President of the Palestinian National Authority
The President of the Palestinian National Authority (Arabic: رئيس السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية), in the Oslo II Accord referred to as Ra'ees or Ra'is (رئيس), is the highest-ranking political position (equivalent to head of state) in the Palestinian National Authority (PNA).
The President appoints the Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority from the Palestinian Legislative Council, with whom he shares power.
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The title Ra'ees
The Arabic term Ra'ees or Ra'is (رئيس) can be translated to English as either "President" or "Chairman". As the status of Palestine as a political entity is controversial to Israel, the use of the term President to describe the leader of the Palestinian government is controversial too, as its use may be seen to imply a recognition of state sovereignty. The use of the term "Chairman" is controversial to the Palestinians for the opposite reason, as its use may be seen to imply denial of Palestinian aspirations for statehood. 
The Arabic term was used in the English text of the Oslo II Accord, which established the PNA. The Ra'ees is the head and ex officio member of the Executive Authority of the Palestinian Council. Members of the Executive Authority are members of the Council, chosen and proposed to the Council by the Ra'ees of the Executive Authority and approved by the Council, or at most twenty percent non-members of the Council, appointed by the Ra'ees. Pursuant to the Oslo II Accord, the Palestinian Council and the Ra'ees of the Executive Authority together constitute the elected Palestinian Interim Self-Government Authority In practice, when referring to the ra'ees in English documents and statements, the PNA uses the term "president", whereas Israel uses "chairman".
The United States, in its role as peace broker, uses several different terms according to context. News releases from its embassy in Israel refer to the PNA "chairman"; press briefings in Washington use "president"; both occasionally avoid the issue with "Palestinian leader". The international English-language press mostly (but not always) follows the Palestinian terminology. Israeli press refers to the leader variously as "ra'ees", "president", "chairman" or by name alone.
A letter delivered from Yasser Arafat to the then Prime Minister of Israel, Yitzhak Rabin, as part of the Gaza–Jericho Agreement stated that "When Chairman Arafat enters the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area, he will use the title 'Chairman (Ra'ees in Arabic) of the Palestinian Authority' or 'Chairman of the PLO', and will not use the title 'President of Palestine.'" There are some documents signed by Arafat as 'Chairman'. The same term was used by Bill Clinton during 2000 Camp David Summit.
Yasser Arafat, first president
Yasser Arafat was the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization and became the Palestinian National Authority's first president when the governing body was created in 1994. His rule was validated by an election on 20 January 1996, but future elections were suspended. Arafat remained president until his death on 11 November 2004, at which point Palestinian house speaker Rauhi Fattouh assumed most of Arafat's duties and became interim president. However, he never formally assumed the title.
Mahmoud Abbas, second president
After the presidential election of 9 January 2005, Mahmoud Abbas became the second president. Abbas' term expired on 9 January 2009, creating a constitutional crisis. Abbas unilaterally extended his term by one year. He was recognised as president by the government of Salam Fayyad, which governs parts of the West Bank. His position, however was deputed by the government of Ismail Haniyeh, that governs the Gaza Strip. The Government of Gaza recognises the Speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council, Aziz Duwaik, as the acting President.
On 16 December 2009, the PLO (of which the Chairman is Abbas himself) indefinitely extended the terms of both President Mahmoud Abbas and the Hamas-dominated parliament until new elections to be held in the future. Abbas had issued a decree for presidential and parliamentary elections to be held on 24 January 2010, but Hamas rejected elections until there is a national reconciliation agreement. Reconciliation is, however, not allowed by Israel and major parts of the international community, notably the United States.
Election and term of office
Powers and responsibilities
- Commander-in-Chief of the Palestinian Forces
- Sends and receives all foreign ambassadors
- May veto bills within 30 days of passage with 2/3 majority needed to over turn veto
- May grant pardons or commute sentences but not general amnesty
- If Legislative Council is not in session, in exceptional cases, can issues decrees with force of law, but decrees must be presented to Legislative Council as soon as convened for approval or cease to have force of law
- Appoints the Prime Minister and may remove him
- Orders the Prime Minister to call together the Council of Ministers
- No right to dissolve the Legislative council and call for early elections.
Oath of office
Before assuming the office, the President takes the following oath before the Legislative Council, and in the presence of the Speaker of the Palestinian National Council, the Chief of the Supreme Court:
- I swear to God almighty to be faithful to the Homeland and to its sacred places, and to the people and its national heritage, and to respect the Constitutional system and the law, and to safeguard the interests of the Palestinian people completely, as God is my witness.
The office of the President is considered vacant in any of the following cases:
- Resignation submitted to the Palestinian Legislative Council if accepted by two thirds of its Members
- Considered legally incompetent, as per a ruling issued by the Supreme Constitutional Court, and subsequently approved by two thirds of the Palestinian Legislative Council
If the office of the President of the National Authority becomes vacant due to any of the above cases, the Speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council assumes the powers and duties of the Presidency of the National Authority, temporarily for a period not exceeding sixty days, during which free and direct elections to choose a new president are required to take place in accordance with the Palestinian election laws.
List of Presidents (1994 – present)
|Term of Office||Party|
|5 July 1994||11 November 2004
(died in office)
(Palestine Liberation Organization)
|11 November 2004||15 January 2005||Fatah
(Palestine Liberation Organization)
|15 January 2005||Incumbent
(disputed since 9 January 2009)
(Palestine Liberation Organization)
(b. c. 1950)
|15 January 2009||Incumbent||Hamas|
- Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization
- President of the State of Palestine
- Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority
- Speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council
- Leaders of Palestinian institutions
- Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. MFA, 28 September 1995
- 1995 Oslo Interim Agreement. Text of the Accord
- "Gaza-Jericho letters".
- The Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum on Implementation Timeline of Outstanding Commitments of Agreements Signed and the Resumption of Permanent Status Negotiations; September 4, 1999
- «The President: «Good morning. Early next week, Prime Minister Barak and Chairman Arafat will come to Camp David at my invitation»
- Abbas' presidential term extended. Al Jazeera, 16 December 2009
- Abbas reacts: PM must choose between peace, settlements. Jerusalem Post, 27 April 2011
- Abbas says peace with Israel will be brought to a referendum for Palestinians ′everywhere′. Khaled abu Toameh, Jerusalem Post, 2 September 2013
Abbas said that he was under pressure from the US and Israel not to achieve unity with Hamas.
- 2005 Amendment to the Basic Law
- President of the Palestinian National Authority of the Government in the West Bank
- Acting President of the Palestinian National Authority of the Government in the Gaza Strip
- Palestine National Authority, Office of the Prime Minister (English)
- The Palestinian Basic Law – A collection of various proposals and amendments to the Basic Law of Palestine
- Palestinian President Office