President of the Philippines
|President of the Philippines
Pangulo ng Pilipinas
|Style||His Excellency (male)
Her Excellency (female)
|Term length||Six years|
|Inaugural holder||Emilio Aguinaldo|
|Formation||22 March 1897
November 15, 1935
|Salary||PhP 800, 000 per month (Php 57,600 total at 6 year term as of 2012[update][note 1]|
|This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
The President of the Philippines (Filipino: Pangulo ng Pilipinas) is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The President of the Philippines in Filipino is referred to as Ang Pangulo or informally by the Spanish title, Presidente.
Depending on the definition chosen for these terms, a number of persons could alternatively be considered the inaugural holder of the office. Andres Bonifacio is considered by some historians to be the de facto first President of the Philippines. He was the third Supreme President (Spanish: Presidente Supremo; Tagalog: Kataastaasang Pangulo) of the Katipunan secret society. Its Supreme Council, led by the Supreme President, coordinated provincial and district councils. When the Katipunan went into open revolt in August 1896, Bonifacio had transformed it into a de facto revolutionary government with him as President. While the term Katipunan remained, Bonifacio's government was also known as the Tagalog Republic (Spanish: República Tagala). Although the word Tagalog refers to a specific ethnicity, Bonifacio used it to denote all indigenous people in the Philippines in place of Filipino which had colonial origins. In place of the Spanish Filipinas he coined a Tagalog name, Haring Bayang Katagalugan (Sovereign Tagalog Nation). Some historians contend that including Bonifacio as a past president would imply that Macario Sacay and Miguel Malvar should also be included.
In March 1897 Emilio Aguinaldo was elected President of a revolutionary government at the Tejeros Convention. The new government was meant to replace the Katipunan as a government, though the latter was not formally abolished until 1899. Aguinaldo was again elected President at Biak-na-Bato in November, leading the Biak-na-Bato Republic. Exiled in Hong Kong after the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, with the advent of the Spanish-American War he returned to the Philippines to renew revolutionary activities and formed a dictatorial government on May 24, 1898. Revolutionary forces under his command declared independence on June 12, 1898. On June 23, 1898, Aguinaldo transformed his dictatorial government into a revolutionary government. On January 23, 1899, he was then elected President of the Philippine Republic (Spanish: República Filipina), a government constituted by the Malolos Congress. Thus, this government is also called the Malolos Republic. Sovereignty over the Philippines passed from Spain to the United States with the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Spanish-American War. Aguinaldo's government effectively ceased to exist on April 1, 1901, when he pledged allegiance to the United States after being captured by U.S. forces in March. The current Philippine government, formally called the Republic of the Philippines, considers Emilio Aguinaldo to be the first President of the Philippines and the Malolos Republic as the "First" Philippine Republic.
Miguel Malvar continued Aguinaldo's leadership of the Philippine Republic after the latter's capture until his own capture in 1902, while Macario Sakay founded a Tagalog Republic in 1902 as a continuation of Bonifacio's Katipunan. They are both considered by some scholars as "unofficial presidents". Along with Bonifacio, Malvar and Sakay are not recognized as Presidents by the Philippine government.
American Occupation 
Between 1901 and 1935, executive power in the Philippines was exercised by a succession of 16 American Governors General. In October 1935, Manuel L. Quezón was elected the first President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines which had been established, still under U.S. sovereignty, under a constitution ratified on May 14 of that year. When President Manuel L. Quezon left for the United States via Australia, he appointed Chief Justice José Abad Santos Acting President. President Santos was subsequently executed by the Japanese occupation May 2, 1942.
The Japanese-sponsored Second Republic 
José P. Laurel became Ppresident under a constitution imposed under Japanese occupation. Laurel, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, had been instructed to remain in Manila by President Manuel L. Quezon, who fled to Corregidor and then to the United States to establish a government-in-exile.
After World War II 
The 1935 constitution was reinstated after the Japanese surrender ended World War II, with Sergio Osmeña as President. That constitution remained in effect after the United States recognized the independence of the Republic of the Philippines as a separate self-governing nation on July 4, 1946.
1973 Constitution 
A new constitution ratified on January 17, 1973 during the presidency of Ferdinand E. Marcos, introduced a parliamentary-style government. This constitution was in effect until the People Power Revolution of 1986 swept Corazon C. Aquino into power as President. On March 25, 1986, Presidential Proclamation No. 3 promulgated a provisional constitution, supplanted on February 2, 1987 when the now-current constitution was ratified.
Other issues 
Both Bonifacio and Aguinaldo might be considered to have been an inaugural president of an insurgent government. Quezón was the inaugural president of a predecessor-government to the current one, and Aquino was the inaugural president of the currently-constituted government.
The Government of the Philippines considers Emilio Aguinaldo to have been the inaugural President of the Philippines, followed by Manuel Quezón and by subsequent Presidents. Despite the differences in constitutions and government, the line of presidents is considered to be continuous. For instance, the current president, Benigno S. Aquino III, is considered to be the 15th president.
While the Philippine government considers Emilio Aguinaldo to be the first president, the First Republic fell under the United States following the Philippine-American War, and the United States does not consider his presidency to have been legitimate. Manuel L. Quezon is considered to be the first president by the United States and the first to win an election. The Philippines had two presidents at one point during World War II heading two governments. One was Quezón heading the Commonwealth government-in-exile (considered de jure) and the other was J. P. Laurel heading the Japanese-sponsored republic (considered de facto). Laurel was instructed to remain in Manila by President Manuel L. Quezón. Laurel was not recognized as a Philippine president formally until the Macapagal administration. The recognition coincided with the movement of the Philippine Independence Day from July 4 to June 12. However, in the roster of presidents it is inaccurate to consider Laurel the successor of Osmeña or vice versa; Laurel's republic was formally rejected after World War II and none of its statutes or actions were considered legal or binding. The inclusion of Laurel causes some problems in determining the order of presidents. Quezón, Osmeña, and Roxas, for example, were three of a continuous constitutional line; Laurel was the only President of the Second Republic. Thus, Laurel has no predecessor and successor, while Osmeña was Quezón's successor and Roxas was Osmeña's successor.
Powers and duties 
Chief Executive 
Under Article 7, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Philippines, the President heads the Executive branch of the government, which includes the Cabinet and all executive departments. The executive power, as such, is vested on the President alone.
Section 19 gives the President power to grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons, and remit fines and forfeitures, after conviction by final judgment, except when the President is under impeachment.
Section 20 provides the president to contract or guarantee foreign loans on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines with the prior concurrence of the Monetary Board, and subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.
The president exercises general supervision over local government units.
Section 18 of the Constitution of the Philippines: the President is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. As Commander-in-Chief, the President can call out such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence, invasion or rebellion. In case of invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires it, he or she may, for a period not exceeding sixty days, suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or place the Philippines or any part thereof under martial law.
Power of appointment 
The President appoints, with consent of the Commission on Appointments, members of the Constitutional Commissions, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, or officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain, and other officers whose appointments are vested in the President in the 1987 Constitution. The members of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President, based on a list prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council. These need not the consent of the Commission on Appointments.
Government agencies 
The Office of the President also has attached government agencies under it. It includes agencies such as the Film Development Council of the Philippines, the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority and the Securities and Exchange Commission (Philippines). These agencies are not under the different cabinet departments and are under the direct supervision of the president.
Selection process 
Under Article 7, Section 2 of the Constitution of the Philippines, in order to serve as President, one must be:
- at least 40 years old and above;
- a registered voter, single or married;
- able to read and write;
- male or female a Filipino citizen by birth; and
- a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding election.
A person who meets the above qualifications is still disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:
- Under Article 7, Section 4 of the Constitution of the Philippines, a person who has already been elected to the Office of President can no longer be eligible to the same office. No person who has succeeded as President and has served as such for more than four years shall be qualified for election to the same office at any time.
Under Article 6, Section 8 of the Constitution of the Philippines, the election of the President is done by direct vote. The regular election for President and Vice-President shall be held on the second Monday of May, unless otherwise provided by law.
The returns of every election for President and Vice-President, duly certified by the board of canvassers of each province or city, shall be transmitted to the Congress, directed to the President of the Senate. Upon receipt of the certificates of canvass, the President of the Senate shall, not later than thirty days after the day of the election, open all the certificates in the presence of the Senate and the House of Representatives in joint public session, and the Congress, upon determination of the authenticity and due execution thereof in the manner provided by law, canvass the votes.
The person having the highest number of votes shall be proclaimed elected, but in case two or more shall have an equal and highest number of votes, one of them shall forthwith be chosen by the vote of a majority of all the Members of both Houses of the Congress, voting separately.
The President of the Philippines usually takes his/her oath on the noon of June 30 following the Presidential election
Traditionally, the Vice-President takes his/her oath first, a little before noon. This is for two reasons: first, according to protocol, no one follows the President, and second, to establish a constitutionally authorized successor even before the President takes oath. During the Quezon inauguration, however, the Vice-President and the legislature were sworn in after the President had taken oath first, to symbolize a new start
As soon as the President takes the oath of office, a 21-gun salute is fired to honor the new head of state, and the presidential anthem "Mabuhay" is played. Then the President delivers the inaugural address. Afterwards, the president then takes formal possession of the official residence, and inducts the cabinet into office.
According to tradition, the President of the Philippines is inaugurated into office in one of three places: at the Barasoain Church in Malolos City, Bulacan; in front of Congress; or at Quirino Grandstand. On June 30, 2004, however, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo delivered her pre-inaugural address at Quirino Grandstand in Manila, took her oath of office at Cebu City before then Supreme Court Chief Justice Hilario Davide Jr., then the next day held the first Cabinet meeting at Butuan City in Northern Mindanao, with the intention of celebrating her inauguration at three places symbolizing the three main island groups in the country, Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao.
In the past, elections were held in November and the President's inauguration was held on December 30, or Rizal Day. Thus, when the inauguration was usually held at Quirino Grandstand, the new President could see the monument to the national hero whose death anniversary was being celebrated that day. However, Ferdinand Marcos transferred the dates of the elections and the inauguration to May and June, and that is what is now being followed.
Oath of Office 
Under Article VII, Section 5 of the Constitution, before the President-Elect and Vice-President-Elect enter into the execution of their offices, the President shall take the following oath or affirmation:
I do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my duties as President [or Vice-President or Acting President] of the Philippines, preserve and defend its Constitution, execute its laws, do justice to every man, and consecrate myself to the service of the Nation. So help me God.
[In case of affirmation, last sentence will be omitted]
The oath from the Filipino version of the Constitution was used for the inaugurations of Presidents Fidel V. Ramos, Joseph Estrada and Benigno Aquino III:
Matimtim kong pinanunumpaan (o pinatotohanan) na tutuparin ko nang buong katapatan at sigasig ang aking mga tungkulin bilang Pangulo (o Pangalawang Pangulo o Nanunungkulang Pangulo) ng Pilipinas, pangangalagaan at ipagtatanggol ang kanyang Konstitusyon, ipatutupad ang mga batas nito, magiging makatarungan sa bawat tao, at itatalaga ang aking sarili sa paglilingkod sa Bansa. Kasihan nawa ako ng Diyos.
(Kapag pagpapatotoo, ang huling pangungusap ay kakaltasin.)
Impeachment in the Philippines follows procedures similar to the United States. Under Sections 2 and 3, Article XI, Constitution of the Philippines, the House of Representatives of the Philippines has the exclusive power to initiate all cases of impeachment against the President, Vice President, members of the Supreme Court, members of the Constitutional Commissions (Commission on Elections,Civil Service Commission Commission on Audit), and the Ombudsman. When a third of its membership has endorsed the impeachment articles, it is then transmitted to the Senate of the Philippines which tries and decide, as impeachment tribunal, the impeachment case. A main difference from US proceedings however is that only 1/3 of House members are required to approve the motion to impeach the President (as opposed to 50%+1 members in their US counterpart). In the Senate, selected members of the House of Representatives act as the prosecutors and the Senators act as judges with the Senate President and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court jointly presiding over the proceedings. Like the United States, to convict the official in question requires that a minimum of 2/3 (i.e., 16 of 24 members) of the senate vote in favour of conviction. If an impeachment attempt is unsuccessful or the official is acquitted, no new cases can be filed against that impeachable official for at least one full year.
Impeachable offenses and officials 
The 1987 Philippine Constitution says the grounds for impeachment include culpable violation of the Constitution, bribery, graft and corruption, and betrayal of public trust. These offenses are considered "high crimes and misdemeanors" under the Philippine Constitution.
The President, Vice President, Supreme Court justices, and members of the Constitutional Commission and Ombudsman are all considered impeachable officials under the Constitution.
Impeachment proceedings and attempts 
Joseph Estrada was the first Philippine president impeached by the House in 2000, but the trial ended prematurely due to outrage over a vote to open an envelope where that motion was narrowly defeated by his allies.
In 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008, impeachment complaints were filed against President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, but none of the cases reached the required endorsement of 1/3 of the members for transmittal to, and trial by, the Senate.
Official title 
The official title of the president is "President of the Philippines." The title in Filipino is "Pangulo" The honorific for the President of the Philippines is "Your Excellency" or "His/Her Excellency", adopted from the title of the Governor-General of the Philippines during Spanish and American occupation. The term "President of the Republic of the Philippines", used under Japanese occupation of the Philippines distinguished the government of then-President José P. Laurel from the Commonwealth government in exile under President Manuel L. Quezon. The restoration of the Commonwealth in 1945 and the subsequent independence of the Philippines title "President of the Philippines" sanctioned in the 1935 constitution. The 1973 constitution, though generally referring to the president as "President of the Philippines" did, in Article XVII, Section 12, once used the term, "President of the Republic." President Ferdinand E. Marcos proclaimed martial law in his Proclamation No. 1081 and consistently used the term "President of the Philippines."
State of the nation address 
The State of the Nation Address (abbreviated SONA) is an annual event in the Philippines, in which the President of the Philippines reports on the status of the nation, normally to the resumption of a joint session of the Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate). This is a duty of the President as stated in Article VII, Section 23 of the 1987 Constitution:
|“||The President shall address Congress at the opening of its regular session. He/She may also appear anytime.||”|
Tenure and term limits 
The 1935 Constitution originally provided for a single six-year term for a president without re-election. In 1940, however, the 1935 Constitution was amended and the term of the President (and Vice-President) was shortened to four years but allowed one re-election. Since the amendment was done, only Presidents Manuel L. Quezon (1941) and Ferdinand Marcos (1969) were re-elected. Presidents Sergio Osmeña (1946), Elpidio Quirino (1953), Carlos P. Garcia (1961) and Diosdado Macapagal (1965) all failed in seeking a new term.
However, in 1973, a new Constitution was promulgated and allowed then-incumbent President Ferdinand Marcos to seek a new term. In 1981, Marcos was again elected as President against Alejo Santos – making him the only President to be elected to a third term.
Today, under Article 7, Section 4 of the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines, the term of the President shall begin at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following the day of the election and shall end at noon of the same date, six years thereafter. The incumbent President shall not be eligible for any re-election. No person who has succeeded as President and has served as such for more than four years shall be qualified for election to the same office at any time.
At the start of the term 
Under Article 7, Section 7 of the Constitution of the Philippines, In case the president-elect fails to qualify, the Vice President-elect shall act as President until the President-elect shall have qualified.
If at the beginning of the term of the President, the President-elect shall have died or shall have become permanently disabled, the Vice President-elect shall become President.
Where no President and Vice President shall have been chosen or shall have qualified, or where both shall have died or become permanently disabled, the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall act as President until a President or a Vice President shall have been chosen and qualified.
During the term 
Article 7, Sections 8 and 11 of the Constitution of the Philippines provide rules of succession to the presidency. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of the President, the Vice President will become the President to serve the unexpired term. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of both the President and Vice President; the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall then act as President until the President or Vice-President shall have been elected and qualified.
The Congress shall, by law, provide who shall serve as President in case of death, permanent disability, or resignation of the Acting President. He shall serve until the President or the Vice President shall have been elected and qualified, and be subject to the same restrictions of powers and disqualifications as the Acting President.
The line of presidential succession as specified by Article 7, Section 10 of the Constitution of the Philippines are the Vice President, Senate President and the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
The current Presidential line of succession is:
|1||Jejomar C. Binay||Vice President|
|2||Juan Ponce Enrile||Senate President|
|3||Feliciano R. Belmonte, Jr.||Speaker of the House|
Privileges of office 
Official residence 
Malacañan Palace is the official residence of the President of the Philippines. The president is entitled to have an official residence as stipulated under Article 7, Section 6 of the Constitution of the Philippines. The Palace is located along the north bank of the Pasig River in San Miguel, Manila. The Filipino name is derived from the Tagalog phrase "may lakan diyan", meaning "there is a noble there"; this was eventually shortened to Malakanyáng. The two terms in use, "Malacañan Palace" and "Malacañang", are distinct in that the first refers to the official residence of the President itself, while the latter identifies the office of the President, as well as for both as a whole collocquially and in the media. Malacañan Palace is depicted on the verso (back) side of the present-day 20-Peso bill.
Presidential residence 
The presidential residence of President Benigno S. Aquino III is Bahay Pangarap (English: House of Dreams), located inside of Malacañang Park, at the headquarters of the Presidential Security Group across the Pasig River from Malacañan Palace. Aquino is the first president to make Bahay Pangarap his official residence. Malacañang Park was intended as a recreational retreat by former President Manuel L. Quezon. The house was built and designed by architect Juan Arellano in the 1930s, and underwent a number of renovations. In 2008, the house was demolished and rebuilt in contemporary style by architect Conrad Onglao, a new swimming pool was built, replacing the Commonwealth-era swimming pool. The house originally had one bedroom, however, the house was renovated for Aquino to have four bedrooms, a guest room, a room for Aquino's household staff, and a room for Aquino's close-in security. The house was originally intended as a rest house, the venue for informal activities and social functions for the First Family by former President Manuel L. Quezon. Malacañang Park was refurbished through the efforts of First Lady Eva Macapagal, wife of former President Diosdado Macapagal, in the early 1960s. First Lady Macapagal renamed the rest house as Bahay Pangarap. During the presidency of Fidel V. Ramos, the house was restored and became the club house of the Malacañang Golf Club. The house was used by former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo to welcome special guests. Aquino refused to live in Malacañan Palace, the official residence of the President of the Philippines, or in Arlegui Mansion, the residence of former presidents Corazon Aquino and Fidel V. Ramos, stating that the two residences are too big, and also stated that his small family residence at Times Street in Quezon City would be impractical, since it would be a security concern for his neighbors.
Air transport 
The 250th (Presidential) Airlift Wing of the Philippine Air Force has the mandate of providing safe and efficient air transport for the President of the Philippines and the First Family. On occasion, the wing has also been tasked to provide transportation for other members of government, visiting heads of state, and other state guests.
The fleet includes: 1 Fokker F28, which is primarily used for the President's domestic trips and it is also called "Kalayaan One" when the President is on board, 4 Bell 412 helicopters, 3 Sikorsky S-76 helicopters, 1 Sikorsky S-70-5 Black Hawk, a number of Bell UH-1N Twin Hueys, as well as Fokker F-27 Friendships. For trips outside of the Philippines, the Air Force employs a Bombardier Global Express or charters appropriate aircraft from the country's flag carrier Philippine Airlines. In 1962, the Air Force chartered aircraft from Pan American World Airways as the international services of Philippine Airlines were suspended. Pan Am later went defunct in 1991. For short-haul flights, PAL uses Airbus A320 when all its Boeing 737s were sold. For medium to long-haul flights, the airline's Airbus A340-300, Boeing 747-400, and the new Boeing 777 are used. Any PAL aircraft with the callsign PR 001 is a special plane operated by Philippine Airlines to transport the President of the Philippines.
A Presidential Helicopter Bell 412 crashed on April 7, 2009 at Ifugao Province North of Manila. On board were 8 people including two cabinet undersecretaries and other military men. The flight is en route to Ifugao from Baguio City as an advanced party of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo when Loakan Airport Tower lost communication with the aircraft several minutes after take off.
Water transport 
BRP Ang Pangulo (BRP stands for Barko ng Republika ng Pilipinas(Ship of the Republic of the Philippines); "Ang Pangulo" is Filipino for "The President") was commissioned by the Philippine Navy on March 7, 1959. It was built in and by Japan during the administration of Philippine President Carlos P. Garcia as part of its the reparations to the Philippines for World War II. It is primarily used in entertaining guests of the seating President.
Land transport 
The President of the Philippines uses two black and heavily armored Mercedes-Benz W221 S600 Guard, whereas one is a decoy vehicle. In convoys, the President is escorted by the Presidential Security Group using primarily Nissan Patrol SUVs with the combination of the following vehicles: Audi A6, BMW 7 Series, Chevrolet Suburban, Hyundai Equus, Hyundai Starex, Toyota Camry, Toyota Fortuner, Toyota Land Cruiser, Philippine National Police 400cc motorcycles, Philippine National Police Toyota Altis (Police car variant), other Government-owned vehicles, and ambulances. The number of security vehicles in the convoy depends on the destination. The presidential cars are designated and registered a plate number of 1 or the word PANGULO (President). The limousine bears the Flag of the Philippines and the Flag of the President of the Philippines Occasionally.
In regional trips, the President boards a Toyota Coaster or Mitsubishi Fuso Rosa or other vehicles owned by government-owned/controlled corporations or government agencies. In this case, the PSG escorts the President using local police cabs with ambulances on the tail of the convoy.
The incumbent President, Benigno Aquino III, prefers to use his personal vehicle, a Toyota Land Cruiser 200 or his relative's Lexus LX-570 over the black Presidential limousines because of their electronic malfunctions having been submerged in flood water. The Palace has announced its interest to acquire a new Presidential limousine.
Presidential security 
The Presidential Security Group, known officially as the PSG, is the lead agency tasked in providing security for the President of the Philippines, Vice President of the Philippines, and their immediate families. They also provide protective service for visiting heads of states and diplomats.
Unlike the other groups around the world who protect political figures, the PSG is not required by command to protect presidential candidates. However, former presidents and their immediate families are entitled security service from the PSG. Currently, the PSG uses Nissan Patrol SUVs as its primary security vehicles.
After the presidency 
Many presidents held significant positions after leaving the presidency. José P. Laurel, who was president during the Japanese occupation, served as Senator from 1951–1957. Laurel was elected to the Senate in 1951, under the Nacionalista Party. He was urged upon to run for President in 1953, but he declined, working instead for the successful election of Ramon Magsaysay. Magsaysay appointed Laurel head of a mission tasked with negotiating trade and other issues with United States officials, the result being known as the Laurel-Langley Agreement. Laurel was also the chairman of the Economic Mission to the United States (1954) and the founder of the Lyceum of the Philippines.
Sergio Osmeña became member of the council of state under the administrations of Roxas, Quirino, Magsaysay and García. He was also a member of the National Security Council in the García administration.
Diosdado Macapagal was also a delegate and then succeeded Carlos P. García as president of the 1971 Constitutional Convention. He also lectured in universities and member of the council of state under Presidents Aquino and Ramos.
Corazon C. Aquino was a member of the National Security Council under the Ramos, Estrada and Arroyo administrations. She was also a member of the council of state under President Arroyo.
Fidel V. Ramos founded the Ramos Peace and Development Foundation. He was a senior advisor and member of the National Security Council under President Estrada. Ramos was a member of the Council of State and an ambassador–at–large under President Arroyo.
Joseph Ejercito Estrada made a movie career comeback in November 2009 in a film entitled Ang Tanging Pamilya: A Marry Go Round. He also announced his candidacy for the presidency amid controversy on its legality. Estrada eventually became a member of the National Security Council under his successor, President Arroyo. As of the 13 May 2013 elections, he is Mayor-elect for the City of Manila.
As of June 30, 2010, there are three living former Presidents:
The last president to die was Former Pres. Corazon Aquino on Aug. 1, 2009 due to cardiorespiratory arrest. Among other honors, former Presidents and their immediate family are entitled to three soldiers as guard detail.
See also 
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- First Spouse of the Philippines
- List of Presidents of the Philippines
- Philippine Presidential Inauguration
- Prime Minister of the Philippines
- Seal of the President of the Philippines
- Unofficial Philippine Presidents
- Vice President of the Philippines
- Article XVIII Section 17 of the 1987 constitution provides that until the Congress provides otherwise the President shall receive an annual salary of three hundred thousand pesos. On August 21, 1989, Republic Act No. 6758 directed the Department of Budget and Managements (DBM) to establish and administer a unified Compensation and Position Classification System along lines specified in that Act. On March 14, 2007, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo issued Executive Order No. 611 Department of Budget and Management (DBM) is hereby directed to implement a ten percent (10%) increase over the basic monthly salaries of civilian government personnel whose positions are covered by the Compensation and Position Classification System as of June 30, 2007, including the salaries of the President, Vice-President, Senators and members of the House of Representatives, but to take effect only after the expiration of the respective terms of office of the incumbent officials pursuant to Section 10 of Article VI and Section 6 of Article VII of the 1987 Constitution. In August 2010, after President Benigno Aquino received his first paychecks, Philippine newspapers reported that his salary was PhP95,000 per month and by 2011, the president's salary will reach P107,000 a month, and P120,000 by 2012.
- "Noynoy's new home is Bahay Pangarap".
- "Bahay Pangarap: Aquino's future home?".
- Guevara, Sulpico, ed. (2005). The laws of the first Philippine Republic (the laws of Malolos) 1898-1899.. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library (published 1972). Retrieved 2011-01-10.
- Compensation and Position Classification Act of 1989 (August 21, 1989), Chan Robles Virtual Law Library.
- 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines. Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved January 7, 2008
- EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 611, AUTHORIZING COMPENSATION ADJUSTMENTS TO GOVERNMENT PERSONNEL (July 1, 2007), Lawphil.net.
- "Aquino to spend part of first salary in paying his bills". The Mindanao Daily Mirror. August 6, 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-09-29. Retrieved August 6, 2010. "Aquino’s salary is pegged at P 95,000 but due to automatic deductions, President Aquino received a net income of P63,002.17. His pay check was released July 30 and the President received it last Monday (Aug. 2)By 2011, Aquino’s pay would reach P107,000 a month and P120,000 by 2012."
- Borromeo & Borromeo-Buehler 1998, p. 25 (Item 3 in the list, referring to Note 41 at p.61, citing Sulyap Kultura (National Commission of Culture and the Arts, Philippines) 1 (2). 1996. "This article underscores the existence of a de facto revolutionary government (with Bonifacio as its president) that antedated the revolutionary government in Cavite based upon the controversial Tejeros Convention. An attempt to change the official date of the Cry [see Cry of Pugad Lawin] from 23 to 24 Aug, 1896 during a committee hearing on Senate Bill No. 336, held on 17 Aug. 1993, apparently failed.");
^ Borromeo & Borromeo-Buehler 1998, p. 26, "Formation of a revolutionary government";
^ Borromeo & Borromeo-Buehler 1998, p. 135 (in "Document G", Account of Mr. Bricco Brigado Pantos).
- Halili & Halili 2004, pp. 138–139.
- Severino, Howie (November 27, 2007). Bonifacio for (first) president. GMA News.
- *Guerrero, Milagros; Schumacher, S.J., John (1998). Reform and Revolution. Kasaysayan: The History of the Filipino People 5. Asia Publishing Company Limited. ISBN 962-258-228-1.
- *Guerrero, Milagros; Encarnación, Emmanuel; Villegas, Ramón (1996). "Andrés Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution". Sulyap Kultura (National Commission for Culture and the Arts) 1 (2): 3–12.
- Ambeth Ocampo (May 11, 2010). "Bonifacio, First President of the Philippines?". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- Ambeth Ocampo (May 11, 2007). "Looking Back : Election fraud at the Tejeros Convention".
- Tucker, Spencer C. (2009). The encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American wars: a political, social, and military history. ABC-CLIO. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-85109-951-1.
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