proceedings, excluding parliament's right to impeach the president. The title of President of Ukraine itself is protected by law and is reserved for the president for life, unless they have been impeached from office. According to Article 105 of the Constitution, offending the honor and dignity of the President is punishable by law, although no such law has yet been enacted.[36] The President's personal security is provided by the Directory of State Security of Ukraine and a separate presidential regiment provided by the Ministry of Interior.

For their services to the state, the president is allotted a yearly gross salary of 283,884 ($37,470, 2005).[37][38] All official and state visits made by the president are operated by the Ukraine Air Enterprise Tupolev Tu-134 presidential airplane.[39] All required aviation transportation is provided by the State Aviation Company "Ukraina" (Ukraine Air Enterprise), the headquarters of which is located in Boryspil.[40][41]

Administrative and residential buildings[edit]

The Presidential Administration of Ukraine is an administrative body set up to provide analytical, advisory and legal assistance to the President. It is colloquially known as "Bankova", because it is located on Bankova Street in a massive building across from the House with Chimaeras. The head of the administration, the Chief Secretary, acts as the gray cardinal for the president in Ukrainian politics. Around fourteen state residences are allocated for official Presidential use, many of which remain from the Kuchma-era presidency.[42] The official ceremonial residence is the Mariyinsky Palace in Kiev. Other state residences include the House with Chimaeras and the House of the Weeping Widow in Kiev, the Yusupov Palace in the Crimea Mezhigorye residence and Sinegora in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast. In addition, each former president has been allotted a state-owned dacha in the former forest preserve in Koncha-Zaspa.[43]

A lot of additional material-technical, social-communal, health care provision support is offered by the State Department of Affairs (abbreviated as DUS) that is created for state officials and subordinated to the President of Ukraine.[44] DUS is a supporting state agency that was restructured in 2000 out of the Presidential Directory of Affairs. Primarily the agency is designated for the President and its administration, while also provides support for the Cabinet of Ministers, parliament, and other state agencies if budget permits.

Official symbols[edit]

The President's official state symbols consists of the Presidential Standard of the Ukrainian Flag, the Seal of the President of Ukraine, the Presidential Sign (collar), and the Bulava of the President of Ukraine.[45] The presidential symbols, along with other important Presidential documents and media, are contained in the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, the country's main academic library. For the President's use, the library prepares documents and analytical materials.[46]


The president's spouse is recognized as the First Lady, much in the similar fashion as in other countries, although such a title holds no official and legal responsibility and is often undisclosed. However, during the Yushchenko Presidency, his marriage to Kateryna Yushchenko and their private life drew a lot of attention from the media. Apart from Kateryna Yushchenko, little else is known about the other presidential spouses,

The tradition of the Ukrainian "First family" was established by Kuchma, who became the in-law to his daughter's husband and politician Viktor Pinchuk. During the presidency of Viktor Yanukovych, the "first family" meaning was taken to the next level whose son Viktor became a parliamentarian of Verkhovna Rada with the same political party affiliation.

Impeachment and succession[edit]

In order to impeach the President, they must be convicted of treason to the state and other crimes. A two-thirds constitutional majority in the Verkhovna Rada (300 ayes) must support a procedure of impeachment for it to begin. A temporary investigative commission is established by the parliament for the impeachment investigation. The commission's final conclusions are considered at a parliamentary meeting.

To adopt an impeachment resolution, a minimum two-thirds of the parliament must support the impeachment procedure. To remove the President from office, a minimum three-quarters of parliament must support the resolution. The Constitutional and the Supreme Court of Ukraine's conclusions and decisions are considered at the parliamentary meetings.

In the event that a President is incapable of committing his/her duties as President, the Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada becomes the acting president until a new president is elected. The acting president is not given the authority to address the nation and parliament, dismiss the legislative branch and appoint candidates for parliamentary approval of government and judicial posts. The acting president cannot call for a referendum, grant military ranks and state orders and exercise their right of pardon. There are no constitutional provisions for presidential succession in case both the president and chairman's posts are vacant.

Ukrainian presidential election, 2004[edit]

Protesters at Independence Square on the first day of the Orange Revolution.

The Ukrainian presidential election, 2004 was conducted in late 2004 and was contested between then-Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych and former Prime Minister and opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko. The final stages of the election were conducted amidst allegations of media bias, voter intimidation and the poisoning of Viktor Yushchenko that was later confirmed to be the result of the poison dioxins.

The first round of voting was held on October 31, 2004 and finished at a near-draw: official figures gave Yanukovych 39.32% and Yushchenko 39.87% of the votes cast. As no candidate reached the 50 percent constitutional margin required for outright victory, a runoff election was scheduled on November 21. Although a 75 percent voter turnout was recorded in the initial vote, observers reported many irregularities, particularly in the regions where Yushchenko's support was seen to be strongest.

According to the official Central Election Commission results announced on November 23, the run-off election was won by Yanukovych with 49.46 percent of the vote to Yushchenko's 46.61 percent,[47] but Yushchenko and his supporters, as well as many international observers, denounced the election as rigged and highly falsified. Their denouncement and subsequent non-recognition of the vote led to a political crisis where widespread peaceful protests, dubbed the "Orange Revolution," eventually led to the Ukrainian Supreme Court annulling the run-off vote's results and ordering a repeat of the second round.

The repeat vote was conducted on December 26. Observers reported a much fairer vote; Viktor Yushchenko won the Presidency with 51.99 percent of the vote, to Yanukovych's 44.2 percent.[48] Yushchenko was eventually declared the winner on January 10, 2005 after the failure of a legal action brought by Yanukovych. Viktor Yushcenko was sworn in as the third President of Ukraine on January 23, 2005.

e • d Summary of the October 31, November 21 and December 26, 2004 Ukraine presidential election results
Candidates — nominating parties Votes first round 31-Oct-04  % Votes run-off 21-Nov-04  % Votes rerun 26-Dec-04  %
Viktor Yushchenko — Power of Peoples 11,188,675 39.90 14,222,289 46.61 15,115,712 51.99
Viktor YanukovychParty of Regions 11,008,731 39.26 15,093,691 49.46 12,848,528 44.20
Oleksandr MorozSocialist Party of Ukraine 1,632,098 5.82
Petro SymonenkoCommunist Party of Ukraine 1,396,135 4.97
Nataliya VitrenkoProgressive Socialist Party of Ukraine 429,794 1.53
Others 988,363 3.53
Against All 556,962 1.98 707,284 2.31 682,239 2.34
Informal 834,426 2.97 488,025 1.59 422,492 1.45
Total 28,035,184 100.00 30,511,289 100.00 29,068,971 100.00
Participation rate from 37,613,022 74.54 81.12 77.28
Source: Central Election Commission of Ukraine. On December 3, the Supreme Court of Ukraine declared the results of the November 21, 2004 run-off ballot to be invalid. The re-run ballot was held on December 26, 2004.

Ukrainian presidential election, 2010[edit]

Results of the Ukrainian presidential election, 2010, run-off. Popular vote per district won by:

The Ukrainian presidential election of 2010 is Ukraine's fifth presidential election since declaring independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. The first round of Ukraine's presidential election was held on January 17, 2010.[49][50] The President of Ukraine is elected by the citizens of Ukraine for a five-year term, on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage, by secret ballot.

A candidate seeking election must be a citizen of Ukraine who has attained the age of thirty-five, has the right to vote, has resided in Ukraine for the past ten years prior to the day of elections, and has command of the state language as required by Article 103 of Ukraine's Constitution.

Nominations by parties and candidates to run in the election closed on November 6, 2009.[51] Eighteen candidates in all have been nominated. The Central Election Committee had until November 11, 2009, to process documentation and finalize the election list.

On January 17, 2010, polling stations were open from 8:00 am to 8:00 pm.[51] Voter turnout was approximately 67 percent, according to official results 24,588,268 votes were recorded in the first round ballot. This compared to 75 percent at the 2004 presidential election. 542,824 votes (2.2%) were recorded as being "against all" with a further 1.6% of the vote declared invalid. Incumbent president Viktor Yushchenko was defeated having received only 5.45% of the vote.[52][53][54]

Viktor Yanukovych and Yulia Tymoshenko finished first and second in the first round and faced each other in the second round ballot held on February 7. Voter turnout was approximately 69%. With all second round votes counted Yanukovych won the election with 48.95% of the results, compared to Tymoshenko's 45.47%.

The election has been widely recognized and endorsed as being fair and an accurate reflection of voters' intentions by all international agencies observing the election including the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe.[55][56] A few days after the election, Yanukovych received congratulations from world leaders.[57][58][59] Still, Tymoshenko refused to concede defeat, and Tymoshenko's party promised to challenge the result.[60]

On February 14, Viktor Yanukovych, with 48.95% of the popular vote, was declared President-elect and winner of the 2010 Ukrainian Presidential election. According to Article 104 of Ukraine's Constitution the President must be sworn into office within 30 days from the official declaration of the poll before the Ukrainian parliament.[61] The Ukrainian Parliament scheduled Yanukovych's inauguration for February 25.[62]

On February 17, 2010, the Supreme Administrative Court of Ukraine, suspended the results of the election on appeal from Tymoshenko. The court suspended the Central Election Commission of Ukraine ruling that announced that Viktor Yanukovych won the election, but did not postpone or cancel Yanukovych’s inauguration.[63][64][65] Tymoshenko withdrew her appeal on February 20.[66]

e • d Summary of the 17 January and 7 February 2010 Ukrainian presidential election results
Candidates — nominating parties First round[67] Second round[68]
Votes  % Votes  %
Viktor YanukovychParty of Regions 8,686,642 35.32 12,481,266 48.95
Yulia TymoshenkoAll-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland" 6,159,810 25.05 11,593,357 45.47
Serhiy Tihipko — Self-nominated 3,211,198 13.05
Arseniy Yatsenyuk — Self-nominated 1,711,737 6.96
Viktor Yushchenko — Self-nominated 1,341,534 5.45
Petro SymonenkoCommunist Party of Ukraine 872,877 3.54
Volodymyr LytvynPeople's Party 578,883 2.35
Oleh TyahnybokAll-Ukrainian Union "Freedom" 352,282 1.43
Anatoliy Hrytsenko — Self-nominated 296,412 1.20
Inna Bohoslovska — Self-nominated 102,435 0.41
Oleksandr MorozSocialist Party of Ukraine 95,169 0.38
Yuriy KostenkoUkrainian People's Party 54,376 0.22
Liudmyla SuprunPeople's Democratic Party 47,349 0.19
Vasily Protyvsih — Self-nominated 40,352 0.16
Oleksandr Pabat — Self-nominated 35,474 0.14
Serhiy Ratushniak — Self-nominated 29,795 0.12
Mykhaylo Brodskyy — Self-nominated 14,991 0.06
Oleh Riabokon — Self-nominated 8,334 0.03
Against all 542,819 2.20 1,113,055 4.36
Invalid 405,789 1.65 305,837 1.19
Total 24,588,268 100.00 25,493,529 100.00
Source: Central Election Commission of Ukraine

List of Presidents of Ukraine[edit]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Ukraine: Speaker Oleksandr Turchynov named interim president, BBC News (23 February 2014)
    Ukraine protests timeline, BBC News (23 February 2014)
    Turchinov elected as speaker of Ukrainian Parliament, Voice of Russia (22 February 2014)
  2. ^ a b Sindelar, Daisy (February 23, 2014). "Was Yanukovych's Ouster Constitutional?". Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty ( Retrieved February 25, 2014. "[I]t is not clear that the hasty February 22 vote upholds constitutional guidelines, which call for a review of the case by Ukraine's Constitutional Court and a three-fourths majority vote by the Verkhovna Rada -- i.e., 338 lawmakers." 
  3. ^ Rada removes Yanukovych from office, schedules new elections for May 25, Interfax-Ukraine (24 February 2014)
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  5. ^ "President of Ukraine". Government portal. Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. Retrieved 2008-12-15. 
  6. ^ Yushchenko approval rating FOM-Ukraine Retrieved on May 22, 2009
  7. ^ "With or without Baloha, Yushchenko's unelectable". Taras Kuzio. Kyiv Post. May 28, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-28. [dead link]
  8. ^ Poll: “CHANGE OF ELECTORAL SITUATION IN UKRAINE - August 2009”, Research & Branding Group (August 2009)
  9. ^ Ukraine's Party of Regions to choose new leader, RIA Novosti (April 23, 2010)
  10. ^ a b Help Me, Father Czar!, Kyiv Post (5 April 2012)
  11. ^ Ohloblyn, Oleksander and Lubomyr Wynar. "Hrushevsky, Mykhailo". Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Retrieved 2008-12-24. 
  12. ^ "Vynnychenko Volodymyr Kyrylovych". Government portal. Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. Retrieved 2008-12-15. 
  13. ^ a b Rol, Mykhailo. "Tenth President" (in Ukrainian). Ukrayina Moloda. Retrieved 2008-12-30. 
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  15. ^ "10 years since the Government center of the UPR in exile gave to the free and sovereign Ukraine the symbols of government authority. This establishes that Ukraine is the legal successor to the Ukrainian People's Republic. This action was proclaimed by the former President of the UPR in exile Mykola Plaviuk". Visnyka UVKR (in Ukrainian). Ukrainian World Coordination Council. Retrieved 2008-12-18. 
  16. ^ Laws of Ukraine. Verkhovna Rada of the UkSSR decree No. 1295-XII: On the President of the Ukrainian SSR. Passed on 1991-07-05. (Ukrainian)
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  18. ^ "Court declares unconstitutional parliament's resolution calling presidential polls for October 25, 2009". Interfax-Ukraine. May 13, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  19. ^ Q&A: Ukraine presidential election, BBC News (7 February 2010)
  20. ^ Vitali Klitschko says intends to run for president in Ukraine, Interfax-Ukraine (24 October 2013)
    Parliament passes law that could prevent Klitschko from running for president, Interfax-Ukraine (24 October 2013)
  21. ^ (Ukrainian) Янукович отримав контрольний пакет у парламенті, Ukrayinska Pravda (February 2, 2011)
  22. ^ Parliament sets parliamentary elections for October 2012, presidential elections for March 2015, Kyiv Post (February 1, 2011)
  23. ^ Ukraine sets parliamentary vote for October 2012, Kyiv Post (February 1, 2011)
  24. ^ a b "Inauguration of Yushchenko will be conducted in the Rada and on Maidan" (in Russian). January 23, 2005. Retrieved 2009-02-16. 
  25. ^ "Article 103". Constitution of Ukraine. Wikisource. Retrieved 2008-12-13. 
  26. ^ a b "Presidential Authority". Presidential Administration of Ukraine. Retrieved 2008-12-15. 
  27. ^ Government approves draft law on cabinet according to which president appoints premier, Interfax-Ukraine (October 5, 2010)
  28. ^ The interns of the Program of Internship at the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine and Central Executive Bodies for 2012-2013 learned the procedure of submission and passage of bills in the Verkhovna Rada, Verkhovna Rada (14 December 2012)
    Ukraine: Energy Policy Review 2006, International Energy Agency, 24 October 2006, ISBN 9264109919 (page 130)
  29. ^ Parliament redacts laws to comply with 1996 Constitution, Kyiv Post (October 7, 2010)
  30. ^ "President of Ukraine" (in Ukrainian). Highest Commander of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Retrieved 2008-12-30. 
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  32. ^ Yanukovych vows to put an end to corruption, Kyiv Post (September 15, 2011)
  33. ^ a b Yanukovych approves instruction on National Anti-Corruption Committee, Kyiv Post (September 1, 2011)
  34. ^ Yanukovych human rights policies are oriented towards European standards – pardons commission, Interfax-Ukraine (8 April 2013)
  35. ^ Klitschko:UDAR won't join work of Constitutional Assembly, Kyiv Post (7 December 2012)
  36. ^ "SBU wants to make offending the president punishable by law". 2008-12-25. Retrieved 27 December 2008. 
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  40. ^ Annual financial report of the company for 2009 at the State Directory of Affairs website
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  43. ^ "Ukrayinska Pravda exposes president’s Mezhygirya deal". Kyiv Post. 2009-05-06. Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
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  48. ^ "Results of the voting in Ukraine (re-run)". Central Election Commission of Ukraine (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2009-02-16. 
  49. ^ VR appointed regular election of President of Ukraine for January 17, 2010, UNIAN (June 23, 2009)
  50. ^ Parliament sets January 17, 2010, as presidential election date, Interfax-Ukraine (June 23, 2009)
  51. ^ a b Ukraine's presidential candidates to be nominated from Oct. 20 to Nov. 6, Kyiv Post (October 2, 2009)
  52. ^ (Ukrainian) Central Election Commission Candidate Results, CEC Ukraine (January 19, 2010)
  53. ^ TABLE-Ukraine's presidential election results, Kyiv Post (January 18, 2010)
  54. ^ Ukraine's Orange leader Yushchenko loses election, BBC News (January 18, 2010)
  55. ^ Ukraine's Tymoshenko bloc 'contesting election result', BBC News (February 9, 2010)
  56. ^ Run-off confirms that Ukraine's presidential election meets most international commitments, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (February 8, 2010)
  57. ^ [1]
  58. ^ [2]
  59. ^ NATO, EU follow U.S., welcome Yanukovych, Kyiv Post (February 12, 2010)
  60. ^ Ukraine's Tymoshenko Slams Rival, No Comment On Election Result, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (February 11, 2010)
  61. ^ CEC official declaration of the 2010 Presidential election, CEC (February 14, 2010)
  62. ^ Update: Yanukovych to be sworn in, rival fights on, Kyiv Post (February 14, 2010)
  63. ^ High Court in Ukraine Weighs Appeal on Election
  64. ^ Ukrainian election results suspended on appeal
  65. ^ Ukrainian election result suspended after PM's appeal
  66. ^ Ukraine Prime Minister Drops Election Challenge
  67. ^ (Ukrainian) ЦВК оприлюднила офіційні результати 1-го туру виборів, (January 25, 2010)
  68. ^ Yulia Timoshenko received 45.47 percent, or 11.6 million votes


a.^ As President of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.

b.^ Per Chapter V, Article 103 of the Constitution, the President is allowed to serve a maximum of two full 5-year terms. However, in 2003, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine permitted then-President Leonid Kuchma to run for a third term in the 2004 presidential election (he chose not to run). "Summary to the Decision no. 22-rp/2003 of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine as of December 25, 2003" (Microsoft Word document). Constitutional Court of Ukraine. December 25, 2003. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 

C.^ Official Ukrainian text of the oath: "Я, (ім'я та прізвище), волею народу обраний Президентом України, заступаючи на цей високий пост, урочисто присягаю на вірність Україні. Зобов'язуюсь усіма своїми справами боронити суверенітет і незалежність України, дбати про благо Вітчизни і добробут Українського народу, обстоювати права і свободи громадян, додержуватися Конституції України і законів України, виконувати свої обов'язки в інтересах усіх співвітчизників, підносити авторитет України у світі." Source: "Стаття 104". Constitution of Ukraine (in Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Retrieved 2008-12-13. 

D.^ Although Leonid Kravchuk's official inauguration ceremony was conducted on August 22, 1992, he carried out most of the presidential responsibilities temporarily ceded to him as Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada until December 5, 1991 when he became President.

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