The official titlePresident of the Council of Ministers, or Chairman of the Council of Ministers is used to describe the head of government of the states of Italy and Poland, and formerly in the Soviet Union, Portugal (during the Constitutional Monarchy and during the Estado Novo regime), France (during the Third and Fourth Republics), Spain (during the Second Republic), Brazil (during the Empire, 1822-1889), and Luxembourg (1848–1857). It was also called like this in Romania (from 1886 to 1989). Unofficially these heads of government are usually called Premier or Prime Minister. In addition, the head of the cabinet in Peru is known as the President of the Council of Ministers (Spanish: Presidente del Consejo de Ministros), colloquially referred to as the President of the Council (Presidente del Consejo) or the Prime Minister (Primer Ministro). In contrast to the Presidents of the Council of Ministers in the aforementioned countries, Peru's President of the Council of Ministers is not the head of government (Peru is a presidentialrepublic in which the President of the Republic serves as both the head of state and the head of government).